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Dr. N.K Acharya

Applied Physics Department

The M. S. University of Baroda, Vadodara

Only in the US, the medical membrane market approaches 1.5 billion dollars per year and grows

Only in the US, the medical membrane market approaches 1.5 billion dollars per year and grows steadily.

Membranes Applications :

Drug delivery Skin Grafts Tissue Engineering Artificial Pancreas Artificial Liver Blood Oxygenation Dialysisartificial kidney Barriers

Only in the US, the medical membrane market approaches 1.5 billion dollars per year and grows
 Separation and sorting of biomolecules (Isolation and purification of molecules: Kidney applications)  Biosensing (Reacted
  • Separation and sorting of biomolecules (Isolation and purification of molecules: Kidney applications)

  • Biosensing (Reacted Enzyme detection: Sugar level, Cholesterol)

  • Single molecular analysis (DNA/RNA)

  • Immunoisolation

(Semipermeable membrane: protecting implanted cells or drug release systems from an immune reaction)

  • Targeted Drug delivery (Tracers) (To enable supply of drugs locally where they are needed in a controlled manner)

Physical, chemical,
Physical, chemical,

Biodegradable materials Membrane thickness Pore size Pore density Pore distribution Small tortuosity

and/or electrical driving force Feed or concentrate Accumulated, rejected material, Solute or particle migrating back to
and/or electrical
driving force
Feed or concentrate
Accumulated, rejected material,
Solute or particle
migrating back to bulk solution
rejection
Semi-permeable (selective) membrane
Permeate

Modified structural/ surface Properties (Enhance the interaction) Plasma etching Corona discharge UV irradiation Electron/Ion Irradiation

Physical, chemical, • Biodegradable materials • Membrane thickness • Pore size • Pore density • Pore
The goal of an ideal drug delivery system is to deliver a drug to a specific

The goal of an ideal drug delivery system is to deliver a drug to a specific site, in specific time and release pattern. The traditional medical forms (tablets,

injection solutions, etc.) provide drug delivery with peaks, often above the

required dose. The constant drug level in blood or sustained drug release to avoid multiple doses

The goal of an ideal drug delivery system is to deliver a drug to a specific
In diffusion controlled membrane systems, the drug release is controlled by transport of the drug across

In diffusion controlled membrane systems, the drug release is controlled by transport of the drug across a membrane. The transport is dependent on the drug diffusivity through the membrane and the thickness of the membrane, according to Fick’s law. The membrane can be porous or non-porous and biodegradable or not.

In diffusion controlled membrane systems, the drug release is controlled by transport of the drug across

Fick’s law

In diffusion controlled membrane systems, the drug release is controlled by transport of the drug across

Transdermal delivery systems

The scaffold (Membrane Structure) should be highly porous with good pore connectivity to ensure sufficient nutrient
The scaffold (Membrane Structure) should be highly porous with good pore connectivity to ensure sufficient nutrient

The scaffold (Membrane Structure) should be highly porous with good pore connectivity to ensure sufficient nutrient transport towards the cells and removal of waste products with suitable mechanical properties.

Definition:
Definition:

“The radiation which produces any chemical or physical change in substances when passes through it”. These are harmful biologically.

Ionizing radiation can be sorted into 2 major types:

Photons (x-rays and gamma rays), which are most widely used in cancer treatment Particle radiation (such as electrons, protons, neutrons, carbon ions, alpha particles, and beta particles, heavy ions)

Definition: “The radiation which produces any chemical or physical change in substances when passes through it”

Examples:

Alpha Particles Beta Particles Gamma Rays Electron tomography Neutrons X-Rays X-ray computed tomography (CT)

Definition: “The radiation which produces any chemical or physical change in substances when passes through it”
Data Acquisition
Data Acquisition

Data Acquisition

Data Acquisition
Data Acquisition
What are Heavy Ions? • Heavy ions are ionised atoms which are usually heavier than C.

What are Heavy Ions?

Heavy ions are ionised atoms which are usually heavier than C.

Heavy ions are composed of Hadrons.

Heavy ions refers to atoms that are generally completely ionised, i.e. they are bare

atomic nuclei.

The nuclei can be directed to a fixed target, or can be split into two beams moving in opposite directions that are brought into collision at a well-defined spot.

Heavy ion nuclei most often used in nuclear physics experiments include C, Si, W, Au, Pb, U

• A nuclear particle accelerator is a device designed to produce a stream of ions that

A nuclear particle accelerator is a device designed to produce a stream of ions that are directed along some path.

This is typically achieved by first generating the ions, then causing them to pass through a large electrical potential difference in order to increase their energy even further. From there, a series of magnets are used to direct the high-energy beam towards a "target".

• A nuclear particle accelerator is a device designed to produce a stream of ions that
Lifetime spectra of polycarbonate Unirradiated 5 x 10 6 100000 10 keV Electron 4 x 10
Lifetime spectra of polycarbonate
Unirradiated
5
x 10 6
100000
10 keV Electron
4
x 10 8
1
x 10 12
Accelerator (UHV)
10000
1000
100
PALS Set up
10
1
100
200
300
400
Counts

Channel no. (58.6 ps/channel)

Polymeric membranes Anodized membranes Microfabricated membranes Ordered nanoporous semiconductors ION TRACK ETCHING

Polymeric membranes

Anodized membranes

Microfabricated membranes

Ordered nanoporous semiconductors

Polymeric membranes Anodized membranes Microfabricated membranes Ordered nanoporous semiconductors ION TRACK ETCHING

ION TRACK ETCHING

Material (PC, PSf and PET) Fabrication Method (Solution Cast Method) Pore Size (few nm) • The

Material (PC, PSf and PET) Fabrication Method

(Solution Cast Method) Pore Size (few nm)

Material (PC, PSf and PET) Fabrication Method (Solution Cast Method) Pore Size (few nm) • The

The process involves irradiating a thin polymeric film with accelerated heavy ions, which leave so-called ion tracks.

ion tracks

These ion tracks can then be enlarged to

pores

by

chemical

etching

with

an

appropriate

reagent

that

preferentially

attacks the damaged

track zone.

Cylindrical or conical pores are produced

with diameters micrometers.

in

the

range

of

10

nm

to

Material (PC, PSf and PET) Fabrication Method (Solution Cast Method) Pore Size (few nm) • The

T (°C)

PIOFG Rearrangement Heating Protocol
PIOFG
Rearrangement Heating Protocol

T 2

300

25

 t 2 1 hr complete Imidization time
 t 2
1 hr
complete
Imidization
time
• www.nuc.berkeley.edu/sites/ • www.mpi-hd.mpg.de/ • www. iuac .res.in/ • www. tifr .res.in/ • Adiga et al.,

www.nuc.berkeley.edu/sites/

www.mpi-hd.mpg.de/

www.iuac.res.in/

www.tifr.res.in/

Adiga et al., Wiley Interdiscip Rev Nanomed Nanobiotechnol. 2009 ; 1(5): 568581. J. Membr. Sci., 308 (2008) 134. J. Membr. Sci., 107, 1-21 (1995)

Membranes and Barriers: Targeted Drug Delivery, U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES

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