You are on page 1of 23

Food Microbiology 1

Unit 5
Thermal and Non-Thermal
Preservation

Thermal
Pasteurization
Commercial Sterilization
Non-thermal
Low Temperature
Irradiation
Chemical
Micro filtration
High Pressure
Pulsed electric field

Thermal (High Temperature) Processing


Logarithmic Death: Microbial destruction by

heat occurs in a logarithmic fashion allowing


us to predict the death of a population of
organisms
The theory of logarithmic death is based on a
single hit or one event equals death

Pasteurization
Derives its name from the mild heat

treatments developed by Louis Pasteur to


prevent or delay spoilage of wine and beer
Today it refers to a heat process that results
in destruction of all vegetative cells (nonspore formers) of pathogens expected in that
food

Pasteurization
The process of pasteurization is based on

food safety and not on food preservation


alone
It kills target pathogens

Extends shelf life ( shelf-life refers to the


amount of time from packaging of the food
product to the time of spoilage under appropriate
storage conditions).
Does not inactivate all microbes present
Pasteurized food usually requires additional
control measures (such as refrigeration, low aw,
low pH) to prevent rapid spoilage

Pasteurized Foods
The most common pasteurized food is milk
Originally designed to eliminate

Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Coxiella


burnetti
Fruit juice
Spoilage yeast and bacteria, E. coli

O157:H7
Beer
Spoilage bacteria and yeast

Pasteurized Foods
Liquid egg
Salmonella and spoilage bacteria
Honey
Spoilage yeast

Meat surfaces (steam, hot water)


E. coli O157: H7, Salmonella,

Campylobacter

Milk Pasteurization
Time/Temperature Combinations
High Temperature Short Time (HTST) 15 sec @

72oC
Low Temperature Long Time (LTLT) 30 min at
63oC
These pasteurization time/temperatures are

considered to be equivalent.
Heat treatments are established on the
basis of safety first (elimination of
pathogens) and spoilage (extension of shelf
life) second.

Applying high temperatures over a short

time preserves the sensory and nutritional


quality of milk
Other combinations may result in a sensory
quality not accepted by consumers
Can effect the quality of products derived
from treated milk (e.g. cheese)

Commercial Sterilization
Some milk is sold in cans (evaporated or

sweetened condensed milk) or in boxes that


remain at room temperature
The boxed milk is known as Ultra High
Temperature milk (UHT) milk
UHT milk has undergone commercial
sterilization and so can be stored at room
temperature
UHT treatment is 2 sec @ 140-150oC

Sterilization: Inactivation of all

microorganisms
Essential in clinical settings (surgical
instruments)
Commercial Sterilization: A product is not
necessarily free of all microorganisms, but
those that survive the sterilization process
are unlikely to grow during storage and
cause spoilage

Commercial Sterilization
A product that has undergone commercial
sterilization is free of vegetative and sporeforming pathogens and spoilage
microorganisms that are capable of growing
in that food under typical non-refrigerated
storage conditions
Most common commercially sterilized foods
are canned products

Commercial Sterilization
Primary Objective:

Destroy the most heat resistance


pathogenic spore-forming organismsClostridium botulinum
Secondary Objective:

Destroy vegetative and spore-forming


microorganisms that cause spoilage.
Spoilage spore-formers are usually more
heat resistant than pathogenic spore formers

Thermal Destruction Curves


Thermal destruction curves provide an

empirical model to calculate time/temperature


relationships used in processing

D value

Z value
F value

D -value
D-value- Decimal Reduction Time: Is the time
needed to reduce a population of microorganisms
by 90% (1 log cycle) at a specified temperature
and in a specified medium
If the initial population was 100 CFU/ml
10 CFU/ml would remain after a 1 log cycle
reduction

D -value

D-value

Time (s) @ 121oC

105
104

D value Formula
DT Value = t2-t1/ (log N0-log N1)
T= temperature
t1= initial time
t2= final time
N0= initial population
N1= final population
From previous example:
D121= 45-30/5-4
= 15/1= 15 sec

Z- Value
Z-value: is the change in temperature required
to produce a 10-fold change (1 log) in D-value.
Z-values are calculated from the slope of the
curve of D-value vs temperature

Z- value is the measurement of the sensitivity


of an organism to changes in temperature

Z- Value

Z
D-value

Z- Value Formula
Z = T2 T1/ log a- log b
T2= Final temperature
T1= Initial temperature
a = upper D-value
b = lower D-value
From previous figure:
Z= 240-220/log 100- log 10
Z= 20/2-1
Z= 20oF

Exercise
D value determination for E. coli O157:H7 in beef at
60oC: Calculate the D value of the organism under these
conditions

Time (min)

Log10viable count
(cfu/g)

0.2

7.1

0.5

6.5

1.0

Calculate the Z value of the organism


Temperature (oC)

Log10 D value (min)

55
60

0.75
-0.7