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United Arab Emirates

University
College of Engineering
Graduation Project II

Analysis and Design of


Concrete Highway
Bridge
:Done By
Abeer Abdullah
Amal Al-Amiri
Ramla Kalantar

970722811
199903930
199904023

Advisor: Dr. Bilal El-Ariss


First Semester 2004/2005

Objectives
The Objective of the project is
:to
Learn structural analysis and design
. of
concrete highway bridges
Acquire the knowledge and
experience
of applying the
needed codes,
.specifications and soft ware

Project discretion
Abu Dhabi Municipality
commissioned proposals
for an Overpass Bridge
over Abu Dhabi/Dubai
highway at Al-Bahia
residential area.
The bridge is 95 m long
(311.7 ft).
The analysis and design of
this bridge was done for
the superstructure
elements.

Design methods
There are two methods used in structural
design:
In 1900s, the method used in design was called
the working-stress design (WSD) method. In this
method service loads were used.
Since 1963, the ultimate-strength design
method was rapidly used. In this method the
service dead and live loads are multiplied by
some load factors.
The method used in our project is the ultimate-

Structural Safety
In Ultimate-strength design method there
are two approaches by which the
structural safety can be obtained:
1.
2.

Load Factors
Strength Reduction Factors

Structural Safety
1. Load Factors:
The service loads are multiplied by some
load factors that are larger than one.
2. Strength Reduction Factors:
The material strength are multiplied by a
reduction factor less than one.

Structural Safety
Strength Reduction Factors:

The Code provides values for several situations:


Flexure. =0.9
Shear... =0.85
Axial compression with Sprials =0.75
Ties... = 0.7
Bearing on concrete. ..=0.7
(AASHTO 8.16.1.2.2)

Design Specification
AASHTO:
AASHTO stands for American Association of
State Highway and Transportation Officials. we
used the following sections of AASHTO
specifications:
Section 3: Loads
Section 8: Reinforced Concrete

ACI Code:
ACI stands for American Concrete
Institute. ACI was founded in 1904

Material Used

Reinforced Concrete is a
composite material of
steel bars embedded in a
hardened concrete. It is
strong durable material
that can formed into many
varied shapes and sizes.

1. Concrete
Cement:
OPC is the most common type in
use.
The main chemical compounds in
cement are calcium silicate and
aluminates.
Water:
when water is added to cement
to form cement past chemical
reaction occur and the mix
becomes stiffer with time
(water cement ratio is an important factor
affecting concrete strength)

Concrete
Aggregates :
The bulk of concrete is aggregate in the form
of sand and gravel which bounded together
by cement.
a. Coarse aggregate gravel or crushed
rock 5mm or larger in size.
b. Fine aggregate Sand less than 5
mm in size.

Admixtures:
as setting accelerators or retarders, etc.

2. Steel Bars
Reinforcing bars can be plan or deformed, the bar
sizes used in U.S customary units ranges from #3
thought #18. While in SI units the bar are
numbered 10, 13, 16, 22 and 43. these numbers
represents the bar diameters approximately.
In design we will use 420 MPa, the corresponding
grade in U.S customary unit is 60,000 psi.

Comparing Properties

Concrete

Steel

Strength in
tension

Poor

good

Strength in
compression

good

Strength in
shear

Fair

Good but
slender bars
will buckle
good

Durability

good

Corrodes if
unprotected

Fire
resistance

good

poor

Advantages of reinforced concrete


Has a high compressive strength.
Resists fire actions.
Low maintenance material, has a very
long service life.
An economical material and has an
ability to be cast into a variety of shapes

Disadvantages of reinforced concrete


Has very low tensile strength.
Has a low strength per unit of weight of concrete which
leads to heavy members.
The properties of concrete vary due to its proportioning
and mixing.

Types of needed reinforcement


1.Reinforcement Requirements due to flexure
The main reinforcing ,it may not be spaced
farther on center than 3 times the slab
thickness, or 18 in.
One-fourth the positive moment reinforcement in
continuous members shall extend along the
same face of the members into the support in
beams, at least 6 inches.

Types of needed reinforcement


Development length (ld):
The reinforcement bars must be extended some
distance back into the support and out into the beam
to anchor them or develop their strength.
The basic development length shall be:
0.04 Ab f y
No. 11 bars and smaller
f 'c

But not less than 0.0004d b

fy

Types of needed
reinforcement
Parallel reinforcements.2
In slabs, A percentage of the main
positive moment reinforcement shall be
distributed in the parallel direction of the
traffic:
Percentage

220
Maximum67%
S

:Spacing limits for reinforcement


For cast-in-place concrete the clear distance between
.parallel bars in a layer shall not be less
, bar diameter 1.5
, times the maximum size of the coarse aggregate 1.5
.inches 1.5

Types of needed reinforcement


:Shrinkage Temperature Reinforcement.3
The total area of reinforcement provided shall
be at least 1/8 square inch per foot in each
. direction

:Skin Reinforcement. 4
skin reinforcement will be uniformly distributed along both side
faces of the member for a distance d/2 nearest the flexural tension
.reinforcement
The area of skin reinforcement Ask per foot of height on each side
.face shall be
The maximum spacing of skin reinforcement shall not exceed d/6
.and 12 inches

Types of needed reinforcement


Shear Reinforcement.5
If the diagonal tension exceeds the limited tensile strength
of the concrete then shear reinforcement must be
.provided

Types of Shear Reinforcement


Stirrups
perpendicular to the
axis of the member.
Welded wire fabric
with wire located
perpendicular to the
axis of the member.

Types of Shear Reinforcement


Combinations of
stirrups and bent
longitudinal
reinforcement.
Spirals.

Slab Design
Slabisassumedtoearectangularbeam
withalargeratioofwidthtodepth.A12-in
widepieceofsuchaslabisdesignedasa
rectangularbeam.

Slab Design
Slab sections

Slab Design Steps


I ft strip of the slab will be designed and
considers as a continues beam.
Live load Moment=

S 2
P20
32

(0.8)

Dead load Moment

Mu=1.4MD+1.7ML

(AASHTO 3.24.3.1)

Slab Design Calculation


h=10,fc=4000psi, fy=60,000psi
:spans Section (b-b)
d =10-1-1/4 = 8.75 (in)
MD = 1.1 k.ft
ML = 4.94 k.ft
MuMu
= 1.4 MD +1.7ML = 9.938 k.ft
bd 2

144.2psi

) Use table A.14(


=0.0033
As = bd = 0.3564 in2
Use Bar #4 @ 6.5 in (As=0.36 in2)

Slab Flexural Reinforcement


Moment (K.ft)

As required (in2)

As provided (in2)

#Bar

Section a-a

18.445-

0.558

0.57

6.5 @ #5

Section b-b

9.938

0.3564

0.36

6.5 @ #4

Section c-c

11.45-

0.339

0.36

6.5 @ #4

Sections

Elevation view

Cover:
Top reinforcement.2 in.
Bottom reinforcement1 in.

Development length:
For No. 4 bars = 1 ft
For No. 5 bars = 1.25 ft

Girder Design Steps


Minimum depth for T-Girders
(0.065S) (AASHTO table 8.9.2)
Compute Z larger of 0.9d or d-(hf/2)
Steel Area

M
As
fyZ

Checking minimum reinforcement


(larger of )

AS (min)

3 f 'c
f

bw d

AS (min)

200bw d

fy

Girder Calculation
h = 6.93 ft = 83.16 in
d = 83.16-2-0.5-1.693/2 = 79.81 in = 6.65 ft
b = d/2 = 39.91 in
hf = 10 in

Girder Calculation

Girder Calculation

Interior Girder
Reinforcement
Sections

Moment
(k.ft)

As required
(in2)

As provided (in2)

#Bar

Section a-a

6180.39

16.9

18

14 # 8

Section b-b

6475.15

17.726

18

14 # 8

Section c-c

4965.82

13.523

14.06

11 # 9

:Skin reinforcement calculation

Interior Girder
Reinforcement

Interior Girder
Reinforcement

Exterior Girders Calculations

Sections

Moment (k.ft)

As required (in2)

As provided (in2)

#Bar

Section a-a

6597.95

18.07

20

18 # 5

Section b-b

7042.57

19.317

20

18 # 5

Sec
tion c-c

5294.61

14.43

15.75

14 # 7

Exterior Cross Sections

Exterior Cross Sections

Girder Shear Calculation

Girder Shear Calculation


Bar #3 is used for all shear reinforcement (stirrups)
Girder Dimensions and Properties for Shear
b=

39.91

in

d=

79.81

in

fy=

60000

psi

f'c=

4000

psi

Vc=

342.8

Kip

0.85

Av=

0.11

in2

Shear Result for Interior girder


Point

Location

Vu(kip)

Vs(Kip)

S(in)req.

S(in)pro.

S1

129.71

min

24.00

24

S2

417.36

87.72

12.01

12

360.73

21.09

49.94

24

336.6

min

24.00

24

491.81

175.31

6.01

6.5

205.51

min

24.00

24

417.36

87.72

12.01

12

129.71

min

24.00

24

S3

S4

S5

Shear Reinforcement Distribution

Shear Results for Exterior girder


Point

Location

Vu(kip)

Vs(Kip)

S(in)req.

S(in)pro.

S1

136.85

min

24.00

24

S2

446.7

122.24

8.62

8.5

384.43

48.98

21.51

21.5

366.62

28.02

37.59

24

525.57

215.02

4.90

6.5

225.49

Min

24.00

24

446.7

122.24

8.62

8.5

136.85

Min

24.00

24

S3

S4

S5

Shear Reinforcement Distribution

Pier Caps Design


3

1.5

Pier Cap Bending Moment Diagram Due to Dead load

Flexure Reinforcement
Calculation

Flexural Reinforcement
Sections

Moments (kip.ft)

As required (in2)

As provided
(in2)

Bars

(Section a-a)

234.45

1.96

2.21

5 Bars#6

(Section b-b)

261.87

1.96

2.21

5 Bars#6

(Section c-c)

242.74

1.96

2.21

5 Bars#6

Reinforcement Calculation
Bar #3 is used for all shear reinforcement (stirrups)
Pier Cap Dimensions and Properties for Shear
b=

18

in

d=

34

in

fy =

60000

Psi

f'c=

4000

Psi

Vc=

65.79

Kip

0.85

Av=

0.11

in2

Shear Results for Pier Cap

Point

Location

Vu(kip)

Vs(Kip)

S(in)req.

S (in) pro.

S1

69.71

4.61

97.32

24(max)

S2

72.55

7.95

56.43

24(max)

84.21

21.67

20.71

20

86.81

24.73

18.15

18

S3

Shear Reinforcement
Distribution

Social Impact
The Proposal overpass bridge over the Abu
Dhabi/ Dubai Highway at Al Bahiah area will
ease the movement to and from Al Bahiah
residential area toward Dubai and Abu Dhabi.

Al Bahiah residential will reduce their trip


time to and from it.

Environmental Impacts
Advantage
.Cement is composed of 75% limestone.1
extracting the raw materials for concrete has a .2
lower impact than that of other construction
.
materials
Almost all concrete contains fly ash, a
. byproduct of coal-burning electric plants

.3

Old concrete that has reached the end of its


. service life can be recycled and reused

.4

Environmental Impacts
Disadvantage
:One tone of cement
1.
Requires about 2 tones of raw material
(limestone)
2.

Consumes about 4 GJ of energy in electricity,


process heat, and transport.

3.

Produces approximately one tone of CO2.

Economical Impacts
Concrete is a durable material that actually gains
strength over time and conserves resources by
reducing maintenance and the need for
reconstruction.
Steel and Concrete are widely available in the UAE.
By reducing the trip time that will economize the
fuel consumption.
Both Steel and Concrete can be recycled and used
in other applications.

Conclusion and Recommendation


Through out working on this project we gain
skills, knowledge and some experience in
bridge analysis and designing by following the
AASHTO and the ACI code.
It is recommended to have an original copy of
AASHTO specifications rather than the not
clear photocopies we had.

Thank you
?Any Questions