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PROCUREMENT AND

INSTALLATION OF POWER
TRADING FACILITY IN HMT

ROHITH P
(19110040)
UNMESH
N(19110049)

CONTENT

INTRODUCTION

COMPANI PROFILE HMT KALAMASSERY

ELECTRICITY ACT 2003

POWER TRADING OR OPEN ACCESS

NEED FOR OPEN ACCESS

CATEGORIZATION OF OPEN ACCESS CUSTOMERS

CURRENT SCENARIO HMT

CASE STUDY IN TCC

FACILITIES REQUERED FOR OPEN ACCESS

FEASIBILITY OF OPEN ACCESS IN HMT

SUMMARY

INTRODUCTION
Currently HMT is purchasing power from KSEB
on Two Part Tariff basis with a contract
demand of 2900KW.
Supply of power is a monopoly of KSEB in the
state of Kerala.
EA 2003 give the freedom to the industries to
buy the power through power exchanges
The KSEB rates are fixed and we cant
bargain. But, Power trading allows a customer
to bid in a reasonable rate of his interest.

INTRODUCTION (CONTIN.)

In 2012 KSEB has imposed 25% Load shedding for EHT


consumers. Every year during summer KSEB imposing load
shedding open access ensure continuous supply of power

There are a number of companies in Kerala like Travancore


Cochin Chemicals (TCC) and Binani Zinc are engaged in open
access and they are making profit out of that.

OBJECTIVE OF PROJECT
To understand the mechanism of interflow of
electricity among different regions and within state
and put forth this information in the form of grant of
connectivity and intra-state open access regulations
for HMT Machine tools Ltd, Kalamassery after
correlating the intricacies of this mechanism.
To understand the various methods of pricing of open
access customers
To understand the regulations of CERC and KSERC
To study the requirements of open access
Compare the cost of energy of KSEB and open access
rates

SCOPE OF THE PROJECT


power failure will get enhanced in order to meet the
demand of the load, open access offer equal amount of
power during that period. This will lead to the continuous
production of power without any lagging.
Power trading leads to a competition in the power
market. This make the DISCOMS more responsible and
competition lead to reduction in rates
It is an emerging concept in power market, this project
leads to the study of power trading and the detailed
procedure for the implementation.
Since the unit price provided by the K.S.E.B is
comparatively higher, so more companies will get into
power trading.
Power that produce at any corner of India can be
accessible through power trading.

HMT KALAMASSERY
Hindustan Machine Tools Ltd, a leading public
sector undertaking commenced its production
during 1955-56 at its factory in Bangalore. It
started with one type of machine tool, the H22
lathes.
At present the company has 11 factories and 19
units.
HMT Kalamassery was commissioned on 2nd
October 1964, with its headquarters at Bangalore.
HMT kalamassery was awarded with ISO 9001
certificate for proficiency in design, production
and marketing areas.
Among the 19 units of H.M.T Ltd all over India,
H.M.T Kalamassery is one of the outstanding units
-

PRODUCT RANGE OF MACHINE TOOLS IN


KALAMASSERY
1. CNC turning Centre
2. Turn mill Centre
3. Flexible turning cells
4. Copying lathes
5. Centre lathes
6. Offset printing presses
7. Cutting machines

MAJOR CUSTOMERS OF HMT

DEFENCE

RAILWAY

AUTOMOBILES etc.

ELECTRICITY ACT 2003

EA 2003 is a watershed in Indian power sector

The main features of the act are as follows


Consumers with contract demand more than 1MW are eligible for
open access

Open access in transmission with provision for surcharge for taking


care of current level of cross subsidy, with the surcharge being
gradually phased out.

The state government required to unbundle State Electricity boards.


However they may continue with them as distribution licensees and
state transmission utilities

Setting up state electricity regulatory commission (SERC) made


mandatory

Metering of electricity supplied made mandatory

Central government to prepare National Electricity Policy and tariff


Policy

Central electricity authority (CEA) to prepare National electricity


plan

Market Structure Prior to


Electricity Act, 2003
(Bundled)
CGS
CGS

SEB
Generation
Generation
++
Transmission
Transmission
++
Distribution
Distribution

IPP
IPP

Govt
GovtConsent
Consent

Consumer
Consumer
11

Market Structure after Electricity


Act, 2003

CGS

STATE
GENCO

Trader
Trader

IPP

Discom
Consumer
12

POWER TRADING OR
OPEN
ACCESS
As per Electricity Act 2003 Open Access is
Non-discriminatory provision for the
use of transmission lines or distribution
system or associated facilities with
such lines or system by any licensee or
consumer or a person engaged in
generation in accordance with the
regulations
specified
by
the
Appropriate Commission.
Consumers with contract demand more
than 1MW are eligible for open access
The minimum volume that can be bided
is 0.1MW.

NEED FOR OPEN ACCESS

Electric Networks in India are natural monopoly open access


Breaks monopoly status

To introduce competition for the Power Market in India RegulationIncreased competition leading to efficient operation and thereby
reduced tariffs and better quality of power in the state.

Providing access non discrimination

Expected benefits of open access:

Optimum utilization of the network and efficiency gains through


increased system

NEED FOR OPEN ACCESS

strengthening investments

Unlocking of the unused / economic capacities in the sector.

Sale of surplus Captive capacity to third parties to improve


the availability and reliability of supply and reduce unmet
demand as well as maximize capacity utilization.

Provide licensees the freedom to source power from


alternative sources in a competitive

Categorization of open access


customers

1. Inter State Open Access: When buying and selling entity


belongs to different states. In this case CERC regulations are
followed. It is further categorized as:

(a)Long-term access customer (LTOA): A long-term open access


customer is one who avails open access for a period of 12 years
to 25 years.

(b) Medium-term open access customer (MTOA): A medium-term


open access customer is one who avails open access for a period
of 3 months to 3 years.

(c) Short-term open access customer (STOA): A short-term open


access customer is one who avails open access for a period of
one month and below.

2. Intra State Open Access: When buying and selling entity


belongs to same state. In this case SERC regulations are
followed. It is further categorized as STOA, MTOA, and LTOA and
the duration of which depends on the respective state open
access regulations

TYPES OF TRANSACTIONS
Bilateral Transactions
A PPA (Power Purchase
Agreement) is signed
between the buyer and
seller, which are
generally facilitated by
a trader for a little
margin.

Collective
transactions
The electricity is traded
through exchanges, by
exchange members for
a very small margin
fixed by commission

THE VARIOUS OPPORTUNITIES FAVOURING


OPEN ACCESS
Load Shedding : Due to large demand-supply gap, distribution
companies are forced to cut the power supply of the industrial
consumers. Due to which industrial consumers are forced to
run on diesel which will cost them around Rs 13/unit
High Industrial Tariff : Industries are facing a very high
industrial tariff. In some states like Maharashtra tariff for
industrial consumers is as high as Rs 7.01/unit, in Punjab tariff
for industrial consumers is Rs 6.33/unit
Cheaper Power:If any consumer buys power through Power
Exchange or Bilateral Transactions then he can save around
15-20% of his electricity bills. Last year average tariff for
electricity at IEX was Rs 3.17/unit.

VARIOUS OPEN ACCESS CHARGES


POINT OF CONNECTION
CHARGE
(PAISE/UNIT)
NLDC OPERATING
CHARGE
(RS/DAY)
SLDC OPERATING
CHARGE
(RS/DAY)
NLDC APPLICATION FEE
(RS/DAY)
IEX TRANSACTION FEE
(PAISE/UNIT)
PTCIL TRANSACTION
FEE
(PAISE/UNIT)

12.35

Determined by NLDC once


in 6 months

200

Fixed charges irrespective


of energy transacted

2000

Fixed charges irrespective


of energy transacted

Fixed charges irrespective


of energy transacted

CROSS SUBSIDY

Nil for 66KV

WHEELING CHARGE
(PAISE/UNIT)

0.19

Determined by KSERC

SERVICE TAX (%)

12.36

NOC CHARGE
(Rs/ MONTH)

5000

Determined by KSERC

CERC REGULATIONS FOR OPEN


ACCESS
open access shall be allowed on payment of a surcharge in
addition to the charges for wheeling as may be determined
by the State Commission:
Provided further that such surcharge shall be utilized to
meet the requirements of current level of cross subsidy
within the area of supply of the distribution licensee:
Provided also that such surcharge and cross subsidies shall
be progressively reduced in the manner as may be specified
by the State Commission:
Provided also that such surcharge shall not be applicable in
case open access is provided to a person who has
established a captive generating plant for carrying the
electricity to the destination of his own use

Role of different agencies


1. NLDC (National Load Dispatch Centre)
A center at the national level, to be known as the National Load Dispatch
Centre for optimum scheduling and dispatch of electricity among the
Regional Load Dispatch Centers
The functions of NLDC is prescribed by the Central Government.
2. RLDC (Regional Load Dispatch Centre)
As per EA 2003 The Central Government shall establish a center for each
region to be
known as the RLDC
The RLDC shall be operated by a Government company or any authority or
corporation established or constituted by or under any Central Act.
RLDC having territorial jurisdiction as determined by the Central
Government in accordance with section 25 for the purposes of exercising
the powers and discharging the functions

3. SLDC (State Load Dispatch Centre)


The State Government shall establish a Centre to be known as the SLDC
for the purposes of exercising the powers and discharging the functions.
It is operated by a Government company or any authority or corporation
established or constituted by or under any State Act
4. CTU (Central Transmission Utility)
The Central Government may notify any Government company as the
Central Transmission Utility - PGCIL
One of the functions of CTU Utility is to provide nondiscriminatory
Open Access to its transmission system
5. STU (State Transmission Utility)
The State Government may notify the Board or a Government company
as
the State Transmission Utility.
One of the functions of State Transmission Utility is to provide
nondiscriminatory

POWER EXCHANGES
Power Exchange is a common platform where buyers &
sellers of Electricity come together for trade
Aims of Power Exchange are to retrieve the excess
generation from surplus region and transmit to a deficit
region
Power exchanges changed Indian power market by
Evenly distributing transmission losses at both ends.
Enabling participants to hedge against UI risks.
Guaranteeing secure & timely payment to sellers.
Generously improving the market environment to
encourage investment in new generation capacity,
thus helping make India a power-surplus country.

At present, two power exchanges are operational in India,


namely Indian Energy Exchange (IEX) and Power Exchange of

INDIAN ENERGY EXCHANGE (IEX)

Indian Energy Exchange (IEX) is the first and largest


power exchange in India.

TheIndian Energy Exchange(IEX)was granted approval


to operate as an automated electronic trading exchange
by the regulator, CERC, on June 9, 2008

One year later IEX had recorded 37.4 million transactions,


the same month that electricity prices on the exchange
hit a record low 13 paisa/KWh.

Salient features
India's No. 1 power exchange with 86% market
share.
Average Daily Volume for Q1 FY 2011 - 20,921 MWh
Highest turnover reported in the Day Ahead Market
in fiscal 2010 was 31,429 MWh on 19 February 2010
The exchange has 29 state utilities, 110 Private
generators and over 145 direct consumers
participating for better managing their energy
portfolio.

IEX Bid Areas

POWER EXCHANGE INDIA LTD


(PXIL)
Power Exchange India Limited (PXIL)is Indias
first institutionally promoted Power Exchange
that provides innovative and credible solutions
to transform the Indian Power Markets.
PXIL is India's first and only Quality
Management System with ISO 9001:2008"
certified Power Exchange in the country.

IEX DAY-AHEAD MARKET


It is the daily based double side closed auction for
delivery on the following day
Day Ahead Market operations will be carried out in
accordance with the Procedure for scheduling of
collective transactions issued by the Central
Transmission Utility (PGCIL), CERC (Open Access in interState Transmission) Regulations, 2008
Minimum allowable quantity for buy/ sell is 0.1 MW
Minimum quotation Rs. 1 per MWh

TERM AHEAD MARKET


Term Ahead Market provides an opportunity to
the market participants to trade in contracts
with various underlying such as Weeks, Months,
Quarters, Contingency and Intraday etc.
CERC has given its final approval to launch Term
Ahead Contracts on 31st August, 2009 .

BIDDING LINE DIAGRAM

PTC TRADING PLATFORM


The industry which has agreement with PTC
India Ltd can trade through their website.
It is an automated trading platform and the
consumers are provided with a unique id and
password and by using that they can access this
facility.
The bidding volume and the duration should
provide at the appropriate boxes as shown in the
figure.

PROCEDURE FOR POWER


TRADING

Procurement of NOC from KSEB(From The Chief engineer,


System operation, Kalamassery) Reply within 3 days.

Selecting the trader PTC INDIA Ltd


NOC to be send to the trading company
Signing of agreement with trader.
Client registration form to be signed
Service charge of 1 lakh + tax to be paid in advance
Commission of 1 paisa per unit
Signing of risk disclosure document
Initial deposit to be paid in advance Account with
sufficient balance
Trading license can be obtained (if required) by a
payment of 15 lakh rupees.

HOW TRADING HAPPENS????

TREATMENT OF LOSSES FOR OPEN


ACCESS

CURRENT SCENARIO IN HMT


The HMT Machine Tools Ltd Kalamassery has a 66kv
substation with a maximum demand of 2900kVA.
The monthly consumption is about 300,000 units and the
tariff is Two Part Tariff.
The current metering system is ToD (Time of Day)
metering.
The CT and PT used are of 0.5s accuracy class.
In kerala the HT/EHT consumers tariff is TWO PART
TARIFF

TWO PART TARIFF

Electrical energy is charged on the basis of MD and the units


consumed

the total charge to be made from the consumer is split into two
components viz., fixed charges and running charges.

Billing demand is on the recorded MD for the month or 75% of the CD


whichever is higher

PF incentive/disincentive
0.25 per unit/ Rs.1 per unit for 0.01%

Classified into 3 zones: CHARGES(EHT)


Normal period: 6AM-6PM

Rs.4.4/unit

Peak hours: 6PM-10PM Rs.6.6/unit


Off peak: 10PM-6AM Rs.3.3/unit

ToD Metering
records demand, time, and energy Usage
Different charges for zones
Decreases rate of overloading at peak hours
The metering option benefits utility companies by
decreasing the required capacity
benefits customers by providing reduced demand
and usage rates during off-peak times
UTILITY COMPAY offers incentives to customers that
are willing to shift

HMT Substation
o 66 kv incomer
o 2 CT(75-150/5A)
o 3 PT(66KV/110V)
o 2 CT
o 3 PT
o 5MVA Transformer

Monthly Consumption Graph

EHT TARIFF FOR HMT

POWER FACTOR INCENTIVE /


DISINCENTIVE

LIST OF
TRANSFORME
RS

CASE STUDY IN TRAVANCORE COCHIN CHEMICALS (TCC)


TCC is the first State public sector company to have opted
for power through power exchange.
The company being a power-intensive unit consumes
about 4.5 lakh units per day and pays a power bill of
about Rs.6 - 6.5 crore every month. It is about 30 times
of HMTs daily consumption.
TCC got permission for open access for 3 months as a trial
period and they are trading with PTC INDIA LTD. For these
3 months they made a savings of 90 lakhs.
The contract demand of TCC is 25MW and they have
obtained an NOC from KSEB for an amount of only 15MW.

BIDDING COMMITTEE
The members are:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Finance controller
AGM (Production)
Sales head
Maintenance head
GM (technical)

COMPONENTS OF 110KV SUBSTATION AT TCC

1. Transformer: 25MVA, 110/11KV


2. Current Transformer: 123KV, 250A, 50VA, .2S
class
3. Potential Transformer: 110kv/110V, 100VA, .2S
class
4. ABT Meter: Secure Apex 100

FACILITIES REQUIRED FOR OPEN


The
CT and PT of accuracy class 0.5 should be replaced
ACCESS
with CT/PT of accuracy class 0.2 as per the regulation of
KSERC.
The current ToD Meter to be replaced with accurate ABT
1. ABT METERING
Meter which enables the metering in 15 minute slots.
. The accuracy will not drift with time
Fixed charges
Running charges
UI CHARGES
. PENALTY FOR UNSCHEDULED INTERCHANGE
. Reduces high frequency deviations
i.e frequency decrease in PEAK hrs and
frequency increase in OFF PEAK
. Wide variety of display parameters

initially applicable to CGS having more than one SEB


as its beneficiary.
ABT concerns itself with the tariff structure for bulk
power and brings more responsibility and
accountability in power generation and consumption
through a scheme of incentives and disincentives.
CERClooks forward to improve quality of power and
Unacceptably rapid and high frequency causing
damage and disruption to large scale industrial
consumers
Frequent grid disturbances resulting in generators
tripping, power outages and power grid
disintegration.

ABT FEATURES
ABT brings about enhanced grid discipline
Stabilizes grid frequency
Economically viable power with right pricing
Promote competition and efficiency
Encourage Economic Dispatch in India
Addressing grid disturbance issues
Sequential implementation
Readings in every 15 minute
Chance for communication and rescheduling

CURRENT TRANSFORMER
TheCurrent Transformer(CT) produce an alternating
current in its secondary winding which is proportional to the
current being measured in its primary.
reduce high voltage currents to a much lower value and
provide a convenient way of safe monitoring
ACCURACY CLASS OF CT
The accuracy of a CT is directly related to a number of factors
including:
Burden

The secondary load of a current transformer is usually


called the "burden" to distinguish it from the load of the
circuit whose current is being measured.

The burden, in a CT meteringcircuitis the impedance presented to its


secondary winding.
indicates the amount of resistance (in ohms) and inductance (in millihenries) which may be connected to its secondary without causing a
metering error greater than specified by its accuracy classification.
by converting each device into terms of volt amperes and power factor

Typical burden ratings for CTs are 1.5 VA, 3 VA, 5 VA, 10 VA, 15 VA, 20
VA, 30 VA, 45 VA and 60 VA.

Knee-point core-saturation voltage


Theknee-point voltageof a current transformer is the magnitude of the
secondary voltage above which the output current ceases to linearly
follow the input current within declared accuracy.
The knee point is defined as the voltage at which a 10% increase in
applied voltage increases the magnetizing current by 50%.
Rating factor
Rating factor is a factor by which the nominal full load current of a CT can
be multiplied to determine its absolute maximum measurable primary
current.
the minimum primary current a CT can accurately measure is 10% of the
nominal current

Phase shift
Ideally the secondary current of a current transformer should be
perfectly in phase with the primary current.
Practcally as low as a few tenths of a degree
Metering Class CT
Class
0.1
0.2

Applications
To

Precision measurements

0.5

High grade kilowatt hour meters for commercial grade kilowatt


hour meters

General industrial measurements

3 OR 5

Approximate measurements

POTENTIAL TRANSFORMER
Usedfor stepping down the system voltage
to a safe value which can be fed to low
ratings meters and relays.
The secondary voltage of the PT is
generally 110V
Ideally, when rated burden connected
across the secondary, Vs/Vp is equal to the
turns ratio and the two terminal voltages
are in precise phase opposite to each
other.

FEASIBILITY OF POWER TRADING


CALCULATIONS
IN HMT
KSEB ELECTRICITY

BILL

TOTAL DEMEND
CHARGE
ENERGY
CHARGE
-NORMAL
ENERGY
CHARGE-PEAK
ENERGY
CHARGE- OFF
PEAK
TOTAL ENERGY
CHARGES
PF
INCENTIVES/PE
NALTY
ELECTRICITY
DUTY
ELECTRICITY
SURCHARGE

UNIT
2175

RATE
300

AMOUNT
652500

198800

4.4

874720

25500

6.6

35000

3.3

168300

115500

1158520

-8688.90

259300

0.1

25930

259300

0.025

6482.5

BILLING VIA OPEN ACCESS


ITEM
ENERGY CHARGE
E1
E2
E3

UNIT

198800
25500
35000

RATE

3.3
4.0
2.8

TOTAL AMOUNT

656040
102000
98000

WHEELING CHARGES

259300

.19ps/UNIT

49267

POC WITHDRAWL
CHARGE
NLDC APPLICATION
CHARGE
NLDC OPERATING
CHARGE

259300

0.1235ps/UNIT

32023

4 Rs/DAY

120

200 PER DAY

6000

SLDC OPERATING
CHARGE
IEX TRANSACTION
FEES
PTC TRANSACTION
FEES
NOC CHARGES
TOTAL
SERVICE TAX

2000 PER DAY

60000

259300

1 PS PER UNIT

2593

259300

1 PS PER UNIT

2593

5000 PER MONTH

12.36% OF TOTAL

5000
1013686
125277

1138843

TOTAL AMOUNT FOR


OPEN ACCESS

IEX MARKET CLEARNG PRCE(august 2013)


8aug

19

12aug 13aug

14aug

4300.09

3608.87

2249.71

3499.9

3494.93

3492.5

18:15018:30

4017.81

4300.22

3608.08

2000.56

3499.88

3495.43

3496.38

4017.88

4300.22

3608.08

2000.56

3499.88

3495.43

3496.38

4018.07

4300.22

3608.08

2000.56

3499.88

3495.43

3496.38

4018.2

4300.22

3608.08

2000.56

3499.88

3495.43

3496.38

19:30019:45

4000.55

4300.22

3607.97

2000.56

3499.87

3495.4

3496.19

19:45020:00

4000.55

4300.22

3607.97

2000.56

3499.87

3495.4

3496.19

20:00020:15

4000.55

4300.22

3607.97

2000.56

3499.87

3495.4

3496.21

4000.55

4300.22

3607.97

2000.56

3499.87

3495.4

3496.21

4000.47

3510.29

1749.6

3000.2

3499.33

3495.03

3492.66

21:00021:15

4000.47

3510.29

1750

3000.2

3499.33

3495.03

3492.66

21:15021:30

4000.93

3510.01

2100.57

2800.82

3499.33

3495.02

3492.65

21:30021:45

4000.93

3510.01

2199.35

2800.82

3499.33

3495.02

3492.65

21:45022:00

4045.97

1498.09

1739.85

3110.01

3496.06

3494.24

3492.55

18:30018:45

20:15020:30
20:30020:45
20:45021:00

22

11aug

4008.59

19:00019:15
19:15019:30

21

10aug

18:00018:15

18:45019:00

20

9aug

Total monthly bill via open access = Maximum demand charges +


Total
amount for open access
=652500+1138843
=Rs.1791342

Savings= KSEB monthly bill - Monthly bill via open access


=1834744-1791342
=Rs.43401

CAPITAL INVESTMENT
ITEM

QUANTITY

TOTAL
(LAKHS)

UNIT
PRICE(LAKHS
)
1.2

CURRENT
TRANSFORMER
POTENTIAL
TRANSFORMER

1.2

3.6

ABT METER
PTC INITIAL CHARGE
INSTALLATION
CHARGE

2
1
1

OTHERS

TOTAL COST

11 LAKHS

2.4

SIMPLE PAY BACK PERIOD


Simple pay back period=
Total investment / Savings per month
=1100000/ 43400
=26 months
=2 years and 2 months

SUMMARY
CONCLUSION
Power trading is found to be feasible in HMT with a
simple payback period of about two years.
For power trading there is a considerable investment for
CT and PT of accuracy class 0.2 and ABT Meter of the
same class.
In 2012, KSEB imposed 25% load shedding for EHT
consumers. Open access allows HMT to overcome this and
hence to have a continuous supply of power.

Conclusion (cont.)
The process of power trading is very complex and it involves
many agencies like NLDC, RLDC, SLDC, CENTRAL TRANSMISSION
UTILITY, STATE TRANSMISSION UTILITY etc.

CERC, CEA and State Electricity Regulatory Commissions are


accountable for the regulation of power trading and open access
in India.

In India, power exchanges(IEX and PXIL) are the platform for the
trading of electricity

RECOMMONDATIONS
Continuous working of furnace
Proper communication between various departments
Proper planning of work shifts
Better utilization of off peak hours
Implement battery less solar panel on the top of General
Administrative Block of HMT

LIMITATION OF THE PROJECT


Power trading is very complex procedure
In different states , order of state regulatory commission
regards to power trading is not unique
Supply of power cannot be ensured but it depends on the
matching between the bidding prices
Contract demand with the electricity board cannot be reduced
Refund will not be permitted, if any sort of technical fault
occurs, or strike of workers initiates at the time of power
trading

FUTURE SCOPE OF THE PROJECT

Grid synchronization between New Grid and Southern Grid will


leads to reduction, based on the expense of electricity.

The charging of the 765kV line between Sholapur in


Maharashtra and Raichur in Karnataka will serve this purpose.

When Koodankulam Atomic Power plant attains its extremity in


production capacity, it will permit a boom to southern grid.
(planned maximum power generation capacity is 9200MW)

Govt. of India is planning to enhance the nuclear energy


contribution from 2% to 9% by 2025 and atomic plants like
Jaitapur in Maharashtra (ottal capacity of 9900MW)are a part of
this.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Electricity act 2003 ministry of power http://www.powermin.nic.in

Kerala State Electricity Regulatory Commission (Grant of Connectivity and


Open Access in intra-State Transmission /Distribution System and related
matters ) Regulations, 2012 - http://www.erckerala.org/

Central Electricity Authority(CEA) Metering Solutions http://


www.cea.nic.in

Open Access | Indian Power Sector http://indianpowersector.com

Central Electricity Regulatory Commission (Open Access in inter-State


Transmission) Regulations, 2008.

R.N.Nayak, Y.K.Sehgal and Manju Gupta,Change in Approach to Planning


and Operation of Power Systems under Open Access Regime - Indian
Experience. IEEE conference: Power Tech., 2005 Russia, 27-30 June 2005

Open Access In Inter State Transmission S.K Soonee (Chief


Executive Officer, Power System Operation Corporation)

International Conference On Power Systems, Icps2004,


Kathmandu, Nepal (P110): Electricity Trading In Competitive
Power

Market: An Overview And Key Issues by Prabodh Bajpai and S.


N. Singh

Rural Electrification Corp OfIndia - http://www.recindia.nic.in

Kerala State Electricity Board - www.kseb.in

Manikaran India Ltd - http://www.manikaranpowerltd.in/

Indian Energy Exchange(IEX) www.iexindia.com

NLDC http://www.nldc.in

PTC India Ltd. www.ptcindia.com

Electricity India, Vision 2027:Road Map for Sustainable Power


Development and Power Sector Directory Virendra
Kumar Sharma

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