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Biochemistry of Cells

Biochemistry

Science concerned with


the chemical basis of life

As cell is the structural


unit of life so
biochemistry is the
science concerned with
the chemical constituents
of living cells and with
the reactions and
processes they undergo
aim

Complete understanding of all the


biochemical processes associated with the
living systems at their molecular level
It bridges the gap between chemistry and
the biology
Biochemistry and medicine

Biochemistry and medicine are intimately related


Health depends upon…
a harmonious balance of the
biochemical reactions occurring in the body
disease reflects…
abnormalities in biomolecules
biochemical reactions or biochemical processes
biomolecules

These are the molecules that make up the


structures of the living organisms and perform
functions for them
-all these biomolecules are organic in nature
-organic molecules are those which are principally
made up of carbon, hydrogen and their
combinations
Organic chemistry is the study of organic
molecules
And biochemistry is the study of the biomolecules
being organic in nature
Study questions

What are the simplest and most useful elements


in terms of which biological chemicals and their
reactions may be understood?

How these elements are molecular parts or the


functional groups that occur in biological
chemicals?
Organic-----1807 johns jakob

The first organic compound ---- urea synthesized by


Friedrich Wohler
Carbon-based Molecules
Although a cell is
mostly water, the
rest of the cell
consists mostly of
carbon-based
molecules

Organic chemistry
is the study of
carbon compounds
Carbon is a Versatile Atom
It has four electrons in
an outer shell that holds
eight

Carbon can
share its
electrons with
other atoms to
form up to four
covalent bonds
Hydrocarbons
The simplest carbon compounds …

Contain only carbon


& hydrogen atoms
Substituted hydrocarbons

That hydrocarbon in which one or more hydrogen is


removed and replaced by another atom or group of
atoms
Division of hydrocarbons

hydrocarbons
1aliphatic

saturated unsaturated

alkanes cycloalkanes alkenes alkynes


2-aromatic hydrocarbons

They have a cyclic structure


Have benzene ring

e.g; benzene
toluene
naphthalene
anthracene
purines
pyrimidines
Functional group

It is an atom or group of atom arranged in a particular


way that is primarily responsible for the chemical and
physical properties of the molecule

-OH
-CHO
R-group or Alkyl group

It is an activated or ionized group


It consists one hydrocarbon less than its parent
compound

CH4__CH3
C2H6___???
ALL THE BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES???? ARE
DREIVED FROM HYDROCARBONS CARRYING
SPECIFIC R-GROUP
Common Functional Groups
PRIMARY DERIVED
Functional Groups are:
Groups of atoms that give properties to
the compounds to which they attach

Gained Electrons Lost Electrons


SECONDARY DERIVED/COMPLEX ORGANIC
MOLECULES

ETHER

ALCOHOL+ALCOHOL=ETHER

R1__OH + HO__R2

R1__O__R2

Present in diasaccharides and polysaccharides


Ester

ALCOHOL + ACID=ESTER

R1__OH + H O_C_R2

R1__ O_C_R2
PRESENT IN LIPIDS/GLYCERIDES
AMIDE

ACID+AMINE
O
R1__C__OH + H__N__N2

H
O
R1__ C__N ___R2

H
BOND IS CALLED A PEPTIDE BOND PRESENT IN
POLYPEPTIDE CHAINS BETWEEN AMINO ACIDS
STRUCTURES

STRAIGHT
BRANCHED
RING