You are on page 1of 64

Methods of data collection

The task of data collection begins after a


research problem has been defined and
research design chalked out.
The researcher should keep in mind two
types of data viz., primary and secondary.
The primary data are those which are
collected afresh and for first time, whereas
secondary data are those which have
already been collected by someone else
and already passed through statistical
process.
Jan 16, 2015

Dr Simmi khurana

Methods of collecting primary data

Interview Method
Observation Method
Questionnaire
Schedules
Projective Techniques

Some other methods includes


Warranty Card
Distributor Audit
Consumer Panel
Jan 16, 2015

Dr Simmi khurana

SLIDE 81

DR NEENA

The questionnaire method

DR DEEPAK CHAWLA
SONDHI

This is the simplest and most often used method of


primary data collection
There is a pre-determined set of questions in a sequential
format.
Is designed to suit the respondents understanding and
language command
Can be conducted to collect useful data from a large
population in a short duration of time

Jan 16, 2015

RESEARCH

Dr Simmi khurana

CONCEPTS AND

SLIDE 82

DR NEENA

Criteria for questionnaire design

DR DEEPAK CHAWLA
SONDHI

The spelt out research objectives need to be


converted into specific questions
It must be designed to engage the
respondent and encourage meaningful
response
The questions should be designed in simple
language and be self-explanatory

Jan 16, 2015

RESEARCH

Dr Simmi khurana

CONCEPTS AND

Types of questionnaire
method of administration
Self-administered questionnaire:
respondents fills in the questionnaire
him/her self.
Schedule: the investigator/researcher
reads out the questions and records the
respondents answers.

DR DEEPAK CHAWLA
SONDHI

DR NEENA

SLIDE 88

Jan 16, 2015

RESEARCH

Dr Simmi khurana

CONCEPTS AND

DR NEENA

SLIDE 89

Population characteristics

DR DEEPAK CHAWLA
SONDHI

(Literate, age group, gender)

Population spread
(rural, urban, hills etc)

Study area
(Where the study undertaken)

Jan 16, 2015

RESEARCH

Dr Simmi khurana

CONCEPTS AND

SLIDE 8-10

DR NEENA

The questionnaire design


process
Convert the Research Objectives into the Information Needed
Method of Administering the Questionnaire
Content of the Questions

DR DEEPAK CHAWLA
SONDHI

Motivating the Respondent to Answer


Determining Type of Questions
Question Design Criteria
Determine the Questionnaire Structure
Physical presentation of the Questionnaire
Pilot Testing the Questionnaire
Administering the Questionnaire

Jan 16, 2015

RESEARCH

Dr Simmi khurana

CONCEPTS AND

DR DEEPAK CHAWLA
SONDHI

DR NEENA

SLIDE 8-11

Jan 16, 2015

RESEARCH

Dr Simmi khurana

CONCEPTS AND

DR NEENA

SLIDE 8-13

DR DEEPAK CHAWLA
SONDHI

1.
2.
3.
4.

Schedule
Telephonic Questionnaire
Mailed questionnaire
Using electronic medium such as
www.surveymonkey.com
googledocs
5. Newspaper and magazine
6. website

Jan 16, 2015

RESEARCH

Dr Simmi khurana

CONCEPTS AND

Essential to ask the question


To know consumers shopping behaviour

DR DEEPAK CHAWLA
SONDHI

DR NEENA

SLIDE 8-16

Jan 16, 2015

RESEARCH

Dr Simmi khurana

CONCEPTS AND

Several questions or single question


Why do you like the serial--------------(the one you
ranked/prefer watching most)?
(Incorrect)

DR DEEPAK CHAWLA
SONDHI

DR NEENA

SLIDE 8-17

"What do you like about-------------?"


Who all in your household watches the serial?
and
"How did you first happen to hear about the serial?"
(Correct)
Jan 16, 2015

RESEARCH

Dr Simmi khurana

CONCEPTS AND

Assisting the respondent to provide the


answer
Does he have the answer?
1. How do you evaluate the negotiation skills module with the Communication and
presentation skill module?
(Incorrect)

DR DEEPAK CHAWLA
SONDHI

DR NEENA

SLIDE 8-18

2. Have you been through the following training modules?


Negotiation skills module
Communication & presentation skills

Yes/no
Yes/no

In case the answer to both is yes, please answer the following question else move to the
next question.
How do you evaluate the negotiation skills module with the Communication and
presentation skill module?
(Correct)

Jan 16, 2015

RESEARCH

Dr Simmi khurana

CONCEPTS AND

DR NEENA

SLIDE 8-19

Assisting the respondent to provide the answer


Does he remember?
(Incorrect)

DR DEEPAK CHAWLA
SONDHI

How much did you spend on eating out last month?

1. When you go out to eat, on an average your bill amount is:


________ Less than Rs100
________ Rs 101-250
________ Rs 251-500
________ more than Rs 500
2. How often do you eat out in a week?

________ 1-2 times.


________ 3-4 times
________ 5-6 times
________ every day
Jan 16, 2015

RESEARCH

Dr Simmi khurana

CONCEPTS AND

(correct)

DR NEENA

SLIDE 8-20

DR DEEPAK CHAWLA
SONDHI

Assisting the respondent to provide the answer


Can he articulate?
Describe the river rafting experience....
(incorrect)

Jan 16, 2015

RESEARCH

Dr Simmi khurana

CONCEPTS AND

SLIDE 8-22

DR NEENA

Motivating the respondent to


answer

DR DEEPAK CHAWLA
SONDHI

Assisting the respondent to answer


Sensitive information/topic
Have you ever used fake receipts to claim your medical allowance?
(Incorrect)
Have you ever spit tobacco on the road (to tobacco consumers)?
(Incorrect)
Do you associate with people who use fake receipts to claim their
medical allowance?
(Correct)
Do you think tobacco consumers spit tobacco on the road?
(Correct)

Jan 16, 2015

RESEARCH

Dr Simmi khurana

CONCEPTS AND

SLIDE 8-23

DR DEEPAK CHAWLA
SONDHI

DR NEENA

Type of questions

Jan 16, 2015

RESEARCH

Dr Simmi khurana

CONCEPTS AND

SLIDE 8-24

DR NEENA

Type of questions
Open ended questions:
What is your age?

DR DEEPAK CHAWLA
SONDHI

How would you evaluate the work done by the present government?
How much orange juice does this bottle contain?
What is your reaction to this new custard powder?
Why do you smoke Gold Flake cigarettes?
Which is your favorite TV serial?
What training programme have you last attended?
With whom in your work group do you interact with after office hours?
Jan 16, 2015

RESEARCH

Dr Simmi khurana

CONCEPTS AND

SLIDE 8-25

DR NEENA

Type of questions
Closed ended questions
1.Dichotomous questions
Are you diabetic? Yes / No

DR DEEPAK CHAWLA
SONDHI

Have you read the new book by Dan Brown?


What kind of petrol do you use in your car?
Normal/Premium
What kind of cola do you drink?
Normal/diet
Your working hours in the organization are
fixed/ flexible
Jan 16, 2015

RESEARCH

Dr Simmi khurana

CONCEPTS AND

Yes/no

SLIDE 8-26

Closed ended questions


2. Multiple choice questions
How much do you spend on grocery products (average in one month)?

DR DEEPAK CHAWLA
SONDHI

DR NEENA

Type of questions

- Less than Rs. 2500/- Between Rs 2500-5000/- More than Rs 5000/-

You do not currently sell organic food products because (Could be


1)
- You do not know about organic food products.
- You are not interested.
- You are interested but you do not know how to procure it.
- It is not profitable.
-The customer demand is too low
- any other-------------------Jan 16, 2015

RESEARCH

Dr Simmi khurana

CONCEPTS AND

Clearly specify the issue


Use simple terminology

Inclusion of technical words

which are not used in everyday communication must be avoided.

DR DEEPAK CHAWLA
SONDHI

DR NEENA

SLIDE 8-27

Avoid
Avoid
Avoid
Avoid
Avoid

Jan 16, 2015

ambiguity in questioning
leading questions
loaded questions
implicit choices and assumptions
double-barreled questions

RESEARCH

Dr Simmi khurana

CONCEPTS AND

Instructions purpose/objectives. eg.

Hi, we___ are carrying out a market research on the purchase behavior of
organic products. We are conducting a survey of consumers, retailers and
expertswe do appreciate your support and encouragement
..thank you very much.

Opening questions simple question which do not

DR DEEPAK CHAWLA
SONDHI

DR NEENA

SLIDE 8-28

require lot of thinking.


Study questions related to research
Classification information Demographic information
Sequential and logical ordering - branching
Acknowledgement The questionnaire ends by
acknowledging the inputs of the respondents and thanking
him for his cooperation and valuable contribution.

Jan 16, 2015

RESEARCH

Dr Simmi khurana

CONCEPTS AND

SLIDE 8-29

DR DEEPAK CHAWLA
SONDHI

DR NEENA

Physical Presentation of Questionnaire

It includes paper color, font style, spacing, formatting, cover


letter, instruction etc

Jan 16, 2015

RESEARCH

Dr Simmi khurana

CONCEPTS AND

Pilot testing
Pilot testing involves the testing and
administration
of
the
designed
instrument on a small group of people
from the population under study.
This is to essentially cover any error
that might have still remained.
The
researcher
must
edit
the
questionnaire as required and carry out
further pilot test.
Jan 16, 2015

Dr Simmi khurana

DR NEENA

SLIDE 8-31

Physical characteristics of the questionnaire

DR DEEPAK CHAWLA
SONDHI

Pilot testing the questionnaire


Preparing the final draft of the questionnaire
Administering the questionnaire

Jan 16, 2015

RESEARCH

Dr Simmi khurana

CONCEPTS AND

SLIDE 8-32

DR NEENA

The questionnaire method


Disadvantages

Advantages

Limited applicability

DR DEEPAK CHAWLA
SONDHI

Adaptability

Skewed sample

Assurance of

Return ratio

anonymity
Cost- & time-effective

Clarification

Scope of coverage

Spontaneity of
response

Jan 16, 2015

RESEARCH

Dr Simmi khurana

CONCEPTS AND

Improving the rate of response

Quality Printing
Covering letter
Advance information
Incentives
Follow-ups
Larger sample size

Jan 16, 2015

Dr Simmi khurana

Interview as a method of data


collection
Interview is mode of obtaining data through
verbal answers to questions put verbally. It is
used as Exploratory research, data collection &
problem definition.
Types of interview:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Personal Interview
Telephonic Interview
Structured Interview
Unstructured Interview (least structured)
Focused Interview (Semi structured)
Clinical Interview

Jan 16, 2015

Dr Simmi khurana

Interviewing
Approaches to Interview
The Participants: The interviewer and
the respondents are strangers. Hence
the investigator has to get him
introduced to the respondent in
appropriate manner.
The
relationship
between
the
participants is transitory one.
Jan 16, 2015

Dr Simmi khurana

Approaches to Interview
Interview is not a mere casual
conversational exchange: Interview is
a conversation with a specific
purpose.
It can also be conducted over
telephone also.

Jan 16, 2015

Dr Simmi khurana

Approaches to Interview
The
interaction
between
the
interviewer
and
the
respondent
depends upon how they perceive
each other. One should not argue or
dispute with another.
Interviewing is not a standardized
process like any chemical technician.

Jan 16, 2015

Dr Simmi khurana

Qualities of Interview
Data Availability: The needed information should be
available with the respondent.
Role perception: The respondent should understand
his role and know what is required of him.
The interviewer should also know his role: He should
establish a permissive atmosphere and encourage
frank & free conversation.
Respondent motivation: The respondent should be
willing to respond and give accurate answer, this
depends partly on the interviewers approach & skill.

Jan 16, 2015

Dr Simmi khurana

Merits of Interview method


The greatest value of this method is the
depth & detail of information can be
secured.
Interviewer can do more to improve the
percentage of responses and quality
information received than other method.
Interviewer can gather other supplemental
information like economic level, living
condition etc through observation.
Jan 16, 2015

Dr Simmi khurana

Merits of Interview method


Special scoring device, visual material
can be used to improve quality.
Accuracy of the answer can be
verified by observation & probing.
Interview is flexible and adaptable to
individual situations.

Jan 16, 2015

Dr Simmi khurana

Demerits of Interview method


It is costly both in money and time.
Results may be affected by respondents
fault perception & memory.
Interview poses the problem of recording
information.
The availability/training of Interviewers is a
costly process.
Certain types of respondents such as senior
officials may not easily approachable.
Jan 16, 2015

Dr Simmi khurana

Interviewing Techniques
Interview process consists of following stages:
1. Preparation: The interviewer should keep
the copies of interview schedule or guide.
He should have the list of name and
address of respondents.
2. Introduction: The investigator is a stranger
to the respondents. Therefore he should be
properly introduced. Interviewer should
keep identity card.
Jan 16, 2015

Dr Simmi khurana

Interviewing Techniques
3. Developing Rapport: The interviewer
should
establish
a
friendly
relationship
of
confidence
&
understanding with the respondent.
4. Carrying the interview forward:
i) Start
ii) Ask all applicable questions
iii) If a question not understood, repeat
it slowly
Jan 16, 2015

Dr Simmi khurana

Interviewing Techniques
iv) Talk all questions naturally, never showing
disapproval or surprise.
v) Jot down unobtrusively the points which
need elaboration of verification later.
vi) Show genuine concern and interest.
vii) Should not reveal your opinion.
viii) At a time, conversation may go off the
track, be alert to discover drifting.
ix) At a time interview runs dry, it needs restimulation.
Jan 16, 2015

Dr Simmi khurana

Interviewing Techniques
5. Additional Sittings: In case one single
sitting will not do then additional
sitting may be done with the consent
of respondent.
6. Recording of Interview: If note taking
is done after the interview, a good
deal of relevant information may be
lost.
Jan 16, 2015

Dr Simmi khurana

Interviewing Techniques
7.Closing the interview: After the
interview is over, assemble the
papers and putting them in the folder,
a final handshake then goodbye.
8. Editing: Interviewer must check that
he has asked all the questions and
recorded all the answers.

Jan 16, 2015

Dr Simmi khurana

Interview Problems

Inadequate response
Interviewers biasness
Non-Availability
Refusal
Inaccessibility

Jan 16, 2015

Dr Simmi khurana

Telephonic Interviewing
Telephone interviewing is a nonpersonal method of data collection. It
is useful when
a. The survey is conducted in a very
short period of time.
b. Respondents are widely scattered.
c. Study does not involve field work.
d. Time & cost saving
Jan 16, 2015

Dr Simmi khurana

Group Interview
When a number of individual with
common interest interact with each
other.
Interviewer act as a discussion leader
Sample for group can be obtained
through schools, clubs, and other
organized groups.

Jan 16, 2015

Dr Simmi khurana

Probing
Probing involves the use of specific words or
other interviewing techniques by an interviewer
to clarify or to seek elaboration of a person's
response to a survey question. When
respondents provide incomplete or irrelevant
answers to survey questions, it becomes
necessary
for
interviewers
to
query
respondents further in an effort to obtain a
more complete or specific answer to a given
question.

Jan 16, 2015

Dr Simmi khurana

Interview Method

Jan 16, 2015

Dr Simmi khurana

Observation Method
In marketing and
the
social
sciences, observational
research (or
field
research) is a social research technique that
involves the direct observation of phenomena
in their natural setting.

Jan 16, 2015

Dr Simmi khurana

Characteristics (Observation)
It is both physical and metal activity.
Observation is selective: A researcher
does not observe anything or
everything.
Observation is purposive and not
casual.

Jan 16, 2015

Dr Simmi khurana

Types of Observation
Participant
Observation:
If
the
observer is a part of the phenomenon
or group which is observed and he
acts as both an observer and a
participant.
Non-participant observation: In this
method, the observer stands apart
does
not
participate
in
the
phenomenon observed.
Jan 16, 2015

Dr Simmi khurana

Types of Observation
Direct Observation: This means
observation of an event personally by
the observer when it takes place.
Indirect Observation: This does not
involve the physical presence of the
observer, and the recording is done
by mechanical,
photographic or
electronic devices.
Jan 16, 2015

Dr Simmi khurana

Types of Observation
Controlled
and
uncontrolled
observation: If the observation takes
place in the natural setting, it may be
termed as uncontrolled observation,
but when observation takes place
according to definite pre-arranged
plans, then it is termed as controlled
observation.
Jan 16, 2015

Dr Simmi khurana

Observation Example

In marketing research, the most frequently used types of observational


techniques are:
Personal observation

Observing products in use to detect usage patterns and problems


Observing license plates in store parking lots
Determining the socio-economic status of shoppers
Determining the level of package scrutiny
determining the time it takes to make a purchase decision

Mechanical observation

Eye-tracking analysis while subjects watch advertisements

oculometers - what the subject is looking at


pupilometers - how interested is the viewer

Electronic checkout scanners - records purchase behaviour


On-site cameras in stores
Nielsen box for tracking television station watching
Voice pitch meters - measures emotional reactions
Psychogalvanometer - measures galvanic skin response

Jan 16, 2015

Dr Simmi khurana

Observation Example

Audits

Trace Analysis

Retail audits to determine the quality of service in stores


Inventory audits to determine product acceptance
Shelf space audits
Credit card records
Computer cookie records
Garbology - looking for traces of purchase patterns in garbage
Detecting store traffic patterns by observing the wear in the floor
(long term) or the dirt on the floor (short term)
Exposure to advertisements

Content analysis

Observe the content of magazines, television broadcasts, radio


broadcasts, or newspapers, either articles, programs, or
advertisements

Jan 16, 2015

Dr Simmi khurana

Projective Techniques
(A Method of data collection)
Projective
techniques
for
the
collection
of
data
have
been
developed by psychologists to use
projections
of
respondents
for
inferring about underlying motives,
urges or intentions which are such
that the respondent either resists to
reveal them or is unable to figure out
himself.
Jan 16, 2015

Dr Simmi khurana

Projective Techniques
In this techniques, the individuals
responses towards a photograph,
picture or inkblot are recorded.
Responses to theses stimuli are
interpreted
as
indicating
the
individuals own view, his personality
structure, his needs, tensions etc.
Some projective techniques are:
Jan 16, 2015

Dr Simmi khurana

Projective Techniques
1. Word Association test
2. Sentence completion test
3. Story completion test
4. Verbal projection test
5. Thematic appreciation test (TAT)
6. Rosenzweig test
7. Holtzman Inkblot test (HIT)
8. Tomkins-Horn Test
9. Play Techniques
10. Sociometry
Jan 16, 2015

Dr Simmi khurana

Primary Data Collection


It is more reliable, authentic and
accurate.
It is expensive and time consuming.
It can be used with greater
confidence because the investigator
knows its origin, coverage and
definitions.

Jan 16, 2015

Dr Simmi khurana

Secondary Data Collection


Since the secondary data is less
reliable as compared to primary data,
it should never be accepted as its
face value.
The investigator should also ascertain
as to what method was used in
collecting the data and what has been
the degree of accuracy.
Jan 16, 2015

Dr Simmi khurana

Distinction between Primary &


Secondary data
Basis

Primary

Secondary

Originality Data are original

Data are not original

Use of
Time

Data collection time


significant

Data collection time is


not significant

Editing

Not more editing is


required

Editing is required

Precaution No special
precaution Required

Precaution is necessary

Biasness

May not contain any


bias

May contain bias

Accuracy

High

Low

Jan 16, 2015

Dr Simmi khurana

SLIDE 35

Secondary Source
Secondary
resource
analysis:
Secondary
sources
of
data
give
information in terms of details of
previously collected findings in facts and
figures which has been authenticated
and published.
The data might be available for free in
public domain/ governmental and nongovernmental or at a cost that depends on
level of accuracy required.
Jan 16, 2015

Dr Simmi khurana

SLIDE 59

DR DEEPAK CHAWLA
SONDHI

DR NEENA

Government publications

Jan 16, 2015

RESEARCH

Dr Simmi khurana

CONCEPTS AND

DR DEEPAK CHAWLA
SONDHI

DR NEENA

Government publications
(contd.)

Jan 16, 2015

RESEARCH

Dr Simmi khurana

CONCEPTS AND

SLIDE 510

DR DEEPAK CHAWLA
SONDHI

DR NEENA

Non-government
publications

Jan 16, 2015

RESEARCH

Dr Simmi khurana

CONCEPTS AND

SLIDE 511

SLIDE 512

DR DEEPAK CHAWLA
SONDHI

DR NEENA

Non-government publications
(contd)

Jan 16, 2015

RESEARCH

Dr Simmi khurana

CONCEPTS AND

SLIDE 513

DR DEEPAK CHAWLA
SONDHI

DR NEENA

Computerized databases

Jan 16, 2015

RESEARCH

Dr Simmi khurana

CONCEPTS AND

SLIDE 514

DR NEENA

Computerized databases

DR DEEPAK CHAWLA
SONDHI

Based on content of information:


reference data bases, source databases
Based on storage
mechanisms:

and

recovery

online data bases, CD-ROM databases

Jan 16, 2015

RESEARCH

Dr Simmi khurana

CONCEPTS AND