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Outline Curriculum (5 lectures)

Each lecture 45 minutes


Lecture 1: An introduction in electrochemical coating
Lecture 2: Electrodeposition of coating
Lecture 3: Anodizing of valve metal
Lecture 4: Electroless deposition of coating
Lecture 5: Revision in electrochemical coating

Lecture 3 of 5
Anodizing of Valve Metal

Anodizing
An electrolytic passivation process.
An anodic oxidation of metal at the anode,
e.g. Al, Ti, Mg and is usually accompanied
by hydrogen evolution at an inert electrode
(the cathode), e.g. Ti, stainless steel.
Typical cell voltage 5 to 100 V.

Anodising: What and Why?


Deliberately producing a stable oxide coating
by anodic treatment of a metal surface
Coating is usually non-conducting
thermally and electrically insulating
Oxide is usually protective
against corrosion or wear or heat
Anodised film can be post-treated
with dye, polymer, lubricant

Types of Surface Contamination Dirt: Sources?

Oils, greases and waxes


Metal oxide (or sulphide or chloride) films
Metal particles
Flowed surface layers may be glassy
Metallurgical defects
Chemicals (including sweat)

Special Pre-treatments
Chemical polishing
to give a bright finish

Electrolytic polishing
capable of a mirror finish

Electrograining
used to allow aluminium to pick up ink

Microetching
deliberate micro-roughening of, e.g., silicon

Plating strikes
e.g., Woods nickel on stainless before Watts nickel

Anodizing

At excessively high current density, a secondary anodic reaction, O2


evolution takes place at a significant rate.
This may give rise to problems such as pitting of the anodised layer and
an increased possibility of hazardous O2/H2 mixture.

What does an anodised film look like ?


Transmission electron
micrograph
(TEM) cross section
of an anodised film on Al
150 V for 70 minutes
in 0.5M phosphoric acid
Porous layer
Barrier layer
Aluminium substrate

Depending on conditions,
oxide film thickness can be, e.g., 1-30 micron

Anodising of aluminium:
state of a substance (s),(l),(g)
Reactants

Products

2Al(s) + 3H2O(aq) - 6e- = Al2O3(s) + 6H+(aq)


Aluminium

Water

Electrons

Aluminium
oxide

Protons

Note the different phases and the phase changes during reaction.

Anodising of aluminium:
reacting quantities
Products

Reactants

2Al + 3H2O - 6e- = Al2O3 + 6H+


2 atom

3 molecules

6 molecules

2 mol

3 mol

6 mol

2 x 26.98 g 3 x 18.016 g

6F

1 molecule

1 mol

6 ions

6 mol

1 x 101.96 g 6 x 1.008 g

Reactions during anodising of


aluminium: note phase changes
Anode (aluminium)
2Al(s) + 3H2O(l) = Al2O3(s) + 6H+(l) + 6e-

Cathode (e.g., stainless steel)


6H+(l) + 6e- = 3H2 (g)

Cell (overall process)


2Al(s) + 3H2O(l) + 6H+(l) = Al2O3(s)+ 6H+(l)+ 3H2(g)

Applications of Anodising?
Heat sinks
Thermal, oxidation resistant

Pots and pans


Decorative

Architectural panels
Decorative and corrosion resistant

Engineering
Wear resistant, corrosion resistant

What are the Control Variables?


Process
Pre- and post-treatment, temperature, time

Electrolyte
Composition, temperature

Metal
Type of alloy, surface finish

Types of Anodising
Decorative
d.c in sulfuric acid

Hard
d.c in chromic or phosphoric acid

Plasma
a.c. in near neutral salts
Plasma electrolytic oxidation
Anodic oxidation of metal to form metal oxide.
Uses higher voltage than anodizing, e.g. 100 to 1000 V.
Metal oxide forms at the anode.
Thicker oxide layer than anodizing, e.g. 100 to 500 m.

Post-treatment following
anodising (how and why)
Seal (Boiling water) : proses utk menutup
pori-pori
Dye (Organics) : proses pewarnaan, 50-60 oC
Impregnate
PTFE (Anti-stick)
MoS2 (Self-lubricating)

Conclusions
Anodising is important in surface finishing.
Uses: decorative and engineering applications.
Capacitors to architectural panels are involved.
Pre-treatment is important.
Good process control is essential.
So is adequate post-treatment.
Use d.c., a.c. and plasma electrolysis techniques.