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THEORIES OF INSTRUCTIONAL

MANAGEMENT
(JACOB KOUNIN)
BUILDING THE FOUNDATION
(SKINNER, GLASSER, GORDON)
RUBATARSHNE D/O VASU
AMIRAH NAJIHAH BT ABDUL AZIS
MOHD AFIF AZRI B. AHMAD

Question
Compare and contrast
on the two theories
researched and present
your findings

CONTENT
Definition
Approaches or Strategies

Strengths and
weaknesses

Practicality of theories in ESL


classroom
Why does the model look appeal to
us?

DEFINITI
ONS

DEFINITION
S

INSTRUCTION
AL
MANAGEMENT
(JACOB
KOUNIN)
Focused on a
teachers
ability to affect
students
behavior
through
instructional
management

BUILDING THE
FOUNDATION
(B.F SKINNER)
The practice of
providing
consequences
for both positive
and negative
behaviour.

BUILDING THE
FOUNDATION
(WILLIAM
GLASSER)
The choice
theory states
that behavior is
inspired by
what a person
wants or
needs most at
any given time

BUILDING THE
FOUNDATION
(THOMAS
GORDON)
Discipline is
best. achieved
through pupil
self-control.
Teacher use I
messages in
influencing pupil
behaviour

APPROACHES
& STRATEGIES

The business of running a classroom is a complicated


technology having to do with developing a non-satiating
learning program; programming for progress, challenge, and
variety in learning activities; initiating and maintaining
movement in classroom tasks with smoothness and
momentum; coping with more than one event
simultaneously; observing and emitting feedback for
many different events; direction and actions at
appropriate targets; maintaining focus upon a group; and
doubtless other techniques not measured in these researches

(Jacob Kounin)

RIPPLE EFFECT

TRANSITION
SMOOTHNESS

MANAGEMENT
TECHNIQUES

OVERLAPPING

DESISTS

WITHITNESS

Techniques
Ripple Effect

Desists

Definition

Examples

By correcting the misbehaviour of one student it can


Teacher gives encouragement or
positively influence the behaviour of another students. reprimands can continue or stop students'
behavior.
Efforts to stop a misbehaviour.
Be ensure that desists are spoken clearly and can be
understood.

The corrected misbehave student will


ripples to other students, causing them to
behave better

Withitness

Awareness of what is going on in all parts of the


classroom.

Teachers have eyes on the back of their


heads!
- Students less likely to misbehave.

Overlapping

Ability to attend to two or more issues / students at


the same time.

Teacher monitor students behavior at


the same time continue teaching
process.

Transition
smoothness

Teachers management of various activities


throughout the day

Teachers must be well prepared


Appropriate pace and progression
through a lesson
At a consistent flow

SATIATION
JERKINESS

SLOWDOWNS

FLIPFLOPS

TRUNCATIO
N

INSTRUCTIONAL
TECHNIQUES

STIMULUS
BOUND

THRUST
DANGLE

Technique Definition
s

Solutions

Satiation

Occurs when a teacher teaches the same


lesson for so long and students get tired of
the topic

Offering challenges throughout the


lesson
Add variety activities to lesson.

Jerkiness

Lack of lesson smoothness and momentum.

To avoid this situation, a teacher


should maintain the focus of the
learning topics.
Do not ask questions that are not
related to the topic the lesson.

Stimulus
bound

It is a situation where a teacher has the

A teacher needs to recognize and

students engaged in a lesson and

make a genuine commitment

something else attracts the teachers

towards the lesson.

attention.
When this happen, the teacher is stimulus
bound.
Thrust

According to Kounin (1970), a thrust consist


of a teachers sudden bursting in on
students activities with an order,

Teachers should consider the


suitable time for him or her to
thrusting in.

Techinques

Definition

Solution

Occurs when a teacher starts an activity and then


leaves it hanging in mid air by beginning another
activity and later resume the original activity.

Teachers need to focus and stay on


track for the lesson to be smooth in
instructional momentum.

Truncation

Similar to dangle but the teacher doesnt resume the


original activity

Teachers need to alert and stay focus


on what has been taught.

Flip-flops

Occurs only at transitional points, such as when the


teacher terminates one activity and begins another and
then reverts to the first activity
Can cause confusion among students.

Realizing the importance of


smoothness and momentum in order to
become good instructional management
teachers.

Dangle

Slow-down

Two types of slowdowns:


i) Over dwelling
ii) fragmentation
Over dwelling a situation when a teacher dwells on
corrective behaviour longer than needed most
students understanding & interest(Kounin,1970)
Fragmentation happens when a teacher breaks
down an activity into subparts.

The ideal of behaviourism is to eliminate coercion: to


apply controls by changing the environment in such a
way as to reinforce the kind of behaviour that benefits
everyone.
(B.f Skinner)

1. Operant
conditioning

2. Reinforcement
stimulus

STRATEGIES
OF THE
THEORY

Behavior that act on


the surrounding
environment to
produce
consequences

i.

2 categories :
Constant reinforcemen
ii. Intermittent
reinforcement

We almost always have choices, and the better the


choice, the more we will be in control of our lives.
(William Glasser)

We are driven
to satisfy
basic needs:
survival, love,
belonging,
power,
freedom and
fun

Students
behaviour
is
determined by students
choice not teachers control

THE CHOICE
THEORY
To replace
external
control
psychology

"Punitive discipline is by definition need-depriving as


opposed to need-satisfying." (T. Gordon)

Use behavior window to


recognize problem related
to classroom instruction
and determine ownership
of the problem

Developing
meaning and
mutually beneficial
relationships

STRATEGIES
OF THE
THEORY

Open and honest


communication can
help to find solution

Both parties should


agree with the
solution made

PROBLEM OWNERSHIP
Students behaviour is
causing a problem for
student only

Student owns the problem

Students behaviour is not


causing a problem for either
student teacher

No problem exist

Students behaviour is causing a


problem for the teacher

Teacher owns the problem.

STRENGTHS
AND
WEAKNESSES

Jacob Kounin
STRENGTHS
Teacher act as an administrator in the
classroom.
Behaviour problems are reduced to the
minimum.
Provide the teacher with a specific, detailed
approach to handle the discipline problems.
Offers techniques for making desists effective.
eg. teacher can quiet the whole class by using
desist in order to keep one pair of students from
talking. (Morris, 1996)
Teacher will avoid from frustration, yelling to
students or sarcasm.

WEAKNESSES
Might lead to overdwelling / fragmentation.
Limited use in the classroom.
Shows to avoid disciplinary problems but not to
provide effective way to solve serious discipline
problems.
Does not help the students in forming selfdiscipline.
Does not work with every problematic students
in the classroom.
It is quite impossible for a teacher to know
everything that is happening in the class at all
time.

Bf. Skinner
Strengths

Weaknesses

The use of positive reinforcement give pleasant result


more effective than negative reinforcement

Rewards avoids the possibility to find intrinsic


motivation

Suitable and can be used to modify pupils behavior

The use of reward trains students to expect


rewards to what they do
Students will behave to get the reward.

Sometimes negative reinforcement is also suitable to


achieve desire behavior (Extrinsic motivation)
The classroom environment is appropriate in
learning
Speed up and strengthen learning and help students
change their behavior for the better.

Overly cumbersome and inefficient in teaching


students the way they should and shouldn't
behave.

GLASSER
STRENGTHS
Promote a high degree of autonomy and
responsibility for students.
Help students see a wide range of possible
consequences for their behaviour.
Allow students to determine solutions to their own
discipline problems.
Help students understand their needs and how to
satisfy these need legitimately.
Explain clearly what a teacher needs to do for
every misbehaving student.

WEAKNESSES
It is difficult for teachers to help students satisfy their
need for control without feeling threatened themselves.
It is difficult to react properly when communicating with
students about their inappropriate behaviour.
Classroom meetings may consume more time than is
desirable.
It may be difficult to help students who do not want to be in
school to make plans to improve their behaviour.

GORDON
Strengths

Weaknesses

Gives strategies for teachers to give students


control over their own behavior.

Gordons model of classroom management


has the potential to make a lot of teachers
very permissive.

Helps to identify ones feelings (active


listening & i-message)

I-messages can create an opposite reaction


than they are intended.

Allows the teacher to correct and confront the Children may become uncontrollable without
students misbehavior without affecting the
teachers guidance (self-regulation)
students feeling
Provides a win-win situation for teacher and
student

Gordon focuses mainly on resolving conflict


after it arises.

Disciplines the students without hurting and


threatening them emotionally and physically

No-punishment concept may lead the


students to feel more free to misbehave
(every child is different)

Practicality of theories
in ESL classroom

RIPPLE-EFFECT
Jacob Kounin
PROBLEM
Siti was not paying attention in the class. She always disturbed her friends
and loved to play around in the class.

Teacher managed that behavioral problem


by punishing her. She was asked to go
in front of the class and
recited a poem aloud.
The other students who make a lot of
noises in the class tend to
behave well because they did not want to
be punished by the teacher.

Bf. Skinner
Ajrul in Mr Lims class is quite passive and obedient. He never create a fuss and does
little socializing with his peers. However, he rarely participate in class activities and
doesnt care about completing homework and exercises given. He just follow the flow
of the class and doesnt show any effort to improve himself.
When Ajrul is being good by doing anything
that is appropriate, reward him whenever he
participates or works
Reiterate the class rules regarding class
work. Praise Ajrul whenever he follows the
rule or active in the class.
Consider stronger reinforces. If praise is
ineffective, use points, tokens, or other
tangible to reinforce and shape Ajruls
improvement.
Set up an agreement with Ajrul. Identify a
reward that is exceptionally attractive to
him. Outline what he must do in order to
earn the reward.

GLASSER
Teacher enters the class and conduct teaching. While
teaching, there are a group of pupils misbehave and
interrupts the learning process.

Teacher asks them in a friendly


tone to state what they had done
and to evaluate the effect of their
actions had on themselves, their
classmates and teacher. They are
further asked to identify and
commit themselves to subsequent
behaviour that will be more
appropriate

GORDON

Teacher saw Renuka enter the room one day, she could sense
the girl's anger and frustration. When the teacher questioned
Renuka, the young woman responded: "Nothing's wrong and I
don't want to talk about it." The teacher replied, "OK, but if you
feel you need an ear, I have a free period later today." That
afternoon, Renuka did share her feelings and the teacher was
able to help Renuka find a way to solve her problem.

Active
listenin
g

Teacher can use


active listening
method to allow
the students to
express their
feelings and
problems

State whether the


theories appeal
to you and provide
reasons

JACOB KOUNIN

SKINNER

GLASSER

GORDON

Yes, because Jacob


Kounin
focuses on the ways of
how the teacher manages
the class and this is the
first way to take control
over the class.

No, if the teacher uses


behaviour modification
as the primary approach to
discipline.

Yes, Help students see what


behaviour they can control
and make plans to reach
attainable goals

Yes, Problem solving is a


process that should be
taught and practiced in all
classrooms

We agree that classroom


management should start
from the teacher and not
only blaming on the pupils
negative behavior.

This is because if the


lesson plan is perfect, it
does not mean that the
pupils will learn from it if the
teacher fails to control the
class.
Teacher must have an
awareness in his classroom
and by using effective
lesson management

We agree that it was little


Teacher can choose
more than bribing students behaviours that will help
to behave properly.
students meet their needs
more effectively in the future

However, if teachers do
not use reinforcement as
an approach to discipline,
they still can make use of
rewards such as praise
and approval to motivate
and support students.

Pupils are more motivated


and confident when they feel
they have more control over
their environment (selfcontrolled)
Mutual respect and trust
relationship are build

By helping children find


their own solutions to
problems, it will foster more
independence, more
control over their own
destiny, and higher selfesteem.

Administrators and
teachers can concentrate
more on education and
less on discipline.
Teachers will make
schooling far more
interesting, prevent
disciplinary problems, and
foster higher achievement
motivation

CONCLUSION
In conclusion, the theory proposed by each theory is very
effective in promoting a conducive atmosphere to learning.
The strategies suggested are very helpful in dealing with
the students misbehaviors. However, the teacher should
be aware that each student is different, thus the teacher
needs to modify or improves the techniques to make it
compatible with the students