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Momentum Transport

Lecture 1
Francisco J. Trujillo

1. Introduction

What is fluid
mechanics?
Movement of fluids.
Well-developed body of

theory.
Describes the flow of
product through
equipment
So, how can we use
fluid mechanics in the
chemical industry?

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What is Computational Fluid


Dynamics (CFD)?
CFD is a branch of fluid mechanics that uses

numerical methods and algorithms to solve and


analyse problems that involve fluid flows.
The equations that represent the detailed movement

of fluids and how heat and mass moves within those


fluids are very complex. Those are the transport
equations of momentum, energy and mass.
CFD uses computers to perform the calculations

required to solve the equations of transport which due


to their complexity cannot be solved analytically.

Two types of
problems
Micro - focus on specific details in

flow field, e.g. in boundary layers.


Macro overall characterisation of
flow behaviour, e.g.
Flow through pipe to determine
required pump size.
Temperature profiles of food
cans in retort.
Flow through an extruder
energy requirement.
Packed bed reactor for
determining overall pressure
drop or temperature profile.
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Example 1: Flow in a
tube
For simplicity, in engineering and applications it is

said that the velocity of a fluid in a pipeline has a


certain value v. But in reality this is a an
averaged value. Close inspection shows that for
instance a laminar fluid flowing in a pipeline
exhibits a parabolic velocity profile.
y

d
x

Transport Phenomena (Fluid dynamics ) allows

calculating the precise velocity profile in tubes.

Example 2: heat
exchangers
Q& UATlm

& PTi
Q&i mc

& PTo
Q&o mc

& P To Ti
Q& UATlm mc

Heat exchangers are calculated and designed in a


simplified manner by :
Using a log mean temperature difference ignoring the
temperature and velocity profiles inside the exchanger.
Estimating overall heat transfer coefficients based on
empirical equations

Example 2: heat
exchangers

Transport phenomena allows determining precise temperature and


velocity profiles, and without the need of using empirical equations
to calculate heat transfer coefficients (Heat Transfer was already
explained in the first part of the curse by A. Professor Tuan Pham).
This allows designing better exchangers while optimizing its
operation.

2. Vector Analysis

Why reviewing vector


algebra?
The equations of transport of momentum,
energy, mass and chemical species are very long.
To simplify them vectorial symbols have been
created. Then those symbols need to be
understood.

Vectors vs. scalars


If you walk 4 kilometres due north and then 3 kilometres due east, you

will have gone a total of 7 kilometres, but you are not 7 kilometres from
where you set out.

3k

4k

5k

Vectors describe quantities like this , which evidently do not add in the

ordinary way.
Vectors have direction as well as magnitude (length) and is essential to

take both into account when you combine them.


Velocity, acceleration, force and momentum are examples of vectors
Scalars are quantities that have magnitude but no direction. Examples of

scalars are mass, density, temperature.

Vectors
Bold type or a bar over a variable indicates

a vector.

v v vxi v y j vz k vx v y

vx

vz vx , v y , vz v y
v
z

v means velocity vector.


All of the above are representations of

vectors
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Example velocity field


of a river

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Magnitude of a Vectors
A vector has magnitude or norm: which is the length of

the arrow 3 k
5k
4k

5k

4k

3k

The magnitude or norm of the vector can be calculate as:


c

v a 2 b2

In the example:

c 42 32 5

Direction of a Vectors
The direction of a vector can be calculated as:
c

5k

4k

3k

The magnitude of the vector can be calculate

as:

a
tan
b
a
arc tan
b

In the example: arc tan 4 0.927 rad


Unit vector
The direction of the vector can also be given as a unit

vector, which is a vector whose length or dimension is 1.


The unit vector is obtained by dividing each component

of the vector by its norm :


Vector:

Norm:

Unit vector:

vx

v vx i v y j vz k v y
v
z
v vx2 v 2j vx2

vx v

) vx v y vz
u i
j k v y v
v
v
v
v v
z

Unit vector example


Calculate the unit vector for
3

v 3i 4 j
the vector below
4
5k

v 32 42 5

4k

) 3 4 3 5
u i j

4
5
5
5

3k

Verify if the norm of the unit vector is 1:


2

)
3 4
u
5 5
)
u

9 16
25

1
25 25
25

Instead of calculating angles, whic


Is more difficult on a 3D space,
The unit vector gives you the
Direction of the vector

Multiplication of a vector and a scalar

Can we multiply a scalar with a vector?


YES
When can this be needed?

v1 3i 4 j
For instance lets assume that v is the velocity vector:
4

And then assume that the velocity is increased 5vtimes,


2 5v1

The multiplication is done as:

3 5 3 15
v2 5v1 5

4
5


4 20

Verify the norm of the vectors:

v1 32 4 2 5
v 2 152 202 25

This confirms that the norm v2 is 5 times the norm of v1

Multiplication of a vector and a scalar

a
)

v ai bj ck b
c

scalar

m a
)

mv m ai m bj m ck m b
m c

Vector

Multiplication of two vectors:


Dot product
Sometimes you need to multiply two vectors and you need the

result to be a scalar.
For instance the mass flow trough a pipeline can be calculated as:

m& vA
density

area

flow

velocity
This example is one dimensional as the velocity is perpendicular to
the area.
But what happens in a 3D example?

Multiplication of two vectors:


Dot product
Assume that the yellow frame is a window and the red arrow is the velocity

vector of air.
The black arrow is the unit vector that indicates the direction of the window
(perpendicular direction to the plane):
b)

a)

air

c)

air

air

On which arrangement there will be a bigger mass flow entering the window?
On a) then b) and finally on c) where air cannot pass through the window

Multiplication of two vectors:


Dot product
If the velocity of the air has a different angle compared to the area unit vector the

mass flow will be different.


The area can be represented as the product of the Area (scalar) and the area unit
vector:
Area Au
Area

b)

a)

air

c)

air

The dot product which is defined as:

air

u1
v1


u u2 v v2
u.v u1v1 u2 v2 u3v3
u
v
The dot product can be used to give the correct
mass
3
3 flow (scalar) passing through

the window

Multiplication of two vectors:


Dot product
Lets assume that that area is 1 m2 and that the density of the air is 1kg/m3 :

m& v Au Area v u Area

a)

u Area

1

0
0

air

b)

c)

air

air
u Area

1

0
0

3
0

u Area

1

0
0

v 52 0 0 5

v 42 32 0 5

m& u.v 1 5 0 0 5

m& u.v 1 4 3 0 0 4 m& u.v 1 0 0 5 0 0 0

v 0 52 0 5

The velocity has changes direction but the norm is the same.
The dot product is given the right mass flow entering the window

Multiplication of two vectors:


Dot product

The dot product multiply two vectors and the result is a scalar:

u1

u u2
u
3

v1

v2

v
3

u v u1v1 u2v2 u3v3


Dot product
Symbol

The dot product of two vectors u and v can also be calculated as

u v u v cos
So the dot product is:
zero for perpendicular
vectors
Maximum for parallel vectors

Multiplication of two vectors:


cross product
The cross product multiply two vectors and the result is a
vector:

u1

u u2
u
3

v1

v2

v
3

i j
u v u1 u2
v1 v2

k
u3
v3

u v u2 v3 u3v2 i - u1v3 u3v1 j + u1v2 u2v1 k

Right hand rule

Multiplication of two vectors:


cross product
The magnitude of the cross product can be interpreted as the
positive area of the parallelogram having a and b as sides
(figure below)

a b a b sin

So the magnitude of the cross product vector is:


Zero for parallel vectors
Maximum for perpendicular vectors

Kronecker delta i,j and the


permutation symbol i,j,k
ij 1 if

ij 0 if

i j

ijk 1

ijk 1
0
ijk

if ijk 123, 231, or 312


if ijk 321,132, or 213
If any two indeces are the same

i j

Many formulas can be expressed compactly in


terms of Kronecker delta i,j and the permutation
symbol i,j,k

Unit vector in the direction of


the axis
Let 1, 2 and 3 be unit vectors (Vectors of unit

magnitude) in the direction of the 1, 2, 3 axis:

This is the notation of the Transport phenomena textbook

instead of

1 1 2
1 2 2

2 3 3

3 3 1

1
0

1 1 2 2 3 3 0
1 2 3 ; 2 1 3
2 3 1; 3 2 1
3 1 2 ; 1 3 2

i, j, k
i, j, k

Tensors
Tensors have 9 components (e.g. stress):

xx xy xz

yx yy yz
zx zy zz

The shear for a Newtonian fluid

First index = row


Second index = column

vx
ij
y

When extended to 3D is represented with a tensor

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Nomenclature

s
v=

Vector (boldface, Roman)

Tensor (second order tensor, Boldface Greek)

Scalar (lightface, Italic)

In addiction boldface Greek letters with one subscript (such


as i) are vectors.
For simplicity 0 stands as for the zero scalar, zero vector or
zero tensor
For vectors and tensors,
are
: of multiplications

several kinds
possible such as the single dot the double dot and
the cross .
Those special multiplications can produce a scalar, a vector or
Scalar
a tensor,
so for clarification we enclose these special
multiplications
= Vector in different kinds of parenthesis to indicate
the type of result:
Second order tensor

Nomenclature
No special significance is attached to the kind of
parenthesis if the only operation enclosed are addition and
:
in which , and do
subtraction, or a multiplication
not appear.
Hence:

v w Scalar
: v Scalar
v = Vector
v Vector
v Second order tensor

Nomenclature
Scalars can be regarded as zero-order tensors
Vectors as first-order tensors
The multiplication signs may be interpreted as:
Multiplication sign
none

Order of the result

In which
represents the sum of the order of the
quantities being multiplied

s
vw =
1 2

Is order 0 + 2 = 2
Is order 1 + 1 = 2
Is order 1 + 1 = 2

v w Is order 1 + 1 -1 = 1
:

Is order 2 + 2 - 4 = 0
Is order 2 + 2 - 2 = 2

Nomenclature
Appendix A of the textbook show all the
possible operations between scalars vectors
and tensors

Multiplication of a tensor by a
scalar
Multiplication of a tensor by a scalar

corresponds to multiplying each component of


the tensor by the scalar

s xx s xy s xz

s s yx s yy s yz
s zx s zy s zz

Addition of tensors
The sum of two tensors is a tensor whose
components are the sum of the corresponding
components of the two tensors

xx xy xz

yx yy yz
zx zy zz

xx xy xz

yx yy yz
zx zy zz

xx xx xy xy xz xz

yx yx yy yy yz yz
zx zx zy zy zz zz

Dyadic product - making a


tensor from the product of
two vectors

For a long time we only considered that two vectors could only be
multiplied as a dot product to yield a scalar, or a cross product to
yield a vector. Having been introduced to a tensor, the third way to
multiply the two vectors is to obtain a tensor - a dyadic product.
Having,
u
w
x


v u y
u
z

vx

vw vwT v y wx
v
z

wy


w wy

wz

vx wx

wz v y wx
vz wx

v x wy
v y wy
v z wy

vx wz

v y wz
vz wz

This is called the dyadic product which yields a tensor.


One way to remember the product is to notice that the first vector
provides the same row elements and the second vector the same
column elements.
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The tensor single dot


product
This operation multiplies two tensors and the
result is a tensor.

xx xy xz

yx yy yz
zx zy zz

xx xy xz

yx yy yz
zx zy zz

xx xx xy xy xz xz

yx yx yy yy yz yz
zx zx zy zy zz zz

Tensor double dot product


This multiplication between two tensors
results in a scalar .

: i j ij ji
: 11 11 12 21 13 31 21 12 22 22 23 32 31 13 32 23 33 33

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Dot product of a tensor with a vector

This is a dot product between a tensor and a


vector and results in a vector

v
i

11 12 13

21 22 23
31 32 33

j ij

v1

v2
v
3

k k

11v1 12v2 13v3

v
21 1 22 2 23 3
v v v
31 1
32 2 33 3
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Cross product of a tensor with a vector

This is a cross product between a tensor and


a vector and results in a tensor

v i j i j ji k k vk

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Useful identities

Useful identities numbered as in the Appendix A


of the textbook:
(A.3-20)
v v v

uv w u v w
w uv w u v
uv : wz uw : vz u z v w
: uv u v
uv: u v

is a unit vector

(A.3-21)
(A.3-22)
(A.3-23)
(A.3-24)
(A.3-25)

Differential
calculus

Ordinary derivatives:
The derivative df/dx tell us how
rapidly the function f(x) varies
when we change the argument x
by a tiny amount dx:
df
dx
dx

df

In other words, if we change x by


an amount dx, then f changes by
an amount df.
Geometrical interpretation: the
derivative df/dx is the slope of
the graph of f versus x.

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The operator

The operator

is called del:

i j k
x
y
z



x


y



z

It looks like a vector but gives the instruction to


differentiate what follows
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Gradient:
Suppose now that we
have a function of 3
variables. For instance
the temperature T(x, y,
z) in a room. We want
to generalize the notion
of derivative to
functions like T, which
depends not on one but
three spatial variables.
A derivative is supposed to tell us how fast the
function varies. What in which direction?
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Gradient
The gradient, has the formal appearance of a
vector
, multiplying a scalar T:


T i j k T
y
z
x

T

x
T
T
y

T

z

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Gradient:
The gradient, which is defined as:

T T T
T
i
j
k
x
y
z
It is a vector quantity, with 3 components. It is the generalized
derivative that we were looking for.
The gradient has a magnitude and direction as any vector.
T

The gradient
the function T.

points in the direction of maximum increase of

The magnitude of the gradient gives the slope (rate of increase)


along this maximal direction
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Gradient - utility
So when we see a collection of terms like this:

)
i
j k
x
y
z
it is quick and easy to instead write:

with the same meaning.

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Gradient
Example:

f ( x, y, z ) xy yz 2

f yi x z 2 j 2 yzk
f y, x z , 2 yz
2

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Divergence

From the definition of


constructed as:

the divergence can be


v i j k vxi v y j vz k
y
z
x
vx v y vz
v
x y z

The divergence has the appearance of dot product


between
and the vector v.
Observe that the divergence of a vector is a scalar.
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Divergence Geometrical
interpretation
The name divergence is well chosen. The divergence of a
vector is a measure of how much the vector spreads out
(diverges) from the point in question. It is a type of
derivative of a vector.

Figure (a) has a large positive divergence (if the arrows point
in, it will be a large negative divergence)
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Figure (b) has zero divergence

Divergence Geometrical
interpretation
Notice how the divergence is not just a change of direction,
but as you can see on figures a) and c) the vectors are
becoming bigger as if there were source that augments the
vector field.

So the vector will have a non zero divergence if the vector


field is spreading out in a expansive or diminish way.
The divergence is a type of measure of change of the vector
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Divergence - utility
So when we see a collection of terms like this:

vx v y vz

x y z
it is quick and easy to instead write:

v
with the same meaning.

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Divergence Example
g 3xyi 7 j ( 2 z 3 y )k (3xy, 7, 2 z 3 y)
g 3 y 0 2 3 y 2

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The Curl
From the definition
of
i

the curl is defined as :


v
x y z
vx

v
v
y
z

vz v y vz vx v y vx
v
i
j
k
x z x y
y z

It has the appearance of a cross product between

and v.
like any cross product, the curl is a vector.

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The Curl geometrical


interpretation
v
The name curl is also well chosen, because
measures
how much the vector v curls around a point in space. Thus,
the tree functions below have zero curl.

Whereas the function in figures below has a substantial curl,


pointing in the k direction.

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Curl - example
g 3xyi 7 j (2 z 3 y )k (3xy, 7, 2 z 3 y)
i

g
x
3xy

y
z
7 2 z 3 y

3 0,0 0,0 3 x (3,0, 3 x)


3i 3xk
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The gradient of a
Vector field
Is the dyadic product
of

and v. It yields a

tensor



x

T
v v v x
y



z

vy

vz

vx
x

vx
y

vx
z

vy
x

vy
y

vy
z

vz
x

vz
y


vz
z

The divergence of a tensor field

This is a dot product between


and a
tensor yielding a vector

i i j k j k jk
x i



x


y



z

11 12 13
21 22 23
31 32 33

11 21 31
x y z

12 22 32


z
x y
13 23 33

z
x y

xx

x
xy

x

xz
x

yx zx


y
z
yy zy


y
z
yz zz


y
z

The laplacian of a scalar


It is the divergence of the gradient of the scalar
s



x

2
s s
y



z

Where

s

x
s

y

s

z

s s s
2 2 2
x y z
2

is the laplacian operator


The laplacian operator
2



x

2

y



z


x

y



z

2 2 2s
2 2 2
x y z

Summary
GRAD:
(rate of change of a scalar
with direction and magnitude)

T T T
T
i
j
k
x
y
z

DIV:
(spread of the vector function
Measure of change of the vector field v
As it is expanding (source) or
Diminishing (sink) )
CURL:
(rotation, curl of the function)

vx v y vz

x y z

i
j
k


v
x y z
vx
vy
vz

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Summary
grad v
(tensor produced of the dyadic product of
Del operator and the vector v)


x vx

v
vx
y


z vx

vy
x

vy
y

vy
z


vz
x

vz
y


vz
z

Divergence of a tensor
(This is a dot product between del operator
and a tensor yielding a vector )

xx yx zx
x y z

xy yy zy

y
z


xz yz zz
y
z
x

Laplacian:
(It is the divergence of the gradient of the scalar s)

2s 2s 2s
s 2 2 2
x y z
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Useful differential relations - I


Useful identities numbered as in the Appendix A of the
textbook:

rs rs sr

sv s v s v
v w w v v w
sv s v s v
v v v
1
v v v v v v
2
is a unit vector

(A.4-18)

(A.4-19)
(A.4-20)
(A.4-21)
(A.4-22)
(A.4-23)

Useful differential
relations -II
Useful identities numbered as in the Appendix A of the
textbook:
(A.4-24)
vw v
w w v



s : v s v
s s
s s s
v w v w
w

(A.4-25)
(A.4-26)
(A.4-27)

(A.4-28)

for the symmetric ( is symmetric for Newtonian fluids ij


: v v v
=ji)

(A.4-29)

Surface
integral
A surface integral is an expression of the form:

v.da
s

Where v is a vector function and da is an


infinitesimal patch of area perpendicular to the
surface area. If the surface is close :

v.da
s

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Volume
integral
A volume integral is an expression of the form:

d dx dy dx
v

Where is a scalar function and d is an infinitesimal


volume element.

For instance if is density of a substance (which


might vary from point to point), then the volume
integral would give the total mass.
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The fundamental theorem for divergence


The fundamental theorem for divergence states that:

v d
v da
v

It says that the integral of a divergence of vector


function over a volume is equal to the value of the
function integrated over the surface that encloses the
volume.

This theorem will be used when explaining the finite


volume method , which is the numerical method
used to solve the transport equations.

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3. Viscosity
Most important concept in fluids flow

Lower viscosity

Higher viscosity

Viscosity

Viscosity is a measure of a fluids resistance to flow or to be defor


Higher viscosity Lower viscosity
Lower viscosity

Higher viscosity

Viscosity is essentially a fluids friction.


Viscosity transforms kinetic energy of motion into
heat

Resistance to flow
Fluid initially at rest:

t<0

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Bottom plate starts moving at speed v:

t=0

v
F

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Fluid velocity profile develops:

t small

vx(y,t)

TRANSIENT

v
F

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Flow between plates


Bottom plate moves at speed v:
Opposing
stress

t large

vx(y)

STEADY STATE

v
F

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Viscosity
Common sense suggests that

F
V

A
Y

(3.1)

vf profile

The applied force is


proportional to the Area and to
the Velocity, and inversely
x
proportional to the distance
STEADY STATE
between plates Y.
Therefore:
The constant of proportionality
is a property of the fluid
Is the force on the x direction on
vx
F
(viscosity).

yx a unit area perpendicular to the y yx

(3.3)

y
Direction (shear or shearing force)
(3.2)
Where yx is the force per unit are
is understood that this force is excerpted by the
(stress) in the x direction on a un
uid of lesser y on the fluid of greater y (for the figure).
area in the y direction
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We also replace V/Y by -dv /dy

Viscosity
yx

vx

y

(3.3)

This equation, which states that


the shearing force is
proportional to the negative of
the gradient of velocity is
called Newtons law of
viscosity.
All gases and most liquids with
molecular weight of less than
5000 are described by this
equation. Those fluids are
called Newtonian fluids.
Polymeric liquids, suspensions,
paste, slurries and other
complex fluids that are not
described by Eq. 3.2 are called

vf profile

x
STEADY STATE

Therefore:

yx

vx

y

Where yx is the force per


unit area (shear stress) in
the x direction on a unit
area in the y direction
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Meaning of the
subscripts

yx

vf profile

x
STEADY STATE

y: The first subscript indicates the area on which the


force is acting. In this case the force is acting on
plane perpendicular to the y direction
x: The second subscript indicates the direction of the
force. In this case the force is on the x direction
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Stress and
strain
Some definitions:
Shear stress
Force applied to an area
The direction of the force

acts tangentially to the


area ( at right angles to
normal vector that
characterize the area)

Strain change in shape

caused by stress
Fluid cannot permanently
resist shear stresses

Note on Newtons
second law
Second law: the net force on a particle is equal to the time rate
of change of its linear momentum p (mass x velocity):

dp d mv
F p&

dt
dt

Since mass is constant

d v
F m
ma
dt

So force can also be defined as the rate change of momentum


(units of momentum divided by units of time). Because the shear
stress is a force per unit
F area

yx

The unit of yx are (units of momentum divided by units of time and


units of area).
So we can think of stress as a momentum flux rate of change of
momentum per unit area.
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Two interpretations of shear


stress
1) yx can be interpreted as the force per unit area (shear stress) in the x
direction on a unit area in the y direction

vf profile

x
STEADY STATE

2) yx can also be interpreted as the flux of x-momentum in the positive y


direction. In the neighbourhood of the moving surface at y = 0 the fluid
acquires certain amount of x-momentum.
This fluid in turns, imparts momentum to the adjacent layer of liquid,
causing it to remain moving on the x direction.
Hence, x-momentum is being transmitted through the fluid in the positive
y direction.
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yx as flux of xmomentum
y

vf profile

yx

vx

y

(3.3)

x
STEADY STATE

Equation 3.3 shows that the flux of momentum (yx) is proportional


to the gradient of velocity.
The minus sign indicates that yx is transferred from regions or
higher velocity to regions of lower velocity.
Hence the Newtons law of viscosity is similar to Fourier's and Ficks
laws. Showing how the transfer of momentum, heat and mass are
equivalent phenomena.
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Low viscosity vs. High


viscosity

ssume that both arrangements produce the same velocity profile


Low viscosity

vf profile

High viscosity

F
V

A
Y
Y

yx

vx

y

STEADY STATEv
Lower Viscosity
Lower Force F
Lower stress needed to

overcome the friction


(viscosity) opposed to the
movement of the fluid layers.
Less viscous heat produced

vf profile

STEADY STATEv

Higher Viscosity
Higher Force F
Higher stress needed to
overcome the friction
(viscosity) opposed to the
movement of the fluid layers.
81/76
Higher viscous heat produced

Shear
strain
We call dvx/dy the rate of strain:

dvx
&yx
dy
If viscosity is not constant with stress, define

an instantaneous viscosity :

yx / &
82/76

Newtonian
Flow
If is constant with fluid stress, then the fluid

is called Newtonian.
Many fluids are not Newtonian

Chemical engineering many are


Food engineering few are

So we need to include non-Newtonian flow.

83/76

Non-Newtonian
Behaviour

Bingham
(plastic)
pseudoplastic
Newtonian

dilatant

vx

y
84/76

Models:
Bingham

Model:

yx

dvx
o
o
dy

dvx
0
dy

yx

yx

Bingham
(plastic)

o
o

o is a yield stress no flow below this level.


plastic means rigid below a critical stress
examples: blood, tomato sauce, mayonnaise,

paints
85/76

vx
y

Models: Power
Law

Power law

Also called Ostwald-de Wade:

yx

n
&
m

dilatant
vv
xx
yy

m is called the consistency index.


n (flow index) characterises flow behaviour:
n<1: pseudoplastic (as it looks like plastic flow)
n=1: Newtonian flow
n>1: dilatant

86/76

Structural
Models
Newtonian at very low and very high shear

stresses, dilatant or pseudoplastic in between.


Carreau model:
o

2 P

1 &

where (4 constants):
o is low shear limiting viscosity
is high shear limiting viscosity
is a time constant
P is a shear thinning index.

vx
y

Examples:
polymer solutions, latex emulsions, mud (sediment)

87/76

Models: Eyring model


Also 2 parameter:

yx

1 dvx
A sinh

B dy

Based on Eyring kinetic theory of liquids


Predicts pseudoplastic behaviour, reducing to

Newtonian as o 0.
Many other models in literature.

88/76

Kinematic
viscosity
For convenience, define the kinematic viscosity as:

Viscosity has units of Pa.s in S.I.


1 Poise = 0.1 Pa.s
1 cP = 0.001 Pa.s
The units of kinematic viscosity is m 2 s-1 in S.I.
89/76

Using
viscosity
The stress terms are defined in terms of viscosity and

velocity gradients.
We derived a one-dimensional equation for shear for a
newtonian fluid:

vx
xy
y

Now we need to generalise this.


This generalization is not simple. It took

mathematicians and physicist about a century and a


half to do this.
We will show only the main ideas that led to the
generalization of Newtons law of viscosity.
90/74

Generalising Newtons Law


of Viscosity
Consider a general flow pattern where:
v x v x x, y , z , t ; v y v y x , y , z , t ; v z v z x , y , z , t

In that situation there will be 9 stress

components ij (where I and j can take the


values of x, y or z).
Imagine that at time instance we remove half
of the fluid of the cube (centred at x,y,z)
below.
What are the forces needed on the shaded
areas to replace the forces that were excreted
91/74

Generalising Newtons Law


of Viscosity

92/74

Pressure

Pressure is isotropic and only acts perpendicular to


surfaces
.
93/74

Viscous forces
Viscous forces come into play when there are velocity gradients.
They come with an angle to the surface.
Pressure is isotropic and only acts perpendicular to surfaces
.

x is a force per unit


y is a force per unit
z is a force per unit
area applied on the x
area applied on the y
area applied on the z
shaded area
shaded area
shaded area
94/74
The subscript on the vector x indicates the area on which the force is acting

Viscous
forces
x is a force per unit
area applied on the x
shaded area

x xx , xy , xz

y is a force per unit


area applied on the y
shaded area

y yx , yy , yz

z is a force per unit


area applied on the z
shaded area

z zx , zy , zz

Each of those forces (which are vectors) has 3 components


95/74

Viscous
forces
x is a force per unit
area applied on the x
shaded area

Why the components of x are:


x xx , xy , xz

x xx , yx , zx
Instead of

Because the second subscript indicates the force while the first
subscript indicates the area on which the force acts
96/74

Viscous forces shear stress

Putting all the terms together

97/74

Meaning of the
subscripts

yx

vf profile

x
STEADY STATE

y: The first subscript indicates the area on which the


force is acting. In this case the force is acting on a
plane perpendicular to the y direction . It also
indicates the direction on which x-momentum
transfers
x: The second subscript indicates the direction of the
force (or momentum). In this case the force is on the
x direction

98/76

Generalising Newtons Law


of Viscosity
All the nine components can be put together as
a tensor

xx xy

yx yy
zx zy

xz

yz
zz

99/74

Generalising Newtons Law of


Viscosity
Navier, Poisson and Stokes considered these issues,

and derived the equation:

v j

vx v y vz
vi
2
ij
3

ij
x x
x y z
i
j

where i and j are used to rotate through all possible

choices of x, y and z (9 combinations altogether).


Notice the Kronecker delta at the end, which switches off

the last term unless i=j.


Well ignore (bulk viscosity) - for simple problems it has
no effect.
100/74

Equations
To solve for the velocity distribution, we need

to write the stresses in terms of known


quantities. Without derivation:
vx 2
xx 2
.v
x 3
vx v y
yx xy

y x

With reciprocal relations for other directions.


The first equation ignores bulk viscosity
101/78

Generalising Newtons Law of


Viscosity
In vector-tensor notation:
Velocity gradient tensor

v v

Divergence of the
velocity vector

Transpose of the
velocity gradient tensor

23 v
Unit tensor with
components ij

102/74

Convective momentum
transfer
Momentum can also be transported by the bulk flow of fluid
In the figure lets consider that at the centre of the cube the velocity
vector is v.
Lets ask what the flux of momentum through each shaded plane
is(momentum / m2 s)

103/74

Convective momentum
transfer
First remember that the mass flow (kg/s) rate of the red
velocity vector passing through the yellow window is:

m& v Au Area Av u Area


u Area
and

Where A is the area


characterizes that area.

is the unit vector that

air

Lets see how to get the rate of flow of momentum


through each shaded plane.
Momentum is equal to mass times velocity. So if we
multiply mass flow (kg/s) times velocity we will obtain the
rate of flow of momentum (momentum/time):

momentum _ flow m&v Av u Area v = A v u Area v

For the figure on the left:

momentum _ flow A v u Area v A vx v


If we divide by the area, we will obtain the flux of
momentum (momentum/ time / area )

momentum _ flux vx v

Convective momentum
transfer

momentum _ flux x vx v

momentum _ flux y v y v

momentum _ flux z vz v

105/74

Convective momentum
transfer

l the convective momentum flux components form a tensor that can be simplify

Where

momentum _ flux vv

isvv
the dyadic products between the vectors and it forms a tensor

v x vx

vv v y vx
v z vx

vx v y
vyvy
vz v y

vx vz

v y vz
vz vz

106/74

Surface elements and shear


stress in cylindrical coordinates

107/74

Cylindrical
coordinates

Surface elements and shear


stress in spherical

109/74

Spherical coordinates

Example of nonzero normal


stresses

111/74

Prediction of
Viscosity
Gases and liquids
separately

Viscosity models
Viscosity is the characteristic property of a

fluid, so central to mass transport.


Text gives models for gases and liquids.
The models allow us to predict the effects of
changes in T, x and P on viscosity.

113/76

Low Density Gases


Use classic mechanical theory of gases:
Rigid
Non-attracting
Perfect spheres

114/76

Speed relates to
energy
From the kinetic theory of gases,

uT

0.5

T = absolute temperature
u = speed

Distance between collisions is related to cross-

sectional area:

= mean free path


d = particle diameter

115/76

Resistance to
flow
If there is a velocity gradient in the gas, then

collisions between molecules will generate


resistance to flow.
This resistance yx will be proportional to:
Density of molecules
Mean free path
Speed of particles
Velocity gradient

Thus assume:

dvx
yx u
dy
116/76

Compare to viscosity
equation
Maxwell (1860) derived:

yx

dvx
u
dy
1
3

Comparing with definition of viscosity:


gives:

yx

dvx

dy

13 u

2
3
3 2

See textbook for more


details of derivation

mkT
d2
117/76

How good?
This model works OK for low densities except

for the temperature dependence.


Loss of accuracy at higher densities due to
oversimplification of molecules as elastic
balls.
Big improvement by modelling the potential
well between molecules:
close molecules repel.
distant molecules attract.

118/76

Potential
Well
PE

Based on Lennard-Jones

potential function:
12
PE 4

repel attract

is energy of interaction
r

between molecules.
is called collision diameter.
and measured at critical
points empirically (BS&L).

119/76

Improved equation: the


Chapman-Enskog theory
This gives (for dilute polyatomic gases):
MT
2.6693 10
2
5

T = absolute temperature, K
= diameter,
M = molecular weight
= viscosity, g/cm.s
= constant

The constant is derived from table B2 in


BS&L, as a function of kT/.
120/76

Example:
CO2
From BS&L: compute the viscosity of CO2 at

200 K and 1 atm.


Solution:

=3.996

MW=44 kg/kmol

/k=190 K

Using C-E equation:

2.6693 10 5 44T

3.996

1.109 10 5 T

Table B2 with kT/ =200/190 gives =1.549. So


1.013 105 kg m -1s -1
Note: SI units
Same as Pa.s
121/76

Finding and

Values are known for many substances (see

table B1, BS&L)


Others can be estimated from the critical
temperatures, Tc, Tbp and Tmp
Equations for doing this are given in BS&L.

122/76

Gas
Mixtures
For mixtures,

mix
i 1

x
j 1

where

M i
1
ij
1
M j
8

xi i

12

x = mole fraction

ij

M j

M i

123/76

Liquid
Viscosity
Theory not as well-developed.
Use Eyrings theory: energy to move in fluid
Limits: rough approximation based on

knowledge of other liquid properties.

N A h Go / RTK
%e
V

NA = Avogadros number
h = Plancks constant
R = molar gas constant
Go = molar free energy
of activation
V = molar volume

124/76

Simplified
form
The energy to move in the liquid (bond

energy) is related to the latent heat of


evaporation. This leads to a correlation with
liquid boiling point Tbp:
Go=3.84RTbp
So:

N A h 3.8Tbp /TK
%e
V
see textbook example, 1.5-1

125/76

Use of model
Eyrings model is not accurate (approx 30%).
But it shows the effect of T on viscosity of a

liquid.
Does liquid viscosity increase or decrease
with T?
Who was Arrhenius?
Can this model be used with non-Newtonian
materials?

126/76

Density
Density decrease with T (liquids and gases).
Prediction equation, liquids:

vap T

vap 15.6o C

Tc T

Tc 288.70

(SI units, absolute temperatures in Kelvin).


Liquid

Water & alcohol

4.00

Hydrocarbons & ethers

3.45

Organics

3.23

Inorganics

3.03

127/76