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Matrices

Matrices

Geometric Concept

2

Addition

S=T+X

or

S=TX

Multiplication

4

Translation

Scaling

Rotation

Matrix Algebra

Definitions

Operations

Definition - scalar

Ex: 1,3, 5.5,

Matrix

A matrix is an array of numbers

a11 , , a1n

a , , a

2n

A 21

a ij

a

,

,

a

mn

m1

Denoted by Capital letters

All matrices have an order (or dimension):

that is, the number of rows the number of

columns. So, A is m by n or (m n).

2 1

1.A = 0 5

4 8

Dimension: 3x2

0 5 3 1

3. C =

2 0 9 6

1

2

2.B =

3

4

Dimension: 4x1

Dimension: 2x4

Definitions

same number of rows and columns (n

n).

one column.

row.

Matrix Equality

and the same number of columns

their corresponding elements are equal

2x y

1.

2x 3y 12

are equal, the

corresponding

elements are equal!

* Form two linear

equations.

Answer

2x y

2x 3y 12

3

x

2

y 3

3x y x 3

2.

2y

y

Answer

3x y x 3

x 2y y 2

x 1

y 1

Matrix Operations

Transposition

Addition and Subtraction

Scalar Multiplication

Matrix Multiplication

Inversion

T

A

matrix that is formed by interchanging

the rows and columns of the original

matrix.

Example of a transpose

Thus,

a11 a12

A a21 a22

a a

31 32

a11

a12

a21

a22

a31

a32

subtracted) iff they are in the same

order.

corresponding elements. So, A + B = C

yields.

(cont.)

a11

a

21

a31

a12

a22

a32

b21 b22 a21 b21

b31 b32 a31 b31

Then A B [aij ]mn [bij ]mn [aij bij ]mn

a12 b12

a22 b22

a32 b32

1 2 1 3 1 1 2 3 0 5

0 1 1 2 0 1 1 2 1 3

1 1

1 1

0

3 3 3 3 0

2 2

0

2 2

Scalar Multiplication

simply multiply each element of the

matrix by the scalar quantity.

a11 a12 ka11 ka12

Then kA [kaij ]mn

Matrix subtraction:

A B A (1) B

subtraction)

4

0 0

1 2

2

A 3 0 1

B 1 4 3

2

3 2

2 1

1

Find (a) 3A (b) B (c) 3A B

Solution:

(a)

3A 3

(b)

1 2 4 31 3 2

3 4 3 6 12

3 0 1 3 3 3 0 3 1 9 0 3

2 1 2 3 2 31

3 2 6 3

6

0

0

0 0

2

2

4 3

B 1 1 4 3 1

1 3 2

3 2

1

(c)

3A B

1 6 12

3 6 12 2

0 0

9 0 3 1 4 3 10 4 6

4

6 3

6 1

3 2 7 0

Matrix Multiplication

columns in the first matrix must equal

number of rows in the second matrix.

A

Ex.

B =

mxn nx

p

mxp

A

B

AB

dimensions

be?

2x3

3x4

2x4

A

5x3

B

5x2

AB

AB

Not

possible

How to multiply...

a

a

b c d = c

2x

1

1x

2

ad

2x2

How to multiply...

a

a

b c d = c

b

ad

bd

2x

1

1x

2

2x2

Thus

where

a a

x b b c

a

c

23

21 22

21 22 21 22

a31 a32 a33 b31 b32 c31 c32

c11 a11b11 a12 b21 a13b31

c12 a11b12 a12 b22 a13b32

c 21 a21b11 a22 b21 a23b31

c 22 a21b12 a22 b22 a23b32

c31 a31b11 a32 b21 a33b31

c32 a31b12 a32 b22 a33b32

Example 05

1

5

-1(4)+5(6) -1(-3)+5(8)

5(4)+2(6)

0(4)+(-4)6

5(-3)+2(8 =

)

0(-3)+(4)8

26 43

32

-24 -32

5 4 3

2 6 8

4

-4+

3+

30

40

20+12 -15+

16

0 -24

0 -32

3 9 2

2.

5 7 6

2 1

3 4

Dimensions: 2 x 3

2x

2

Multiplication is not defined

1 2 1

3. 1 3 2

2 6 1

x 1

y 7

z 8

x 2y z 1

x 3y 2z 7

2x 6y z 8

Special matrices

Diagonal

Null

Identity

Diagonal Matrix

has values on the diagonal with all offdiagonal entities being zero.

a11 0

0 a

22

0

0

0

0

0

0

a33

0

0

0

0

a44

Identity Matrix

where all diagonal elements equal one.

I=

1

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

A I = A= I A

zero.

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Properties

Properties of matrix addition and scalar

multiplication:

If A, B, C M , c, d : scalars

mn

(2) A + ( B + C ) = ( A + B ) + C

(3) ( cd ) A = c ( dA )

(4) 1A = A

(5) c( A+B ) = cA + cB

(6) ( c+d ) A = cA + dA

If A M mn ,

c : scalar

Then (1) A 0 mn A

(2) A ( A) 0 mn

(3) cA 0 mn c 0 or A 0 mn

Note:

(1)0mn: the additive identity for the set of all

mn matrices

(2)A: the additive inverse of A

Properties of transposes:

(1) ( AT )T A

(2) ( A B )T AT B T

(3) (cA)T c( AT )

(4) ( AB )T B T AT

Example 06:

0 1 2

If A a 0 3 is a skew-symmetric, find a,

b c 0 b, c?

Sol:

0 1 2

A a 0 3

b c 0

0 a b

AT 1 0 c

2 3 0

A AT a 1, b 2, c 3

Example 07:

Show thatAAT

is symmetric

:

AAT is symmetric

Real number:

ab =

(Commutative law for

ba

multiplication)

Matrix:

AB BA

mn n p

Three situations:

(1) If m p, then AB is defined, BA is undefined.

(2) If m p, m n, then AB M mm , BA M nn (Sizes are not the

(3) If m p n, then AB M mm , BA M mm

same)

not equal)

Properties

AB does not necessarily equal BA

(BA may even be an impossible operation)

For example,

(2 3)

B

(3 2)

(3 2) = (2 2)

A

(2 3) = (3 3)

A(BC) = (AB)C

by |A| (or det(A)).

Determinants exist only for square

matrices.

matrix

If A =

a11 a12

a

21 a22

Then

A a11a22 a12a21

Definition:

If A is a square matrix, then the minor of

entry aij is denoted by Mij and is defined to

be the determinant of the sub-matrix that

remains after the ith row and jth column are

deleted from A. The number (-1)i+jMij is

denoted by Cij and is called the cofactor of

a11 a12 a13

entry aij.

A= a21 a a

22

23

For 3x3 matrix

a31 a32 a33

M11 =

a22

a23

a

Example

A=

of a11 is:

The

cofactor of

a11 is:

The minor

of a23 is:

The

cofactor of

2 3

5 3

0 8

= 5X8 - 3X0=40

C11=(-1)i+jMij=(-1)2M11=M11=40

M23=

= 1X0 2X1=-2

C23=(-1)i+jMij=(-1)5M23 =-M23 =2

a11 a12 a13

a21 a22 a23

a31 a32 a33

C11= a22

a32

a23

C12= -

a21 a22 a23

a21

a23

a31

C13

=

a21

a22

a31

a33

= a11C11 +a12C12 +a13C13

And for nxn matrix: = a11C11 +a12C12 +..

+a1nC1n

a32

Example :

You can use any row or column to get the value of the

determinant

A=

1 0

2 -3

3 4

-1 5

+a14C14

2 -2

0 1

1

4

det(A)=(1 5

)

1

3

0

2 -2

- (0) -1

- (-3) -1

2 -2

1

3

+2

-1

= (1)(35)-0+(2)(62)-(-3)

(13)=198

5 -2

1

Properties of Determinants

properties which are useful in matrix

manipulations.

1 |A|=|AT|.

2. If a row or column of A = 0, then |A|= 0.

3. If every value of a row or column in a matrix

A is multiplied by k, then |new matrix| = k|

A|.

4. If two rows (or columns) are interchanged

the sign, but not value, of |A| changes.

5. If two rows or columns are identical, |A| = 0.

6. If two rows or columns are linear

combination of each other, |A| = 0

Properties of Determinants

7. |A| remains unchanged if each element of

a row or column is multiplied by a constant

and added to any other row.

8. |AB| = |A| |B|

9. Det of a diagonal matrix or upper

triangular (lower triangular) = product of

the diagonal elements

1

)

For an n n matrix A, there may be a

Matrix B such that

AB = I = BA.

The inverse is analogous to a reciprocal

A matrix which has an inverse is

nonsingular.

A matrix which does not have an inverse

A 0

is singular.

A1

(1) The inverse of A is

Note:

An inverse exists only if

denoted by

(2) AA1 A1 A I

50/61

B = C.

AB I

Pf:

C ( AB ) CI

(CA) B C

IB C

BC

Consequently, the inverse of a matrix is unique.

If

a b

A

c d

-1

1

det( A)

and |A| 0

d b

c a

Properties of inverse

matrices

AB

T 1

-1 1

B A

-1

A

-1

-1

The transpose of the matrix of cofactors from A is

called the adjoint of A, and it is denoted by

Adj(A).

c11 c12

Cofactor Matrix c21 c22

c31 c32

c11

Adj ( A) C T c12

c13

c21

c22

c23

c13

c23

c33

c31

c32

c33

Matrix?

If A is an invertible matrix, then

1

A

Adj(A)

det(A)

1

Note:

1.The square matrix A is invertible if and only if det(A)

is not zero.

2. If A is an n x n triangular matrix, then det(A) is the

product of the entries on the main diagonal of the

matrix.

Elimination:

55/61

| I Gauss

-Jordan

Eliminatio

n I | A1

1.

2.

3.

Multiply a row by a nonzero constant.

Replace a row with itself and a multiple

of another row.

matrix.

1 1 0

1 0 1

6 2 3

Solution:

1 1 0 1 0 0

A I 1 0 1 0 1 0

6 2 3 0 0 1

1 1

r '2 r 2 (1 ) r1

0

6

1 0 0

1 1 1 1 0

0

3

0 0 1

58/61

1 1 0 1 0 0

r3 ' r3 6 r1

0

1 1 1 1 0

0 4

3 6 0 1

Solution

59/61

1 1 0 1 0 0

r3 ' r3 4 r2

0

1 1 1 1 0

0 0 1 2 4 1

60/61

0 0

1 1 0 1

r3 ' ( 1) r3

0

1 1 1

1 0

0 0

1 2 4 1

61/61

0 0

1 1 0 1

r2 ' r2 r3

0

1 0 3 3 1

0 0 1 2 4 1

62/61

1 0 0 2 3 1

r1 ' r1 r2

0 1 0 3 3 1

0 0 1 2 4 1

[ I A1 ]

63/61

2 3 1

A1 3 3 1

2 4 1

Check to

verify1:

AA A1 A I

64/61

1 2 3

A 2 5 3

1 0 8

Sol:

1 2 3 1 0 0

A I 2 5 3 0 1 0

1 0 8 0 0 1

3 1 0 0

1 2

r '2 r 2 (2 ) r1 0 1 3 2 1 0

1 0

8 0 0 1

2

3 1 0 0

1

r '3 r 3 ( 1 ) r1 0

1 3 2 1 0

0 2

5 1 0 1

65/61

3 1 0 0

1 2

r '3 r 3 ( 2 ) r2 0 1 3 2 1 0

0 0 1 5 2 1

3 1

0 0

1 2

r '3 1 r3 0 1 3 2

1 0

0 0

1 5 2 1

0

0

1 2 3 1

r '2 r 2 3r3 0 1 0 13 5 3

0 0 1 5 2 1

66/61

6

3

1 2 0 14

r '1 r 1 3 r3 0 1 0 13 5 3

0 0 1

5 2 1

9

1 0 0 40 16

r '1 r1 2 r2

0 1 0 13 5 3

0 0 1

5 2 1

9

40 16

A1 13 5 3

5 2 1

67/61

(1) A0 I

(2) Ak AA

A

(k 0 positive integer)

k factors

(3) Ar A s Ar s

r , s : posivite integers

( Ar ) s Ars

d1 0

0 d

2

( 4) D

0 0

0

d1k

0

0

Dk

d n

0

0 0

d 2k 0

k

0 dn

Rank

rank(A) = number of linearly

independent rows

= the number of linearly

independent columns.

dependent if scalars c1, c2, , cn (not all

zero) can be found such that

c1a1 + c2a2 + + cnan = 0

Linear System

3x 2 y 5 z 3

2 x y 4 z 2

x 4 y 7z 1

equations and just pick off

the coefficients and put

them in a matrix it is

called a coefficient matrix.

3 2 5

A 2 1

4

1

4 7

Coefficient matrix

Augmented matrix

3x 2 y 5 z 3

2 x y 4 z 2

x 4 y 7z 1

matrix and then add a last

column with the constants,

it is called the augmented

matrix. Often the

constants are separated

with a line.

3

3 2 5

A 2 1

4 2

1

4 7 1

We use elementary row operations to make the matrix look

like the one below. The # signs just mean there can be any

number here---we dont care what.

1

0

#

1

0

#

#

1

#

#

"The Goal"

the variables back in and use back substitution to

get the solutions.

row echelon forms like one below.

Recall

echelon form:

We already

have 1

where we

need it.

1 2 1 1

3 5 1 3

2 6 7 1

The augmented matrix

3 and add to row 2 to get a 0.

The notation for this step is

r2 +(3)r1 we write it by the row

we replace in the matrix.

x 2y z 1

3x 5 y z 3

2x 6 y 7z 1

Work on this column first.

Get the 1 and then use it

as a tool to get zeros

below it with row

operations.

1

0

#

1

0

#

#

1

#

#

r2= r2+(-3)r1

3r1

+ r2

1 1

1 2

0 1 2 0

2 6

7 1

6 3

0 1 2

1

1 2

0 1 2

r3= r3 + (-2)r1

2r1

Now our

first column

is like our

goal.

1

0

2 4

+ r3 2

6

2

2 2

7 1

5 1

so well multiply row 2 by 1

r2=(-1)r2

1

1

1 2

0 1 2 0

0 2

5 1

below it by multiplying it by 2 and adding to

row 3

1 2 1 1

0 1 2 0

r3= r3 + (2)r2

0 0 1 1

2r2

0 2 4

+ r3 0

2

0

5 1

1 1

like we need it now

1

0

#

1

0

#

#

1

#

#

z column

y column

x column

1 2 1

0 1 2

equal signs

0 0 1 1

x 2

x x22 2y z11 1

y y

2 2z100

y2

z 1

Substitute 1 in for z in

second equation to find y

for y in first equation to find

Now well move to the third

x.

column and we see for our goal Solution is: (2 , 2 ,

we just need a 1 in the third row 1)

of the third column. We have it so

1

#

#

#

0 1 # #

time for back substitution. We

0 0 1 #

back in.

x 2y z 1

3x 5 y z 3

2x 6 y 7 z 1

Solution is: (2 , 2 ,

1)

make ALL THREE equations

true. Lets check it.

2 2 2 1 1

3 2 5 2 1 3

2 2 6 2 7 1 1

x 2y z 1

3x 5 y z 3

2x 6 y 7 z 1

Solution is: (2 , 2 ,

1)

intersect at a point, a unique solution.

form or reduced echelon form, and the process of

manipulating the equations to eliminate variables, is called:

Gaussian Elimination

3x 2 y 2 z 6

2x 3 y 4z 0

7 x 3 y 2 z 1

Echelon form

1 1

2

6

8 12

0 1 5

5

0 0 0 19

bottom equation then 0 = 19

a false statement!

INCONSISTENT - NO SOLUTION

Example:

5x 6 y z 4

2x 3y z 1

4x 3y z 5

Echelon form

1 3 2 1

0 1 1 1

0 0

0 0

put variables

back in

solve for x & y

x 3 y 2 z 1

y z 1

x t2

y t 1

z t

5x 4 y 2 z 6

3x 2 y 4 z 0

5 - 4 2 6

3 - 2 4 0

4 0

3 -2

r '1 (1 / 5 ) r1

r '2 r2 ( 3) r1

1

7 -9

0

r '2 ( 5 / 2 ) r2

4

2

6

x y z

5

5

5

y 7 z 9

then y = -9-7t

x=(4/5)(-9-7t)-(2/5)t+(6/5)=(-6)t+(-6)

1 2 3 1 2

3 1 2 4 1

2 3 5 1 3

r '2 r2 3 r1

r '3 r3 2 r1

r '2 1 / 7 r2

1 2 3 1 2

0 7 7 7 7

0 1 1 1 1

1

0

2

1

0 1

3

1

1

1 2

1 1

1 1

r '3 r3 r2

1 2 3 1 2

0 1 1 1 1

0 0 0 0 0

x t 3s 4

y t s 1

z t

ws

system if the linear system has a unique

solution

Cramers Rule

has a coefficient matrix with a nonzero

determinant,

A

then thedet(

solution

of det(

theAsystem

is given

by

A1 )

det( A

2)

n)

x1

, x2

, , xn

,

det( A)

det( A)

det( A)

where the ith column of Ai is the column of

constants in the system of equations.

a11

a11 x1 a12 x2 a13 x3 b1

A3

a

x

a

x

a

x

a21

21 1 22 2

23 3

2

3

A

a x a x a x b

a31

3

31 1 32 2 33 3

a12

a22

a32

b1

b2

b3

a11

a21

a31

a12

a22

a32

a13

a23

a33

Example

3-100

equation

x 2 y 3z 1

2x

z 0

3x 4 y 4 z 2

Sol:

1

2 3

A 2

0

1 10 0 (the system has an unique solution)

3 4

4

3

8

1

2 3

y , z

2

5

0

0

1

A1

2 4

4 (2)(1)(2) (4)(1)(1) 8 4

x

A

10

10

10 5

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