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COFFEE

Definition, Composition, Varieties, Production

What is Coffee?

What is Coffee?

Composition

Composition
Caffeine
defense mechanism for thousands of years
survives roasting process

Trigonelline
development of important flavors during roasting
decomposes as temperature approaches 320 F
60% is broken down (carbon dioxide, water, pyridines)

Composition
Lipids
arabica (60%) > robusta

Carbohydrates
50% dry weight composition

Proteins
forms secondary compounds during roasting process
maillard reaction

Composition
Aliphatic acid
2 dozens (acetic, citric, lactic, malic & pyruvic)

Chlorogenic acids
most abundant polyphenols in coffee
pest & disease resistance
formation of pigments, taste and flavor of coffee beans

Three Major Varieties of Coffee


Robusta
grows best in altitudes that are below 2,000 feet
sea level

above

Arabica
grows best in altitudes beyond 3,000 feet above

Blended

(Varieties of Coffee, n.d.)

sea level

Other Types of Coffee


American (regular) Toast
French Toast and Dark French Toast
Italian Roast
European Roast
Viennese Roast
Instant Coffee
Freeze-dried Coffee
Decaffeinated Coffee
(Filippone, 2006)

Coffee Production
Growing
Harvesting
Strip Picked
Selectively Picked
Processing
Dry Processing
Wet Processing
Milling
Roasting
Grinding
Brewing

National Coffee Association, USA

Production
Growing
takes 3 to 4 years

Harvesting
the fruit, called the coffee cherry, turns a bright, deep red when
it is ripe and ready to be harvested
2 ways of harvesting:
Strip Picked
Selectively Picked
National Coffee Association, USA

Harvesting
Strip Picked
all of the cherries are stripped off of the branch at one time
can either be done by machine or by hand

Selectively Picked
only the ripe cherries are harvested and picked individually by hand
labor intensive and more costly
used primarily to harvest the finer arabica beans

National Coffee Association, USA

Production
Processing
must begin as quickly as possible to prevent spoilage
2 methods:
Dry Method
Wet Method

National Coffee Association, USA

Processing
The Dry Method
the age-old method of processing coffee and is still used in many
countries where water resources are limited

When the moisture content of the cherries drops to 11 percent, the


dried cherries are moved to warehouses where they are stored.
National Coffee Association, USA

Processing
The Wet Method
the pulp is removed from the coffee cherry after harvesting and the
bean is dried with only the parchment skin left on
1. The freshly harvested cherries are passed through a pulping machine where
the skin and pulp is separated from the bean.
2. The pulp is washed away with water, usually to be dried and used as mulch.
3. The beans are separated by weight as they are conveyed through water
channels, the lighter beans floating to the top, while the heavier, ripe beans
sink to the bottom.

National Coffee Association, USA

Processing
The Wet Method
4. They are passed through a series of rotating drums which separate them by
size.
5. The beans are transported to large, water-filled fermentation tanks to remove
the slick layer of mucilage (called the parenchyma) that is still attached to the
parchment; while resting in the tanks, naturally occurring enzymes will cause this
layer to dissolve.
6. When fermentation is complete the beans are rinsed by being sent through
additional water channels. They are then ready for drying*.

National Coffee Association, USA

Production
*Drying
the pulped and fermented beans are dried to approximately 11
percent moisture to properly prepare them for storage

National Coffee Association, USA

Production
Milling
Hulling
removes the entire dried husk -- the exocarp, mesocarp & endocarp -the dried cherries.
Polishing
any silver skin that remains on the beans after hulling is removed in a
polishing machine
Grading & Sorting
the coffee beans are sorted by size and weight
and evaluated for color flaws or other
Imperfections before exported
National Coffee Association, USA

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Production
Roasting
beans are kept moving throughout the entire process to keep them
from burning and when they reach an internal temperature of about
400 degrees, they begin to turn brown and the caffeol, or oil, locked
inside the beans begins to emerge

National Coffee Association, USA

Production
Grinding and Brewing
The objective of a proper grind is to get the most flavor in a cup of
coffee. How coarse or fine the coffee is ground depends on the method
by which the coffee is to be brewed. Generally, the finer the grind the
more quickly the coffee should be prepared.

National Coffee Association, USA

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References
Filippone, P. T. (2006). Coffee Types. Retrieved from About Food:
http://homecooking.about.com/od/beveragerecipes/a/coffeetypes.htm
Moncel, B. (n.d.). Coffee Primer. Retrieved from About Food:
http://foodreference.about.com/od/bar_beverage/a/Coffee-Primer.htm
The Science of Coffee. (2012) Retrieved from Black River Roasters:
http://www.blackriverroasters.com/the-science-of-coffee/
Varieties of Coffee. (n.d.). Retrieved from DeLonghi: http://www.seriousaboutcoffee.com/varieties-coffee
How Coffee Works. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://glantz.net/blog/how-coffee-works#sthash.sMktT6q4.pqDKuGXJ.dpbs
National Coffee Association, USA. Ten Steps to Coffee. Retrieved from http://www.ncausa.org/i4a/pages/index.cfm?pageid=69

List of Members
Aristorenas
Bartolome
Francisco
Mercado
Pagulayan
Quiones
Yu
Zabala