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Complied & Adapted by

Ajaan Rob Hatfield, M.Ed.

Introduction
Natural Approach:

Stephen Krashen and Tracy Terrell


developed the "Natural Approach" in
the early eighties (Krashen and Terrell,
1983), based on Krashens theories
about second language acquisition.

This acquisition-focused approach sees


communicative competence progressing through
three stages:
(a) aural comprehension,
(b) early speech production, and
(c) speech activities, all fostering "natural"
language acquisition, much as a child would learn
his/her native tongue.
Following an initial "silent period",
comprehension should precede production in
speech, as the latter should be allowed to emerge
in natural stages or progressions.

Background Historical Context


70 was a fruitful era in second language

research.
Noam Chomsky explain a new theory of
language (Acquisition and Learning)
Innovate methods for language teaching

Community Language Learning. Charles Currant

(1972)
Suggestopedia. Lozanov (1979)
The Silent Way. Caleb Gattegno (1972)
Total Physical Response. James Asher (1977)
The Natural Approach

Overview
In the Natural Approach the teacher
speaks only the target language and class
time is committed to providing input for
acquisition.
Students may use either the language
being taught or their first language. Errors in
speech are not corrected; however
homework may include grammar exercises
that will be corrected.

Goals for the class emphasize the


students being able use the language "to
talk about ideas, perform tasks, and solve
problems." This approach aims to fulfill the
requirements for learning and acquisition,
and does a great job in doing it.
Its main weakness is that all classroom
teaching is to some degree limited in its
ability to be interesting and relevant to all
students.

The Natural Approach


Combines

L2 Acquisition
theory

Curriculum
During

Learning
Process
Focused on

Spoken
Production

Krashens theories of second language


acquisition, and his five hypotheses.
Acquisition

requires
meaningful interaction in
the target language natural communication - in
which speakers are
concerned not with the
form of their utterances
but with the messages
they are conveying and
understanding.
Stephen Krashen

The Acquisition/Learning Hypothesis


Language acquisition
(an unconscious process
developed through using
language meaningfully) is
different from language
learning (consciously
learning or discovering rules
about a language) and
language acquisition is the
only way competence in a
second language can
develop.

What are the psycholinguistic and


cognitive processes involved in
language teaching?
What are
the conditions
that need
A learning
theory
should respond
to
to be met
order for these learning
these
two in
questions:
processes to be activated?

Stephen Krashens Monitor


Theory, which is based on The Natural
Approach, answers both questions by
distinguishing between the
acquisition and learning processes,
and by describing the type of input the
learners receive, which should be at
their level, interest, of sufficient
quantity, and in low-anxiety contexts,
and these are the conditions.

Tracy D. Terrell (Natural Approach), and


James Asher (Total Physical Response) are
examples of methods based on this learning
theory.
Charles A. Currans Counseling
Learning and Caleb Gattegnos Silent Way
also focus on this learning theory, but they
focus primarily on the conditions more than in
the processes. Their concern is directed to
the atmosphere of the classroom, and they
seek for motivation, confidence and security
within the students.

Theory of Language
The essence of language is meaning.
Vocabulary not grammar is the heart of
language.
It emphasised Comprehensible
Input, distinguishing between
acquisition a natural subconscious
process, and learning a conscious
process. It is argued that learning cannot
lead to acquisition. The focus is on
meaning, not form (structure, grammar).

The best methods

are therefore those that supply


'comprehensible input' in low anxiety
situations, containing messages that
students really want to hear.
These methods do not force
early production in the second
language, but allow students to
produce when they are 'ready',
recognizing that improvement
comes from supplying
communicative and comprehensible
input, and not from forcing and
correcting production." Stephen
Krashen

Theory of Language
Natural Approach:
Reflecting the cognitive psychology
and humanistic approach prominent in
the field of education at that time, the
Natural Approach shifted the culture of
the language classroom 180 degrees
and brought a sense of community to
the students by their sharing of the
experience of learning the same
language together.

Theory of Learning
Language

acquisition does not


require extensive
use of conscious
grammatical rules,
and does not require
tedious drill.
Stephen Krashen

The Natural Order


Hypothesis
Grammatical
structures are
acquired in a
predictable order
and it does little
good to try to learn
them in another
order.

Input Hypothesis
People acquire
language best
from messages
that are just
slightly beyond
their current
competence: i+1

The Monitor Hypothesis


Conscious learning
operates only as a
monitor or editor that
checks or repairs the
output of what has
been acquired.

The Affective Filter Hypothesis


The learner's
emotional state can
act as a filter that
impedes or blocks
input necessary for
language acquisition.

Design: Objectives / Syllabus


Objectives
Designed to give
beginners/ intermediate learner
communicative skills. Four broad
areas; basic personal
communicative skills
(speaking/listening); academic
learning skills (oral/written)
Syllabus
The syllabus for the
Natural Approach is a
communicative syllabus. Based on
a selection of communicative
activities and topics derived from
learner needs

Group techniques
Comprehensible
are similar
Types
of presented
learning techniques
andtoactivities
input is
Communicative
in the target
Language Teaching.
language, using
techniques such
as TPR, mime and Learners start to talk
when they are ready.
gesture.

Learner roles:
Focused on meaningful and vocabulary
Should not try and
learn language in the
usual sense, but
should try and lose
themselves in
activities involving
meaningful
communication.

Meaningful Vocabulary

Teacher roles:
Teachers should provide "comprehensible input (I+1)

The teacher is the


primary source of
comprehensible input.
Must create positive
low-anxiety climate.
Must choose and
orchestrate a rich
mixture of classroom
activities.

Roles of materials
The world of relia rather
than text books. Visual aids are
essential like schedules,
brochures, advertisement,
maps, books of level
appropriate to the learners.

Procedure
These are the steps to follow in planning a
lesson using the communicative or natural
approach to second-language teaching:

Presentation of a situation or context through


a brief dialogue or several mini-dialogues,
preceded by a motivational activity relating the
dialogue to learners experiences and interest.
This includes a discussion of the functional
and situational roles, settings, topics at the level of
formality or informality that function or situation
demands.

Procedure / Process
Brainstorming or
discussion to establish
the vocabulary and
expressions to be used to
accomplish the
communicative intent.
Includes a framework or
means of structuring a
conversation or exchange
to achieve the purpose of
the speakers.

Questions and answers


based on the dialogue
topic and situation:
Inverted, wh- questions,
yes/no, either/or and
open-ended questions.

Procedure / Process
Study of the basic
communicative
expressions in the
dialogue or one of the
structures that exemplifies
the function, using
pictures, real objects, or
dramatization to clarify
the meaning.

Learner discovery of
generalizations or rules
underlying the functional
expression or structure,
with model examples on
the chalkboard,
underlining the important
features, using arrows or
referents where feasible.

Procedure / Process
Oral recognition and
interpretative activities
including oral production
proceeding from guided to
freer communication
activities.

Oral evaluation of
learning with guided use
of language and
questions/answers, e.g.
"How would you ask your
friend to
________________? And
how would you ask me to
_______________?"

Procedure / Process
Reading and/or
copying of the
dialogues with
variations for
reading/writing
practice.

To complete the
lesson cycle, provide
opportunities to apply
the language learned
the day before in
novel situations for
the same or a related
purpose.

Conclusion
The Natural Approach adopts techniques
and activities from different sources but uses
them to provide comprehensible input.
Language Acquisition

Language Processing

The use of the term Natural Approach


rather than Method highlights the
development of a move away from
method which implies a particular set of
features to be followed, almost as to
approach which starts from some basic
principles which are then developed in the
design and development of practice in
teaching and learning.
It is now widely recognized that the
diversity of contexts requires an informed,
eclectic approach.

To quote Nunan:

It has been realized that


there never was and probably
never will be a method for all,
and the focus in recent years has
been on the development of
classroom tasks and activities
which are consonant with what
we know about second language
acquisition, and which are also in
keeping with the dynamics of the
classroom itself. (Nunan 1991:
228)

Summary of The Natural Method


Instructional
Strategies

Curriculum

Acquisition
Teacher
Motivation

Classroom
Learning
Environment

Theory of language
The Communicative view of language is the focus
behind the Natural Approach. Particular emphasis is
laid on language as a set of messages that can be
understood.
Language is a vehicle for communicating meanings
and messages
Communicative approach
The focus on meaning not form
Vocabulary is stressed (Lexicon)
Formula I + 1

Theory of learning - The Natural Approach is


based on the following tenets:

Language acquisition (an unconscious


process developed through using
language meaningfully) is different from
language learning (consciously learning or
discovering rules about a language) and
language acquisition is the only way
competence in a second language occurs.
(The acquisition/learning hypothesis)

Grammatical structures are acquired in a


predictable order and it does little good to try to learn
them in another order.(The natural order hypothesis)

People acquire language best from


messages that are just slightly beyond their current
competence: i+1(The input hypothesis)
Conscious learning operates only as a monitor or
editor that checks or repairs the output of what has
been acquired. (The monitor hypothesis)

The learner's emotional state can act as a


filter that impedes or blocks input necessary for
language acquisition.
(The affective filter hypothesis)

Design: Objectives
Specific objectives
depend on learners
needs, skills and level.
Syllabus
Typical goals for
language courses or
particular needs and
interest of students
topics and situations

Learners Roles
Processor of
comprehensible input.
Pre-production stage
Early production stage
Speech emergent phase
Learner to learner
interaction encourage in
pair & small group
Guesser - Immerser

Teachers Roles
Primary source of
comprehensive input
Creates atmosphere learner centered
Facilitator - Orchestrate
classroom activities
Edu-actor props user

Types of learning
techniques and
activities
Comprehensible input is
presented in the target
language, using
techniques such as TPR,
mime and gesture.
Group techniques are
similar to Communicative
Language Teaching.
Learners start to talk when
they are ready.

Procedure

The Natural Approach


adopts techniques
and activities from
different sources but
uses them to provide
comprehensible input.
Language is a tool for
communication
Language function over
Linguistic form
Comprehension before
production - task

Assessment
Communicative
effectiveness. Fluency
over accuracy. Task
oriented.
No error correction unless
errors interfere with
communication

References:
Cook, V. website

http://homepage.ntlworld.com/vivian.c/SLA/Krashen.htm
Krashen, S. (1985) The Input Hypothesis. London: Longman
Krashen, S. & Terrell, T.D. (1983), The Natural Approach, Pergamon
Nunan, David (ed) 2003 Practical English LanguageTeaching
McGraw Hill.
Nunan, David 1989 Designing Tasks for the Communicative
Classroom. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Richards, J., & Rodgers, T. (2001). Approaches and methods in
language Teaching (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press.
http://www.tprstories.com/ijflt/