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Fuzzy

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You are on page 1of 45

Dr Alexiei Dingli

Definition of fuzzy

their contexts.

Formal Definition

when dealing with vague terms. Traditional

computing requires finite precision which is not

always possible in real world scenarios. Not every

decision is either true or false, or as with Boolean

logic either 0 or 1. Fuzzy logic allows for membership

functions, or degrees of truthfulness and falsehoods.

Or as with Boolean logic, not only 0 and 1 but all the

numbers that fall in between.

TRADITIONAL REPRESENTATION

OF LOGIC

bool speed;

get the speed

if ( speed == 0) {

// speed is slow

}

else {

// speed is fast

}

must represent in

terms of fuzzy sets.

Slowest

[ 0.0 0.25 ]

Slow

[ 0.25 0.50 ]

Fast

[ 0.50 0.75 ]

Fastest

[ 0.75 1.00 ]

float speed;

get the speed

if ((speed >= 0.0)&&(speed < 0.25)) {

// speed is slowest

}

else if ((speed >= 0.25)&&(speed < 0.5))

{

// speed is slow

}

else if ((speed >= 0.5)&&(speed < 0.75))

{

// speed is fast

}

else // speed >= 0.75 && speed < 1.0

{

// speed is fastest

}

recognized not only the logic system of true and false, but

also an undetermined area the uncertain.

In the 1960s Lotfi A. Zadeh Ph.D,. University of California,

Berkeley, published an obscure paper on fuzzy sets. His

unconventional theory allowed for approximate information

and uncertainty when generating complex solutions; a

process that previously did not exist.

Fuzzy Logic has been around since the mid 60s but was not

readily excepted until the 80s and 90s. Although now

prevalent throughout much of the world, China, Japan and

Korea were the early adopters

Crisp variables represent precise quantities:

x = 3.1415296

A {0,1}

ABC

Richard is either greedy or he isn't:

Greedy(Richard) {0,1}

Fuzzy Sets

Fuzzy Sets can represent the degree to which a quality is possessed.

Fuzzy Sets (Simple Fuzzy Variables) have values in the range of [0,1]

Greedy(Richard) = 0.7

Question: How evil is Richard?

spanning a particular spectrum

Membership Function

Answer: It is warm.

Question: How warm is it?

Membership Functions

Temp: {Freezing, Cool, Warm, Hot}

Degree of Truth or "Membership"

1

Freezing

Cool

Warm

Hot

30

50

70

90

0

10

Temp. (F)

110

Membership Functions

How cool is 36 ?

Freezing

Cool

Warm

Hot

30

50

70

90

0

10

Temp. (F)

110

Membership Functions

How cool is 36 F ?

It is 30% Cool and 70% Freezing

Freezing

Cool

Warm

Hot

50

70

90

0.7

0.3

0

10

30

Temp. (F)

110

Fuzzy Logic

predicate logic?

Fuzzy logic Connectives:

Fuzzy Conjunction,

Fuzzy Disjunction,

Operate on degrees of membership in fuzzy sets

Fuzzy Disjunction

AB = max(A, B)

AB = C "Quality C is the disjunction of Quality A and B"

B

A

1

1

0.75

0.375

(AB = C) (C = 0.75)

Fuzzy Conjunction

AB = min(A, B)

AB = C "Quality C is the conjunction of Quality A and B"

B

A

1

1

0.75

0.375

(AB = C) (C = 0.375)

B

A

1

.1 .2 .3 .4 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9

1 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

B

A

1

.1 .2 .3 .4 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9

1 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

B

A

1

0.7

.1 .2 .3 .4 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9

1 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

A = 0.7

B

A

1

0.9

0.7

.1 .2 .3 .4 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9

1 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

A = 0.7 B = 0.9

B

A

1

0.9

0.7

.1 .2 .3 .4 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9

1 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

A = 0.7 B = 0.9

Apply Fuzzy AND

AB = min(A, B) = 0.7

Fuzzy Control

variables with fuzzy logic

Example: Speed Control

How fast am I going to drive today?

It depends on the weather

Disjunction of Conjunctions

Inputs: Temperature

Temp: {Freezing, Cool, Warm, Hot}

1

Freezing

Cool

Warm

Hot

30

50

70

90

0

10

Temp. (F)

110

Temp: {Freezing, Cool, Warm, Hot}

1

Freezing

Cool

Warm

Hot

30

50

70

90

0

10

110

Temp. (F)

Partly Cloudy

Sunny

Overcast

0

0

20

40

60

80

100

Output: Speed

Fast

Slow

0

0

25

50

75

Speed (mph)

100

Rules

Sunny(Cover)Warm(Temp) Fast(Speed)

If it's Cloudy and Cool, drive Slow

Cloudy(Cover)Cool(Temp) Slow(Speed)

Driving Speed is the combination of output of these

rules...

65 F

25 % Cloud Cover ?

Fuzzification:

Calculate Input Membership Levels

65 F Cool = 0.4, Warm= 0.7

1

Freezing

Cool

Warm

Hot

30

50

70

90

0

10

110

Temp. (F)

Partly Cloudy

Sunny

Overcast

0

0

20

40

60

80

100

...Calculating...

Sunny(Cover)Warm(Temp)Fast(Speed)

Fast = 0.7

If it's Cloudy and Cool, drive Slow

Cloudy(Cover)Cool(Temp)Slow(Speed)

Slow = 0.2

Defuzzification:

Constructing the Output

1

Fast

Slow

0

0

25

50

75

100

Speed (mph)

2/9/2004

Fuzzy Logic

30

Defuzzification:

Constructing the Output

1

Fast

Slow

0

0

25

50

75

100

Speed (mph)

100% Slow = 25

100% Fast = 75

Defuzzification:

Constructing the Output

1

Fast

Slow

0

0

25

50

75

100

Speed (mph)

Defuzzification:

Constructing the Output

1

Fast

Slow

0

0

25

50

75

100

Speed (mph)

= (20*25+70*75)/(20 + 70)

= 63.8 mph

2/9/2004

Fuzzy Logic

33

between variable centroids with relatively few rules

This does not work with crisp (traditional Boolean) logic

Provides a natural way to model some types of human

expertise in a computer program

way to solve Control Systems.

Some Examples

Temperature Controller

TEMPERATURE CONTROLLER

The problem

temperature and humidity

the fuzzy set

Inputs for Intel Fuzzy ABS are derived from

Brake

4 WD

Feedback

Wheel speed

Ignition

Outputs

Pulsewidth

Error lamp

Structure of Controller

Fuzzification

Scales and maps input variables to fuzzy sets

Inference Mechanism

Approximate reasoning

Deduces the control action

Defuzzification

Convert fuzzy output values to control signals

Rule Base

Air Temperature

Fan Speed

Set cool {65, 55, 45}

Set just right {70, 65, 60}

Set warm {85, 75, 65}

Set hot {, 90, 80}

Set slow {50, 30, 10}

Set medium {60, 50, 40}

Set fast {90, 70, 50}

Set blast {, 100, 80}

Rules

IF Cold then Stop

If Cool then Slow

If OK then Medium

If Warm then Fast

IF Hot then Blast

0

100

90

80

s

Bla

If Hot

then

Blast

Fa

s

If Warm

then

Fast

70

60

50

40

If Just Right

then

Medium

Med

ium

IF Cool

then

Slow

Sl

ow

30

if Cold

then Stop

20

o

St

10

t

Ho

ar

W

Jus

Rig t

ht

ld

Co

Co

ol

0

45

50

55

60

65

70

75

80

85

90

complex problems

Deals with imprecision, and vagueness, but not

uncertainty

CONCLUSION

computing.

applications in order to improve the efficiency and

Questions?

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