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Outline Curriculum (5 lectures)

Each lecture 45 minutes

Lecture 1: An introduction in electrochemical coating
Lecture 2: Electrodeposition of coating
Lecture 3: Anodizing of valve metal
Lecture 4: Electroless deposition of coating
Lecture 5: Revision in electrochemical coating

Lecture 3 of 5
Anodizing of Valve Metal

An electrolytic passivation process.
An anodic oxidation of metal at the anode,
e.g. Al, Ti, Mg and is usually accompanied
by hydrogen evolution at an inert electrode
(the cathode), e.g. Ti, stainless steel.
Typical cell voltage 5 to 100 V.

Anodising: What and Why?

Deliberately producing a stable oxide coating
by anodic treatment of a metal surface
Coating is usually non-conducting
thermally and electrically insulating
Oxide is usually protective
against corrosion or wear or heat
Anodised film can be post-treated
with dye, polymer, lubricant

Types of Surface Contamination Dirt: Sources?

Oils, greases and waxes

Metal oxide (or sulphide or chloride) films
Metal particles
Flowed surface layers may be glassy
Metallurgical defects
Chemicals (including sweat)

Special Pre-treatments
Chemical polishing
to give a bright finish

Electrolytic polishing
capable of a mirror finish

used to allow aluminium to pick up ink

deliberate micro-roughening of, e.g., silicon

Plating strikes
e.g., Woods nickel on stainless before Watts nickel


At excessively high current density, a secondary anodic reaction, O2

evolution takes place at a significant rate.
This may give rise to problems such as pitting of the anodised layer and
an increased possibility of hazardous O2/H2 mixture.

What does an anodised film look like ?

Transmission electron
(TEM) cross section
of an anodised film on Al
150 V for 70 minutes
in 0.5M phosphoric acid
Porous layer
Barrier layer
Aluminium substrate

Depending on conditions,
oxide film thickness can be, e.g., 1-30 micron

Anodising of aluminium:
state of a substance (s),(l),(g)


2Al(s) + 3H2O(aq) - 6e- = Al2O3(s) + 6H+(aq)






Note the different phases and the phase changes during reaction.

Anodising of aluminium:
reacting quantities


2Al + 3H2O - 6e- = Al2O3 + 6H+

2 atom

3 molecules

6 molecules

2 mol

3 mol

6 mol

2 x 26.98 g 3 x 18.016 g


1 molecule

1 mol

6 ions

6 mol

1 x 101.96 g 6 x 1.008 g

Reactions during anodising of

aluminium: note phase changes
Anode (aluminium)
2Al(s) + 3H2O(l) = Al2O3(s) + 6H+(l) + 6e-

Cathode (e.g., stainless steel)

6H+(l) + 6e- = 3H2 (g)

Cell (overall process)

2Al(s) + 3H2O(l) + 6H+(l) = Al2O3(s)+ 6H+(l)+ 3H2(g)

Applications of Anodising?
Heat sinks
Thermal, oxidation resistant

Pots and pans


Architectural panels
Decorative and corrosion resistant

Wear resistant, corrosion resistant

What are the Control Variables?

Pre- and post-treatment, temperature, time

Composition, temperature

Type of alloy, surface finish

Types of Anodising
d.c in sulfuric acid

d.c in chromic or phosphoric acid

a.c. in near neutral salts
Plasma electrolytic oxidation
Anodic oxidation of metal to form metal oxide.
Uses higher voltage than anodizing, e.g. 100 to 1000 V.
Metal oxide forms at the anode.
Thicker oxide layer than anodizing, e.g. 100 to 500 m.

Post-treatment following
anodising (how and why)
Seal (Boiling water) : proses utk menutup
Dye (Organics) : proses pewarnaan, 50-60 oC
PTFE (Anti-stick)
MoS2 (Self-lubricating)

Anodising is important in surface finishing.
Uses: decorative and engineering applications.
Capacitors to architectural panels are involved.
Pre-treatment is important.
Good process control is essential.
So is adequate post-treatment.
Use d.c., a.c. and plasma electrolysis techniques.