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1 Principles of Drying

2 Cross-circulation Drying
3 Through-circulation Drying
4 Freeze Drying

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Drying of
solids
Definition

In general, drying a solid means the


removal of relatively small amounts
of water or other liquid from the solid
material to reduce the content of
residual liquid to an acceptably low
value
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Classification of dryers
(1) dryers in which the solid is directly exposed to a hot
gas (usually air)
(2) dryers in which heat is transferred to the solid from
an external medium such as condensing steam, usually
through a metal surface with which the solid is in contact
(3) dryers that are heated by dielectric ,radiant, or
microwave energy. Dryers that expose the solids to a hot gas
are called adiabatic or direct dryers; those in which heat is
transferred from an external medium are known as
nonadiabatic or indirect dryers
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Solids handing in dryers


In

adiabatic dryers the solid are exposed to the gas


In nonadiabatic dryers the only gas to be removed is
the vaporized water or solvent, although sometimes a
small amount of sweep gas (often air or nitrogen) is
passed through the unit. Nonadiabatic dryers differ
chiefly in the ways in which the solids are exposed to
the hot surface or other source of heat.

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1 PRINCIPLES OF DRYING

Because of the wide variety of materials that are dried in


commercial equipment and the many types of equipment
used, there is no single theory of drying that covers all
materials and dryer types. Variations in shape and size
of stock,in moisture equilibria, in the mechanism of flow
of moisture through the solid, and in the method of
providing the heat required for the vaporizationall
prevent an unified treatment. General principles used in
a semiquantitative way are relied upon. Dryers are
seldom designed by the user but are bought from
companies that specialize in the engineering and
fabrication of drying equipment.

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1 PRINCIPLES OF DRYING

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2 PRINCIPLES OF DRYING

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1 PRINCIPLES OF DRYING

ps

tw

2.0

tH
p

1.6

N,kg/
m2s
1.2
0.8

X*

0.4
0

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0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

XC
X

0.6

0.7

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1 PRINCIPLES OF DRYING

1.1 Temperature patterns in dryer


The

way in which temperatures vary in a dryer


depends on the nature and liquid content of the
feedstock, the temperature of the heating
medium, the drying time, and the allowable final
temperature of the dry solids. The pattern of
variation, however, is similar from one dryer to
another. Typical patterns are shown in Fig16.3.

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In a batch dryer with a heating medium at constant


temperature, the temperature of the wet solids rises
rather quickly from its initial value to the initial
vaporization temperature . In a nonadiabatic dryer with no
sweep gas, is essentially the boiling point of the liquid at
the pressure prevailing in the dryer. If a sweep gas is
used or if thedryer is adiabatic, is at or near the wet-bulb
temperature of the gas which equals the adiabatic
saturation temperature if the gas is air and water is the
liquid being evaporated).Drying may occur at for a
considerable time, but often after a short time the
temperature of the wet solids gradually rises as a zone of
dry solids forms near the surface. The vaporization
temperature then depends on the heat- and masstransfer resistances in the dry zone, as well as on those
in the external boundary layer. In the final stages of
drying, the solids temperature rises rapidly to some
higher
value .
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1.1 Temperature patterns in dryers


In

a batch dryer with a


heating medium at
constant temperature,
the temperature of the
wet solids rises rather
quickly from its initial
value to the initial
vaporization
temperature

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t, H

Drying of solids

t, H

w
t

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1.1 Temperature patterns in dryers

k H rw
Hw H
tw t

tas

tas ,Has

t as

r0
H as H
t
cH

t, H
tw

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t, H

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t ,H
tas

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1.2 Heat transfer in dryers


Drying of wet solids is by definition a thermal process.
While it is often complicated by diffusion in the solid or
through a gas, it is possible to dry many materials merely
by heating then above the boiling point of the liquid
perhaps well above, to free the last traces of adsorbed
material. Wet solids, for example, can be dried by
exposure to highly superheated steam. Here there are
no diffusion limitations; the problem is solely one of heat
transfer. In most adiabatic drying, of course, diffusion
may occur in the solid or gas phase, but often drying
rates are more dependent on heat-transfer coefficients
than on mass-transfer coefficients, and the principles
given in Chaps.10 and 14 can be used in dryer
calculations. Many dryers are designs on the basis of
heat-transfer considerations alone.
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1.2 Heat transfer in dryers


Heat must be applied to a dryer to accomplish the
following:
Heat the feed (solids and liquid) to the
vaporization temperature.
Vaporize the liquid.
Heat the solids to there final temperature.
Heat the vapor to its final temperature.

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1.2 Heat transfer in dryers

Calculation of heat duty

Q P L I 1 I 0 Lc H 0 t 1 t 0
Ql
L,H0

H1,t1

t0,I0

I1

H2,t2,I2
Qd

QP

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G1, 1,tM1

G2, 2,tM2

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1.2 Heat transfer in dryers


Calculation of heat duty

LI 1 G1 c M 1 t M 1 Qd LI 2 G 2 c M 2 t M 2 Q l

c M 1 c S c l

c l 4.187 kJ kg K
Ql

L,H0

H1,t1

t0,I0

I1

H2,t2,I2
Qd

QP
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G1, 1,tM1

G2, 2,tM2

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Ql

1.2 Heat transfer in dryers


Q P L I 1 I 0

L,H0

H1,t1

t0,I0

I1

G1, 1,tM1

H2,t2,I2
Qd

QP

G2, 2,tM2

LI 1 G1 c M 1 t M 1 Qd LI 2 G 2 c M 2 t M 2 Q l

Q QP Qd L I 2 I 0 G2 c M 2 t M 2 G1c M 1 t M 1 Ql
G1 G2 W G1c M 1 t M 1 G 2 c M 2 t M 1 Wc l t M 1

L c

L I 2 I 0 L c H 2 t 2 2492 H 2 c H 0 t 0 2492 H 0
H2

c H 0 t 2 2492 H 2 H 0 c H 0 t 2 t 0

L H 2 H 0 1.88t 2 2492 Lc H 0 t 2 t 0

W 1.88t 2 2492 Lc H 0 t 2 t 0

QP Qd Lc H 0 t 2 t 0 W 1.88t 2 2492 cl t M 1

G 2 c M 2 t M 2 t M 1 Ql
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c H 1.01 117
.88H
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1.3 Heat transfer units


Some

adiabatic dryers, especially rotary dryers,


are conveniently rated in terms of the number of
heat-transfer units they contain. Heat-transfer
units are discussed in Chap. 15, p. 442. For a
two-fluid exchanger, heat-transfer units are
generally based on the stream with the lower
capacity [see Eq. (15.9)], but for dryers they are
always based the gas. The number of transfer
units in a dryers is given by

dTh
Nt
Tha T T
h
S
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1.4 Phase Equilibrium

Equilibrium data for moist solids are commonly given as


relationships between the relative humidity of the gas and
the liquid content off the solid, in mass of liquid per unit
mass of bone-dry solid.

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1.5 Equilibrium moisture and free moisture

The air entering a dryer is seldom completely dry but


contains some moisture and has a definite relative
humidity. For air of definite humidity, the moisture content
of the solid leaving the dryer cannot be less than the
equilibrium moisture content corresponding to the
humidity of the entering air. That portion of the water in
the wet solid that cannot be removed by the inlet air
because of the humidity of the latter is called the
equilibrium moisture.
if XT is the total moisture content and if X*is the
equilibrium moisture content, the free moisture X is

X XT X *

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1.6 Bound and unbound water


Water corresponding to concentrations greater than
that indicated by the intersections is called unbound
water.
The water corresponding to
concentration lower than that
indicated by the intersection of
the curves in Fig.24.3with the
line for 100 percent humidity is

called bound water, because it

exerts a vapor pressure less than


ppss pps
that of liquid water at the same
ps
temperature.
ps> p

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tH

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Why

1.6 Bound and unbound water

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2 CROSS-CIRCULATION DRYING

When both heat and mass transfer are involved, the


mechanism of drying depends on the nature of the solids
and on the method of contacting the solids and gas.
Solids are of three kinds: crystalline, porous, and
nonporous. Crystalline particles contain no interior liquid,
and drying occurs only at the surface of the solid. A bed
of such particles, of course, can be considered a highly
porous solid. Truly porous solids, such as catalyst
pellets, contain liquid in interior channels. Nonporous
solids include colloidal gels such as soap, glue , and
plastic clay; dense cellular solids such as wood and
leather, and many polymeric materials.

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2 CROSS-CIRCULATION DRYING

Mass transfer between the solid surface and the gas is


covered by the relations discussed in Chap.17. The
drying rate of solids containing internal liquid, however,
depends on the way the liquid moves and on the
distance it must travel to reach the surface. This is
especially important in cross-circulation drying of slabs
or bed of solids. Drying by this method is slow, is usually
done batch wise, and has been displaced by other faster
methods in most large-scale drying operations; it
remains important, however, in the production of
pharmaceuticals and fine chemicals, especially when
drying conditions must be carefully controlled.

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2.1 Rates of drying

As time passes, the moisture content XT typically falls as


shown by graph A in Fig.24.4. After a short period during
which the feed material is heated to the vaporization
temperature, the graph becomes nearly linear, then
curves toward the horizontal, and finally levels off. The
drying rate, which is the derivative of curve A, is shown
by graph B; the rate is constant or decreasing slightly for
a considerable period. This time is often referred to as
the constant-rate period, even though the drying rate
may decrease somewhat. Next comes the falling-rate
period, in which the drying rate may decrease linearly
with time or may give plots that are concave upward or
concave downward, depending on the nature of the solid
and the mechanism of the internal moisture flow.
Sometimes, as in Fig.24.6 for drying a porous ceramic
plate, there are two falling-rate periods

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2.1 Rates of drying

In a true constant-rate period the surface temperature is


the same as the wetbulb temperature, provided there is
no heat transferred by radiation or conduction through
the solid .In practice ,however,material in a tray dryer is
likely to receive significant radiation from the tray above
and conduction from the tray below ,making the initial
vaporization temperature higher than T wb and
increasing the drying rate by increasing the driving force
for vapor diffusion . However, since it is difficult to
determine Tv, heat-transfer coefficients for dryers are
nearly always calculated using Tk-Twb as the drivng
force.

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2 CROSS-CIRCULATION DRYING
2.1 Rates of drying
GC dX
N C
N
Ad
0

GC
d
AN C

X1

XC

dX

GC X 1 X C
1
AN C
N C k H H W H

t tW
rW

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2.0

1.6

NA

A
A

1.2

0.8
0.4

E
0

G C dX
N Drying
Ad

X*
0.1

XC
0.2

0.3

0.4
X

0.5

0.6

tw

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t H/22

0.7

2.2 Critical moisture content


The

point at witch the constant-rate period ends


(whetheror not the drying rate is truly constant)
is called the critical moisture content.
Sometimes it is clear iden-tifiable, as shown by
point B in Fig. 24.6; more often it is approximate.
In Fig.24.5 it is approximately 25 percent (of the
void volume in the solids)for both water and nbutanol. It represents the moisture content below
which insufficient liquid can be transferred from
the interior of the solid to maintain a continuous
or nearly continuous liquid film on the surface.

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2.2 Drying in the failing-rate period

Methods of estimating drying rates in the fallingrate period depend on whether the solid is
porous or nonporous. In an nonporous material,
once there is no more superficial moisture to
the surface. In a porous material other
mechanisms appear , and vaporization may
even take place inside the solid instead of at the
surface.

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2.2 Drying in the failing-rate period

Nonporous

solids The moisture distribution in a


typical nonporous solid is qualitatively consistent
with that called for by assuming that the
moisture flows by diffusion through the solids. In
accordance with Eq.(17.46). It differs somewhat
form the theoretical distribution, mainly because
the diffusivity varies considerably with moisture
content and is especially sensitive to shrinkage.

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2.2 Drying in the failing-rate period


Porous solids The moisture distribution in a porous
solid drying differs greatly from that indicated by diffusion
in a nonporous material. Moisture flows through porous
solids by capillarity and to some extent by surface
diffusion. A porous material contains a complicated
network of interconnecting pores and channels, the
cross sections of which vary greatly. At the surface are
the mouths of pores of various sizes . As water is
removed by vaporization., a meniscus across each pore
is formed .which sets up capillary forces by the interfacial
tension between the water and the solid . The capillary
forces possess components in the direction
perpendicular to the surface of the solid. It is these
forces that provide the driving force for the movement of
water
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2.3 Calculation of drying time


Calculation of drying time under constant drying conditions
G C dX
N

Ad

X X
N NC
XC X

GC
d
A

XC

X2

dX
N

1.6

A
A

1.2

0.8

GC X C X
XC X
2
ln
AN C
X2 X

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2.0

NA

NC
N
K X

XX
XC X

0.4

X*
E
0

0.1

XC
0.2

0.3
0.4
X

0.5

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0.6

0.7

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3 THROUGH-CIRCULATION DRYING
If

the particles of wet solid are large enough, gas


may be passed through the bed instead of across
it, usually with a significant increase in drying
rate. Even if the individual particles are too small
to permit this, the material in many cases may be
"preformed" into a condition suitable for throughcirculation drying. Filter cake, for example, may
be granulated or extruded into "biscuits" or
spaghettilike cylinders, perhaps 6 mm in diameter
and several centimeters long. Preforms usually
retain their shape during drying and form a
permeable bed of fairly high porosity.

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EXMPLE 1. The filter cake of Example 24.1 is extruded


onto a screen in the form of cylinders in. in diameter and
3 in. long. The solids loading is 8 lb of dry solids per
square foot of screen surface. The bed porosity is 45
percent. Air at 160F (dry-bulb) and with a wet-bulb
temperature of 80F is passed through the bed at a
superficial velocity of 4 ft/s.(The air velocity is lower than
that in Example 24.1 to minimize the pressure drop and
avoid dusting of the dry material.) The critical moisture
content of the solids, as before, is 9 percent. How long
will it take to dry the solids from 20 to 10 percet
moisture?

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3.1 Drying of Suspended Particles


The

rate of heat transfer from a gas to a single


particle may be estimated from Eq. (12.64),
provided the velocity difference between the
particle or gas is known. Rates of mass transfer
from the surface of a solid particle or drop may
be found from Eq. (17.71) or from Fig. 17.7.
Often, as in a tower dryer or rotary dryer, only
part of the drying is done while the particles are
being showered through the gas, and such
dryers are therefore designed using empirical
equations .

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4 FREEZE-DRYING
Dryers

for Solids and pastes

Typical dryers for solids and pastes include tray and


screen-conveyor dryers for materials that cannot be
agitated and tower, rotary ,screw-conveyor, fluid-bed,
and flash dryers where agitation is permissible. In the
following treatment there types are ordered ,as far as
possible ,according to the degree of agitation and the
method of exposing the solid to the gas or contacting it
with a hot surface, as discussed at the beginning of this
chapter. The ordering is complicated, however, by the
fact that some types of dryers may be either adiabatic or
nonadiabatic or a combination of both

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4.1 Tray dryers


A typical

batch tray dryer is illustrated in


Fig16.30. It consists of a rectangular chamber of
sheet metal containing two trucks that support
racks H. Each rack carries a number of shallow
trays, perhaps 750 mm(30 in) square and 50 to
150 mm

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FREEZE-DRYING
Tray dryers

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4 FREEZE-DRYING
4.2 Screen-conveyor dryers
A typical through-circulation screen-conveyor dryer is
shown in Fig 24.9. A layer 25 to 150 mm(1 to 6 in) thick
of material to be dried is slowly carried on a traveling
metal screen through a long drying chamber or tunnel.
The chamber consists of a series of separate sections,
each with its own fan and air heater. At the inlet end of
the dryer, the air usually passes upward the screen and
the solids; near the discharge end, where the material is
dry and may be dusty, air is passed downward through
the screen. The air temperature and humidity may differ
in the various sections, to give optimum conditions for
drying at each point
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FREEZE-DRYING
Screen-conveyor dryers

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4.3 Rotary dryers


A rotary dryer consists of a revolving cylindrical shell,
horizontal or slightly inclined toward the outlet. Wet feed
enters one end of the cylinder; dry material discharges
from the other. As the shell rotates, internal flights lift the
solids and shower them down through the interior of the
shell. Rotary dryers are heated by direct contact if gas
with the solids, by hot gas passing through an external
jacket, or by steam condensing in a set of longitudinal
tubes mounted on the inner surface of the shell. The last
of these types is called a steam-tube rotary dryer. In a
direct-indirect rotary dryer, hot gas first passes through
the jacket and then through the shell, where it comes into
contact with the solids
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4.4 Screw-conveyor dryers


A screw conveyor is a continuous indirect-heat
dryer,consisting essentially of ahorizontal screw conveyor
(or paddle conveyor) enclosed in a cylindrical jacketed
shell. Solid fed in one end is conveyed slowly through the
heated zone and discharges from the other end The
vapor evolved is withdrawn through pipes set in the roof
of the shell The shell is 75 to 600mm (3 to24 in )in
diameter and up to 6m long ; when greater length is
required, several conveyors are set one above another in
a bank.often the bottom unit in such a bank is a cooler in
which water or another coolant in the jacket lowers the
temperature of the Dried solids before they are
discharged.
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General considerations
There are some general guidelines for selecting a dryer,
but it should be recognized that the rules are far from
rigid and exceptions not uncommon. Batch dryers ,for
example, are most often used when the production rate
of dried solid is less than 150 to 200 kg./h(300 to
400lb/h);continuous dryers are nearly always chosen for
production rates greater than 1 or 2 ton/h. At intermediate
production rates other factors must be considered.
Thermally sensitive materials must be dried at low
temperature under vacuum, with a low-temperature
heating medium, or very rapidly as in a flash or spray
dryer. Fragile crystals must be handled gently as in a tray
dryer, a screen-conveyor dryer,or tower dryer.

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The end

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