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Logistics Operations

Chapter 5

Sections:
1. Introduction to Logistics
2. Transportation Operations
3. Material Handling
4. Analysis of Material Handling Operations

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work


by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7.
2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Four Categories of Workers


1. Logistics workers
Move things
Human components of logistics system
Logistic system = work system
2. Production workers
3. Service workers
4. Knowledge workers

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work


by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7.
2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Logistics
Origins in military science
Procurement, transportation, and
maintenance of military supplies,
equipment, and personnel
Business logistics
Acquisition, movement, storage, and
distribution of materials and products, as
well as the planning and control of these
operations to satisfy customer demand
May also involve movement of people
Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work
by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7.
2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Two Categories of Logistics


External logistics = transportation and related
activities that occur outside of a facility
Movement of materials between different
geographical locations
Five traditional modes of transportation: rail
truck, air, ship, and pipeline
Internal logistics = material handling and
storage within a facility

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work


by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7.
2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Logistics Workers Job Titles


Transportation operations
Air traffic controller, bus driver, parcel
service dispatcher, railroad train conductor,
ship captain, teamster
Material transport in a facility
Airport baggage handler, crane operator,
forklift truck operator, material handler
Material storage
Crane operator in an AS/RS, inventory
control manager, order picker, shipping
clerk, tool crib stores clerk
Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work
by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7.
2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Work Activities
Various combinations of physical labor and
information processing
Physical labor
Moving materials, work-in-process, and
finished products
Information processing
Planning, coordinating, and controlling the
physical movement

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work


by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7.
2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Importance of Logistics
Sometimes viewed as non-value-adding
By comparison, manufacturing and
assembly activities add value by physically
transforming materials
Logistics does not alter the product
However, logistics operations create a time
and place value for customers
Having the materials and products available
and getting them to customers when
needed or wanted
Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work
by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7.
2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Logistics Objectives - Metrics


Accuracy deliver exactly what the customer
orders
Availability have items in inventory when the
customer needs or wants them
Orders shipped complete - every item ordered
included in shipment
Speed of delivery time to delivery
Returns and error recovery how well are
these problems coped with

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work


by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7.
2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Business Logistics Objectives


Provide a specified level of customer service
Deliver that level of service at the lowest
possible cost
Increased customer service means higher cost
Guaranteed availability for every item
means high inventory
Savings in inventory costs means higher
stock-out frequency

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work


by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7.
2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

The Logistics System


Consists of five components:
1. Facilities production plants and storage
centers
2. Inventory raw materials, work-in-process,
finished products
3. Transportation and material handling means
of moving inventory
4. Information system integration function
5. Logistics workers - they make the system
work
Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work
by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7.
2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Supply Chains
Defined as the set of activities that is concerned
with the flow of materials and products from
raw materials through production and
distribution of finished goods to customers.
Supply chain management = the planning,
coordination, and administration of the flow of
materials and products in the supply chain

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work


by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7.
2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Supply Chain
Block diagram depicting participants and activity
sequence in a supply chain

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work


by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7.
2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Basic Logistics Functions


1. Procurement
Acquisition and movement of materials
from suppliers to manufacturing and/or
assembly plants
2. Logistical support for manufacturing
Making raw materials available for
processing and moving work-in-process
3. Distribution
Moving finished goods to customers

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work


by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7.
2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Functions in Logistics Operations


Model indicating three functional areas in
logistics operations

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work


by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7.
2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Warehousing
A warehouse is a facility for storing three types of
inventory:
1. Raw materials in the procurement process
2. Maintaining work-in-process for
manufacturing support
3. Making finished goods available for
distribution

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work


by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7.
2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Warehousing Functions
1. Receive unload incoming materials, inspect
the materials, record receipt
2. Store put the materials into storage and
record the storage location
3. Pick (order picking) retrieve materials from
storage in response to customer orders
4. Ship pack materials for shipment and load
the carrier vehicle

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work


by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7.
2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Distribution Center Operations

Different
combinations of
products are
shipped from
suppliers to
outlets through
the DC

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work


by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7.
2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Improvements in Warehousing
Automated and mechanized storage systems
reduce labor costs, speed the storage and
retrieval of materials
Cross-docking incoming items are sorted and
shipped without being placed in storage
Warehouse management systems for
maintaining inventory records, managing
transportation operations, optimizing storage
locations, and reporting labor performance

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work


by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7.
2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Transportation Operations
External logistics
Transportation expenses consume between
one-third and two-thirds of the total costs of
logistics
Freight transportation industry in the U.S.
represents approximately 6% of gross
domestic product
Approximately $500 billion

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work


by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7.
2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Five Basic Modes of Transportation


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Rail
Truck
Air
Ship
Pipeline

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work


by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7.
2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Transportation Infrastructure
Transport vehicles
Planes, trains, and trucks
Rights-of-way
Airways, RR tracks, roads and highways
Industrial organizations that provide
transportation services
Government agencies that oversee the
transportation industry

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work


by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7.
2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Transportation Terms
Carrier company that provides the
transportation service
Shipper company that engages the services
of a carrier
Consignee company that receives the
shipped materials

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work


by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7.
2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Rail Transport
Efficient movement of large tonnage over long
mileage
Disadvantage slow mover
Applications:
Raw materials located away from
waterways (coal, ore, lumber)
Low value manufactured goods (paper,
wood products)
Intermodal freight

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work


by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7.
2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Improvements in Rail Transport


Elimination of work rules that resulted in high
labor costs
Consolidation of companies
Abandoning unprofitable railway lines
Unit trains for mass transport of bulk
commodities (coal)
Double-stack rail cars for intermodal containers
Tri-level automobile cars

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work


by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7.
2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Trucking Operations
Deregulation of the trucking industry
Motor-Carrier Act of 1980 - encouraged
competition, improved efficiencies
Higher intercity tonnage movement than any
other transportation mode
Suited to high-value finished products and
semi-finished items over short and medium
distances
Movement of merchandise
Delivery of components/ subassemblies
Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work
by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7.
2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Truck Transportation Advantages


Door-to-door delivery
Service availability and frequency
Speed of delivery

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work


by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7.
2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Trucking Operations
Truckload (TL)
Loads greater than 15,000 lb
Direct shipper to consignee
Lower total cost to shipper
Less-than-truckload (LTL)
Loads less than 15,000 lb
Stops along the route result in longer
delivery times
Higher per ton-mile rates
Cheaper for small load sizes
Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work
by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7.
2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Improvements in Truck Transport

More efficient scheduling


Optimized routing for LTL operations
Mechanized handling equipment
Tandem trailers
Intermodal operations combination truck and
rail

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work


by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7.
2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Air Transport
Air passenger travel most visible
Freight service also available
Major airlines provide freight service
UPS and FedEx specialize in movement of
Packages
Large containerized loads
Suited to delivery of high-value items over long
distances and time is a factor

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work


by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7.
2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Air Transport
Advantage
Speed of delivery over long distances
Disadvantages
Airports not conveniently located
Delivery times include local delivery times:
Shipper-to-airport
Airport-to-consignee
High per ton-mile costs

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work


by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7.
2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Air Transport Operational Approaches

Strategic planning of routes and schedules


Optimizing assignment of planes to routes
Optimizing the number and locations of hubs
Scheduling of crews
Adequate coverage
Minimum labor costs
Optimizing aircraft maintenance schedules

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work


by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7.
2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Water Transport
Dominant mode of freight transportation in
global trade
Ships
Rivers and canals: flat barges
Coastal waters and Great Lakes: deepwater vessels
Domestic transport: very large shipments
Time: slowest
Cost: lowest
Supplemental transport usually required
Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work
by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7.
2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Improvements in Water Transport


Containerized cargo
Mechanized material handling equipment to
speed loading and unloading
Satellite navigation (primary importance for
oceangoing vessels
Autopilot technology
Sonar and radar
Improvements in ice-breaking equipment

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work


by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7.
2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Pipelines
Disadvantages
Limited in types of materials that can be
moved (e.g., gases, liquids, slurries)
Slow (e.g., 4 mi/hr in Alaska pipeline)
Advantages
Material moves 24 hours per day
Not affected by weather conditions
No empty containers or vessels

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work


by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7.
2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

A portion of the Alaska pipeline near Fairbanks


(photo by author)

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work


by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7.
2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Other Forms of Distribution


Intermodal operations - combinations of the
five basic modes
Parcel delivery services
Transportation agencies
Internet and similar communication-based
distribution modes

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work


by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7.
2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Intermodal Operations

Rail and truck (piggyback)


Containerships
Truck and ship (fishyback)
Train ship
Truck and air

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work


by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7.
2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Giant cranes unload containers from a cargo ship


in Vancouver, B.C., Canada (photo by author)

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work


by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7.
2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Parcel Delivery Services


Specialty services:
Deliver small packages (<150 lb)
Charge a premium price
Provide fast transport
Demand for these special services has
increased as commerce over the Internet has
grown (e.g., companies like Dell Computer and
Amazon.com)
Operations are basically intermodal
Sortation hubs are required
Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work
by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7.
2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Transportation Agencies
Provide specialized transportation services
Intermediaries between shippers and
carriers
Purchase high-volume, low-cost rates
from shippers and sell the transportation
service to small-lot shippers at fees the
shipper would not be able to obtain
Consolidate small lots into large
shipments

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work


by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7.
2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Categories of Transportation Agencies


Freight forwarders consolidate small
shipments from multiple shippers into large
shipments
Shippers associations non-profit freight
forwarders who serve member companies
Transport brokers provide a coordinating
and matching service between shippers and
carriers

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work


by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7.
2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Internet and Similar Distribution Modes


Airplane tickets electronic ticketing
Digital distribution of music Apple iTunes
Satellite radio subscribers avoid commercial
interruptions
Video-on-demand
High-speed Internet access

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work


by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7.
2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Material Handling
Defined as the movement, storage, protection
and control of materials throughout the
manufacturing and distribution process
including their consumption and disposal (The
Material Handling Industry of America)
Estimated to represent 20-25% of total
manufacturing labor cost in US
Internal logistics

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work


by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7.
2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Material Handling Objectives


To move materials within a facility
Safely
Efficiently
At low cost
In a timely manner
Accurately
Without damage
Material handling is often an overlooked issue
in industry

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work


by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7.
2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Material Handling Equipment


1.
2.
3.
4.

Material transport
Storage
Unitizing equipment
Identification and tracking systems

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work


by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7.
2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Material Transport Equipment

Five categories:
1. Industrial trucks
2. Automated guided vehicles
3. Monorails and other rail guided vehicles
4. Conveyors
5. Cranes and hoists

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work


by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7.
2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Industrial Trucks
Two basic categories:
1. Non-powered
Human workers push or pull loads
Low volume
Short distances
2. Powered
Self-propelled
Larger loads
Greater distances
Common example: forklift truck
Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work
by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7.
2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Forklift Truck

Forks are used


to move pallet
loads

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work


by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7.
2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Automated Guided Vehicle Systems


Material handling system that uses independently
operated, self-propelled vehicles guided along
defined pathways in the facility floor
Types of AGV:
Driverless trains
Pallet trucks
Unit load AGVs

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work


by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7.
2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Automated Guided Vehicle

A unit-load
automated guided
vehicle

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work


by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7.
2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Rail-Guided Vehicles
Fixed rail system
Overhead monorail - suspended overhead
from the ceiling
On-floor - parallel fixed rails, tracks
generally protrude up from the floor
Powered by electrified rail
Routing variations: switches, turntables, and
other special track sections

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work


by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7.
2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Overhead Monorail

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work


by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7.
2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Conveyor Systems
1. Non-powered
Materials moved by human workers or
by gravity
2. Powered
Power mechanism for transporting
materials is contained in the fixed path,
using chains, belts, rollers or other
mechanical devices

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work


by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7.
2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Conveyor Types

Roller: can be powered or non-powered


Skate-wheel
Belt
In-floor towline
Overhead trolley conveyor

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work


by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7.
2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Roller Conveyor

Common conveyor
type
Can be powered or
unpowered

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work


by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7.
2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

In-floor Towline

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work


by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7.
2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Cranes and Hoists


Cranes
Used for horizontal movement of materials
Hoists
Used for vertical lifting of materials
Cranes usually include hoists so that the
crane-and-hoist combination provides
Horizontal transport
Vertical lifting and lowering

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work


by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7.
2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Jib Crane with Hoist

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work


by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7.
2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Storage Systems
Function to store materials (e.g., parts, workin-process, finished goods) for a period of time
and permit retrieval when required
Used in factories, warehouses, distribution
centers, wholesale dealerships, and retail
stores
Important supply chain component
Automation available to improve efficiency

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work


by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7.
2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Conventional Storage Methods


Bulk storage
Storage in an open floor area
Rack systems
Permits vertical stacking of materials
Shelving
Steel shelving comes in standard sizes
Drawer storage
Modular storage units are available

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work


by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7.
2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Pallet Rack System

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work


by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7.
2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Automated Storage Systems


Mechanized and automated storage equipment to
reduce the human resources required to
operate a storage facility
Significant investment
Level of automation varies
In mechanized systems, an operator
participates in each storage/retrieval
transaction
In highly automated systems, loads are
entered or retrieved under computer control
Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work
by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7.
2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Reasons to Use Automated Storage

Increase storage capacity


Increase storage density
Recover factory floor space
Improve security and reduce pilferage
Reduce labor cost & increase labor productivity
Improve safety
Improve control over inventories
Improve stock rotation
Improve customer service
Increase throughput
Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work
by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7.
2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Types of Automated Storage Systems


1. Automated storage/retrieval systems
2. Carousel storage systems

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work


by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7.
2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Automated Storage/Retrieval System


Abbreviated AS/RS
Consists of:
One or more storage aisles
(S/R) machine for each aisle
Storage racks where loads are stored
Input/output stations (P&D)
Manually operated
Automated interfaced to automated
material handling system (e.g., AGVS)

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work


by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7.
2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

AS/RS

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work


by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7.
2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Carousel Storage System


Series of bins or baskets suspended from
overhead chain conveyor in the form of an oval
loop
Operation similar to systems used in drycleaning shops to bring clothes on hangars to
front of store
Bins are positioned at pick & deposit station at
one end of loop where human worker loads
and unloads
Carousel systems can be horizontal or vertical
Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work
by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7.
2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Carousel Storage System

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work


by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7.
2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Applications of AS/RS and Carousels


Unit load storage and handling (usually
associated with AS/R systems)
Order picking
Work-in-process storage
Kitting components to be used in assembly
are gathered from storage into a kit (usually
associated with carousel systems)

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work


by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7.
2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Unitizing Equipment: Containers


Containers used to hold individual items
during handling
Equipment used to load and package the
containers

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work


by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7.
2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Unitizing Equipment for Packaging


Palletizers and Depalletizers
Unit Load Principle
Simultaneous handling of multiple items
Number of trips reduced
Reduction in loading and unloading times
Higher operating efficiency

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work


by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7.
2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Identification and Tracking Systems


Automatic Identification and Data Capture
(AIDC)
Bar codes
Magnetic stripes
Radio frequency tags (RFID)
The trouble with manual data collection & entry
Error rate
Time factor
Labor cost

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work


by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7.
2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.