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TRAINING SESSION ON

QUALITY & TESTING OF


TRANSFORMER
PRESENTED BY
RAZA AFTAB
SUPPORTED BY
JAHANZEB AHMED &
MUHAMMAD SHAFIQUE
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TRANSFORMER TESTING

TRAINING SESSION ON QUALITY & TESTING


OF TRANSFORMER
CONTENTS

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Measurement of No-Load Loss & Acoustic Sound Level


Measurement of Impedance Voltage & Load Loss
Separate Source & Induce Over-voltage withstand test
(with measurement of Partial Discharges)
Lightning impulse over-voltage withstand test
Heat run (temperature rise test)
Measurement of zero-sequence impedance
Measurement of voltage & current harmonics
Tests on OLTC & Insulating Oil

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TRANSFORMER TESTING

TRAINING SESSION ON QUALITY & TESTING


OF TRANSFORMER
Measurement of Load Loss & Impedance voltage
DEFINITIO
N

It is the absorbed active power at rated frequency and


reference temperature associated with a pair of windings
when rated current is flowing through the line terminals of
one of the windings and the terminals of the other winding are
short-circuited.
Load losses has an importance from the economical point of
view. .
Load loss = ohmic loss of windings and internal connections +
stray losses (eddy current losses due to leakage field)

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TRANSFORMER TESTING

TRAINING SESSION ON QUALITY & TESTING


OF TRANSFORMER
Measurement of Load Loss & Impedance voltage
PURPOS
E

The purpose of this test is to determine the power losses (I 2R)


in the windings for the capitalization of losses and for
determining the required loading during the temperature rise
test. The test is performed at principal and extreme tap
positions if the taps provided are > + 5%.
AFFECTED
BY

Temperature, I2, frequency, instrument accuracy at low


power
CLAS factor
S

IEC declare it as a routine


test

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TRANSFORMER TESTING

TRAINING SESSION ON QUALITY & TESTING


OF TRANSFORMER
Measurement of Load Loss & Impedance voltage
STANDAR
DS

IEC 60076-1, Clause 10.1 & 10.4 and IEC


60076-8, Clause 10
TOLERANCE
S

PL: +15% of guaranteed value provided total loss does


not exceed guaranteed value by more

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than 10%.

TRAINING SESSION ON QUALITY & TESTING


OF TRANSFORMER
Measurement of Load Loss & Impedance voltage
EQUIPMENTS/INSTRUMEN
TS

1. Motor-Generator Set
2. Adapter Transformer
3. Power Analyzer
4. Precision Current Transformer
5. Precision Potential Transformer
6. Compensation Capacitors
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TRAINING SESSION ON QUALITY & TESTING


OF TRANSFORMER
Measurement of Load Loss & Impedance voltage
MEASURING CIRCUIT

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TRANSFORMER TESTING

TRAINING SESSION ON QUALITY & TESTING


OF TRANSFORMER
Measurement of Load Loss & Impedance voltage
PROCEDUR
E
Rated current is generally applied to the HV windings with
the LV short circuited. The test is usually carried out at the
principal and extreme taps. Test current should be close to
the value of rated current as much as possible and the
voltage waveform should be in sinusoidal form with rated
frequency. If rated current is not available, then current
greater than 50% is preferable. The voltage, current and
load losses for each phase should be measured during the
test.
In case that the generator could not supply the system, the
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reactive power
is encountered by using the capacitor
TRANSFORMER
TESTING
banks.

TRAINING SESSION ON QUALITY & TESTING


OF TRANSFORMER
Measurement of Load Loss & Impedance voltage
PROCEDURE continued..
The readings have to be taken as quickly as possible to
prevent the temperature changes in the windings and the
applied current should be sustained 25% - 100% of rated
current. This increases the accuracy of the reading.
Now according to IEC the measured value of the losses
shall be referred to a winding temperature 75C. The
transformer is at ambient (tm) temperature when the
measurements are carried out, the loss value are corrected
to the reference temperature (75C) according to the standards as

follows:
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TRANSFORMER TESTING

TRAINING SESSION ON QUALITY & TESTING


OF TRANSFORMER
Measurement of Load Loss & Impedance voltage
PROCEDURE continued..
The d.c. losses Pac at the measuring temperature tm are
calculated using the resistance values RHV and RLV obtained in the resistance
measurement: RHV and RLV between the line terminals.
DC losses at tm measuring temperature Pdc = 1.5(I2.RHV + I2.RLV)
Additional losses at tm measuring temperature Pac = Pkm - Pdc

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TRAINING SESSION ON QUALITY & TESTING


OF TRANSFORMER
Measurement of Load Loss & Impedance voltage
PROCEDURE continued..
If the measuring current is different than the rated
current, then the load losses are calculated referring the
rated current as follows:
Pk = Pkm. (IN/Im)2

where:

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TRANSFORMER TESTING

Im = Measured current
Pkm = Measured load losses
Pk = Load losses at rated current

TRAINING SESSION ON QUALITY & TESTING


OF TRANSFORMER
Measurement of Load Loss & Impedance voltage
PROCEDURE continued..
The load losses at reference temperature:
Pk = Pdc. t1 + 75C + Pac. t1 + 75C
ts + t m
t s + tm
t1 = 235C
= 225C

for Copper
for Aluminum

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where: Im = Measured current


Pkm = Measured load losses
Pk = Load losses at rated I

TRAINING SESSION ON QUALITY & TESTING


OF TRANSFORMER
Measurement of Load Loss & Impedance voltage
TEST RESULTS
Following items are recorded in the test report:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Impedance voltage
Measured current
Load losses at the measured current
Ambient temperature
Load losses at rated current & reference temperature
Percentage impedance at rated current & reference temperature

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TRAINING SESSION ON QUALITY & TESTING


OF TRANSFORMER
Measurement of Load Loss & Impedance voltage
PRECAUTIONS
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

CT secondary should be shorted.


Condenser bushing taps to be earthed.
Readings should be taken quickly to keep the temperature almost
constant.
Voltage should be measured at the terminals to avoid addition of cable
losses.
Applied current should be controlled for gradual increase from zero to
prevent inrush current.

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TRANSFORMER TESTING

TRAINING SESSION ON QUALITY & TESTING


OF TRANSFORMER
Measurement of Load Loss & Impedance voltage
DEFINITIO
N

It is the equivalent series impedance Z = R + jX in (a.c.) ohms


at rated frequency and reference temperature, across the
terminals of one winding of a pair, when the terminals of the
other winding are short circuited.
For a 3-phase transformer the impedance is expressed as
phase impedance, in a transformer having a tapped winding,
the short circuit impedance is referred to a particular tapping
unless other specified, the principal tapping applies.
Short circuit impedance voltage is an important parameter for
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the parallel
calculations.
TRANSFORMER
TESTING

TRAINING SESSION ON QUALITY & TESTING


OF TRANSFORMER
Measurement of Load Loss & Impedance voltage
PURPOS
E

The purpose of determining the short circuit impedance


voltage is the parallel operation of the transformer and fault
calculations. The test is performed at principal and extreme
tap positions if the taps provided are > + 5%.
AFFECTED
BY

Temperature, I2, frequency, instrument accuracy at low


power factor
CLAS
S

IEC declare it as a routine


test

MODULE -1
TRANSFORMER TESTING

TRAINING SESSION ON QUALITY & TESTING


OF TRANSFORMER
Measurement of Load Loss & Impedance voltage
STANDAR
DS

IEC 60076-1, Clause 10.1 & 10.4 and IEC


60076-8, Clause 10
TOLERANCE
S For a 2-winding or specified 1st winding pair of multi-winding :- principle
tapping 7.5% (if Z 10%), 10% (if Z < 10%); any other tapping:
10% (if Z 10%), 15% (if Z < 10%). Auto connected winding pair or
specified 2nd winding pair of multi-winding :- principal tapping: 10% of
declared value; any other tapping of the pair: 15%. Further winding
pairs: to be agreed but 15% of declared value.

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TRANSFORMER TESTING

TRAINING SESSION ON QUALITY & TESTING


OF TRANSFORMER
Measurement of Load Loss & Impedance voltage
PROCEDURE
If the measuring current is different than the rated
current, then the short circuit impedance is calculated
referring the rated current as follows:
Uk = Ukm. (IN/Im)2

where:

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Im = Measured current
Ukm = Measured short circuit
impedance
Uk = Short circuit impedance at
rated current

TRAINING SESSION ON QUALITY & TESTING


OF TRANSFORMER
Measurement of Load Loss & Impedance voltage
PROCEDURE
The short circuit impedance at measuring temperature t m
can be calculated as follows:
Ukm = 100. (Ukm/Un) %
URM = 100. (Pkm/SN) %

Ohmic component

Ukm = U2km U2RM %

Inductive component

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TRANSFORMER TESTING

TRAINING SESSION ON QUALITY & TESTING


OF TRANSFORMER
Measurement of Load Loss & Impedance voltage
PROCEDURE
The short circuit impedance at reference temperature of
75C can be calculated as follows:
UR = 100. (Pk/Sn) %
Uk = U2R U2km %

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THANK YOU