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NOUN COMPOUND IN ARABIC

BY:
RANDAH TGC
JOTHI TGC 130009

TOPICS....

ABSTRACT
INTRODUCTION
COMPOUNDING IN ARABIC
NOUN COMPOUND IN ARABIC
FORMATION OF NOUN COMPOUNDS
CONCLUSION

ABSTRACT

Word formation in Arabic


Exocentric compounds
Noun compounds
Other types of compounds
Types of compound words
Types of compounds
Formation of Noun compounds
Conclusion

INTRODUCTION

Semitic family of languages


Use one form of written language
Compounding
Exocentric compound

OTHER TYPES OF ARABIC COMPOUND


a) Compound particles (add ma)
Example:
/inna/ma/(only) and /rubba/ma/ (perhaps)

b)Compound adjectives (possessive)


Example:
ever young /da?im ul shabab/ (permanent of youth)
Ever-cold /za?id ul broodah/ (excessive of coldness ).

c) Defective verb compound (/ma/ is the first


element)
Example:
/ma/dama/ (as long as)
/ma/infakka/ (still)
interrogative pronouns
Example:
/man da/ (who/m or who(m)ever?)
/ma/da/ (what? Or whatever?)

COMPOUNDING IN ARABIC

two types :

a. within a word ( the two words produce one word).


For example: the word ras-maal (capital) is the
combination of the words, ras (head) and maal (money).
b. within a phrase or a sentence (two words produce a
sentence ) which is known as tarkiib (compound
nominals).
For example: adam-u estiqrar-in which means none
stability

NOUN COMPOUNDS IN ARABIC

Noun compounds in Arabic


consists of three types

CONSTRUCT STATE
reflects the possessive or genitive relation
between words
Types
a.Definite nouns
preceded by the definite article (Al) ((the)
in English)
b.Indefinite nouns
not preceded by (Al)
Example:

Kitabu Al Qawaid (Grammar book )


book
the Grammar
(indefinite )
(definite)
Al Qri Al Kitab (the book reader)

(the) reader (the) book


( definite ) ( definite)

kitabu Elmin (book of knowledge )


book
knowledge
(indefinite)
(indefinite)
Kitabubook
indefinite)

ha (her book )
her (
(attached pronoun)

Kitabubook
(indefinite)

Ali (Alis book)


Ali
(proper noun)

in proper nouns :
Abu-Baker (Father of Baker)
Abdullah ( Allah worshiper)

FUSIONAL COMPOUND
Two words combined together to be
treated as one word which is not with
possessive or genetive relations
Foreign origin such as :
Hadra mout Hadra (verb) means Attend
Mout (noun) means death
both produce one noun (Hadra mout)
name of a city in Yemen.

PREDICATIVE COMPOUND
The syntactic structure is that of
predication.
There are limited class of proper noun for
this type of compound.
Example:
Tbata sharran = an old personal name in
Arabic which means adabted evil.

OTHER TYPES
Numerals from 11 to 19
Example:
The English numeral fourteen is produced
as arba' ata ashar in Arabic.
Numbers from 21 to 99
Example:
Twenty-one is wahid wa isrun (one and
twenty)

20



An attack in Hadra Mout yesterday resulted in the kill


of 20 Yemeni soldier. At that time the Interior Minister .
Tens of families evacuated the city of Imran in the
northern of the country in the breakable state of peace
between al hotheen and army.


.
.
.1991 1998

.

This old man at his 70s is still very active and full of life. He is eager to go
beyond what he has achieved . A composer , a pianist productive with the
very sense of the word . Now he has reached Abo-Thabi , the third Arabic
country to hold his concerts and the first Gulf country to do so, after his
concert in Balabak in 1998 and in Cairo in 1991.

word

description

final product

type of
compounding

HadraMout

Hadra ( attend) =
verb +Mout (
death) = verb

name of a city
in Yemen
(noun)

fusional

Abu-Thabi

Abu ( father) =
noun +Thabi
(deer) = noun

name of a city construct


in UEA (noun )

wazeeru ldakheliyah

wazeru (minister)
= noun +Al
dakheliyah ( the
interior) = noun

title (noun)

construct

Balabak

Baal ( hasband)
noun + Bak

name of a city
in Lebanon
(noun )

Fusional

FORMATION OF
NOUN
COMPOUND

N+Adj (+Adj ) OF ARABIC


For example:
al bahr al-aswad (The black Sea)

PART OF SPEECH
Proper noun:
some original Arabic proper nouns are compounds of the
form N+Adj.
For example:
alrub'u Alkhalee (The Empty Quartar)
a name of a famous Arabian desert in Saudi Arabia
quarter+ Empty (noun + adjective)
Personal proper nouns:
Zarqa'u Al- Yamamah ( a name of a blue-eyezed woman
who was well known for her very strong eye sight)
Abu-Thabi ( Capital city of United Arabian Emirate)

Geographical names:
Al-Madinah Al-Monawarah (name of a city
in Saudi Arabia)
Titles
Ameer l-bilad ( prince of the country)
ra'ees al-dawlah ( presedent of the
country)

Noun + adjective
Subject names:
Al-Keemya' Al- Hayawiyah (Biochemistry)
Other technical terms
Al-am9aa' al-Galeethah (large intestine) and
menaa' Bahri (seaport)
Noun + apposited noun + adjective
jomhoryat mesr l-9arabia

Noun + apposited N. + apposited N


ra'ees nqabat al- fannaneen (President of
the Union of Artists)

Particle + noun
The negative particle is used as a prefix,
making possible compounds like:
La'qlanee (irrational ) and la ensanee
(savage)

LOAN TRANSLATION
Some forms which are loan translations
are becoming more common in Arabic ,
Example:
Fa'r tajarub (lab rat)

REFERENT
A feature of the referent is signalled out to
refer to the referent as a whole
Examples of this:
Abu, ibn , bint, umm , sahib
Taybu 1.qalbi ( kindhearted )
katheru 1. 'taya (generous)
Daifu 1. Qalbi ( not brave )

CONCLUSION
The rules for the formation of
compound nouns can varies
according to the particular language.
Combination of same or different
parts of speech.
Three types of compound nouns in
Arabic which are construct, fusional
and predicative.
All the compounds in Arabic are
semantically exocentric.

However, in Arabic, compounding is not as pertinent as


the other languages such as English, and this can be
seen in the corpus of its vocabulary.
Several reasons: Grammarian still have not come to a
consensus on defining the term accurately and applying
equivalent characteristics (Emery (1988, 34) )
Two vital definitional problems:
the terms for compounding itself
the status of the components of a compound.

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YOU