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# Decision Tree Analysis

Dr. T. T. Kachwala

## What is a Decision Tree?

Decision Tree is a pictorial
representation

of

the

decision process.
It represents the State of
nature with the associated
probability and strategies
with the associated payoff.

Slide 3

## How to draw a Decision Tree?

Decision Tree comprises of two basic elements
1.Nodes
2.Branches.
Nodes: There are two types of nodes:
1.The Decision node is represented by a square
2.The Chance node is represented by a circle

D
C

Slide 4

## How to draw a Decision Tree?

The decision node

## tree where a decision maker takes a decision.

The chance node
represents a point on the decision
C
tree where a decision maker evaluates the outcome of his
decision.

Slide 5

## How to draw a Decision Tree?

Branches: are lines or segments that connect the nodes.
D

## There are three types of branches:

Decision Branch

(i)Decision branch
signifies the branch that commences from the
decision node. It signifies the strategy the decision
maker selects at that point.
D

Slide 6

Chance Branch

## (ii) Chance branch

signifies the branch that commences from the
chance node. It signifies the state of nature that
occurs at that point.
C

## (iii) Terminal branch signifies the last branch of the

decision tree. It is not followed by either
decision or chance node. The terminal branches
are mutually exclusive & collectively exhaustive
at that point.

Ch

c
De

is

a
Br
n
io

eB
c
n

c
ran

Terminal Branch

h
nc

Terminal Branch

Terminal Branch

Slide 8

## Objective of drawing a Decision Tree

The objective of drawing a decision tree is multiple
stage decision analysis.
The calculation starts with the terminal branch. Starting
from the terminal branch we calculate the position
value progressively at each node & roll back to the
earlier node till we reach the initial node.

Slide 9

## Decision Tree - Roll back Technique

The position value at the chance node is the EMV at
that point. The position value at the decision node is
the maximum payoff amongst the branches at that
point.
In the process of rolling back to the initial node, we
identify a series or sequence of optimum strategies
that maximizes the payoff at the initial node.

Roll back

EMV

maximum
payoff

## Bayesian Approach to Decision Making

Bayesian Approach is an amalgamation of two theoretical
disciplines Bayes Theorem & Decision Tree Analysis
The so called Bayesian approach to the problem
addresses itself to the question of determining the
probability of some event Ai given that another event B has
been observed, i.e. determining the value of P(Ai/B).

## Bayes Theorem - Introduction

One of the most interesting applications of the results of the probability
theory involves estimating unknown probabilities and making decisions
on the basis of new (sample) information.
Decision theory is another field of study, which is based on Bayes
theorem. This theorem consists of a method of calculating conditional
probabilities.
Thomas Bayes developed a simple rule for calculating Posterior or
Revised Probability given the Prior Probabilities & Conditional
Probabilities popularly referred as Bayes Theorem

## Bayes Theorem Given Data

Let A1 and A2 be a set of events
which are mutually exclusive
and collectively exhaustive as
indicated in the Venn diagram (i)

## Let B be a simple event

such that it intersects with
both A1 and A2 as
indicated in the Venn
diagram (ii)

## Bayes Theorem - Calculation of Posterior (Revised)

probability P(Ai/B)
P(A1) and P(A2) are the prior probabilities (simple probabilities
prior to occurrence of event B).
P(B/A1) is the conditional probability of B given that A1 has
occurred.
P(B/A2) is the conditional probability of B given that A2 has
occurred.
Given the values of P(A1), P(A2), P(B/A1) and P(B/A2) the
following table on the next slide explains the calculations of
P(Ai / B) using Bayes Theorem.

## Bayes Theorem - Calculation of Posterior (Revised)

probability P(Ai/B)
Event

Prior
Probability

Conditional
Probability

Joint
Probability

Posterior
Probability

(1)

(2)

(3)

A1

P (A1)

P (B/A1)

P (A1B)

P (A1/B)

A2

P (A2)

P (B/A2)

P(A2B)

P(A2/B)

P (B)