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Carbon Dioxide Systems

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Carbon dioxide properties


Storage
Uses
Limitations
Types of systems
Local Application
Total Flood

1. Carbon Dioxide Properties

[.03%] in atmosphere
Colourless, odourless
Density 1.5 times air
Non-conductive
Forms dry ice snow
Displaces oxygen and cools

Phase Diagram

Fig. 7-1, page 115


Solid phase
Vapour phase
Liquid phase
Triple point
Critical temperature

2. Storage

High Pressure Cylinders


Low pressure Storage Containers

High Pressure Cylinders


Liquid CO2
@ 700 F, 850 psi,
Can range 32 0F 120 0F
Capacity, 5- 100 lb
Relief valve, 2500-3,000 psi
Usually matching reserve
Fill density 68%
Dip tube

Low Pressure Storage Containers

Constant O 0F, 300 psi


Refrigerated, pressurized
Electrical supervision
Capacity in tons
Insulated
Pressure relief
multiple discharges possible

3. Uses

Ordinary combustibles, class A


Flammable liquids, class B
Electrical hazards, class C
See examples in text

4. Limitations
Not with
Oxidizers
Reactive metals
Metal hydrides
Occupied areas

Personnel Hazards

Ideally unoccupied
[CO2] > 34%
[O2] < 15%
Continuous pre-discharge alarms
Breathing apparatus
Voice alarm systems
Exits

Personnel Hazards continued

Signs
Training
Time delay
Manual activation
Manual override
Scented gas

5. Types of Systems

Total flooding
Local application
Hand hose lines
Standpipe systems and mobile supply

6. Local Application
Rate-by-volume local application
Rate-by-area local application

Rate-by-volume local application


Imaginary volume
object flush on solid floor
add 2 feet to each open surface
Vimg = (L + 4 ft) x ( W + 4 ft) x (H + 2 ft)
R = Vimg x ( 1lb/min/ft3)
W=RxD

Rate-by-area local application

Pages 127-131
2D horizontal fires
flammable liquids
diptanks, drainboards
min. discharge 30 sec.
If storage is high pressure, add 40%

Nozzles
Square coverage
typically 20-30 ft2
specifications from manufacturer

Steps
1. determine max. width
2. Extend line horizontally to intersect nozzle
graph
different scales for drainboard and diptank
3. Drop vertical line from point of
intersection
4. Extend horizontal line from point of
intersection
5. Read flow rate Fliquid (lb/min)

6. Number of nozzles for diptank Nliquid


7. FRliquid = Nliquid x Fliquid
8. Number of nozzles for drainboard N coated
9. FRcoated = Ncoated x Fcoated
10. FRtotal = Frliquid + Frcoated
11. W (lb) = FR (lb/min) x D (min)
12. If storage is HP, increase FR by 1.4

7. Total Flood
Multi-step procedure
Evaluate room
Evaluate fire
calculation

Evaluate enclosure integrity

Acoustical ceiling tiles


door closers
Windows
Other openings
Floor openings
Wall joints

Evaluate Enclosure Integrity continued


Wall rigidity
HVAC
Supply shut-off
Exhaust dampers

Fan test

Evaluate Personnel Hazards

Record activity
Time to exit
Worse case time to exit
Door recognition test
Warning sign effectiveness
Review personnel hazards
Dont increase hazard

Evaluate fire scenario


Control ignition sources
See list pages 133-4

Surface or deep-seated fire?

Measure room volume


LxWxH
Can reduce for solid objects
Add plenum space

Determine type of combustible


Material
Surface or deep-seated fire

Determine Minimum design


concentration

See fig. 7-10


Theoretical minimum
Minimum design concentration
34-75%

Determine volume factor

See 7-ll and 7-12


Lb CO2/ ft 3
For design conc. = 34%
Varies with room size
Minimum values exist

Determine basic quantity of CO2


Assumes design conc. = 34 %
Qbasic (lb) = V(ft3) x volume factor (lb/ft3)

Determine material conversion


factor

See 7-13
Dimensionless number
Increases quantity
Materials with design conc. > 34%

Adjust quantity for temperature


1% increase / 5F0 > 2000F
1% increase / 1F0 < 00F

Adjust quantity for unclosable


openings

Add extra gas


See 7-14
Need area of opening
Distance center below ceiling

Other scenarios for loss of gas

Supply air
Calculate quantity
Apply flooding factor
Apply material conversion factor
Apply temperature compensation

Consider extended application


For other leaks
Deep-seated fires
Maintain design conc.

Calculate pressure relief venting

Very tight rooms


X = Qtotal / 1.3 P
See 7-15
unlikely

Determine number of nozzles


One / 400 ft2 ceiling area
Max 20 ft spacing
Max. 10 ft from wall

Calculation form
See page 145