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KULIAH VII

ARSITEKTUR DAN ISSUE


LINGKUNGAN

HUMAN
SOCIETY (MASYARAKAT MANUSIA)
HARUS
Modern concepts of architecture
DIANGGAP
DARI
EKOSISTEM
The great 19th SEBAGAI
century architectBAGIAN
of skyscrapers,
Louis Sullivan,
promoted anDAN
overriding precept
to architectural
design:
"Form follows function".
BAGIAN
DARI
LINGKUNGAN
While the notion that structural and aesthetic considerations should be entirely
subject to functionality was met with both popularity and skepticism, it had the effect
of introducing the concept of "function" in place of Vitruvius "utility". "Function" came
to be seen as encompassing all criteria of the use, perception and enjoyment of a
building, not only practical but also aesthetic, psychological and cultural.
Nunzia Rondanini stated, "Through its aesthetic dimension architecture goes
beyond the functional aspects that it has in common with other human sciences.
Through its own particular way of expressing values, architecture can stimulate and
influence social life without presuming that, in and of itself, it will promote social
development.'
To restrict the meaning of (architectural) formalism to art for art's sake is not only
reactionary; it can also be a purposeless quest for perfection or originality which
degrades form into a mere instrumentality".[17]
Among the philosophies that have influenced modern architects and their approach
to building design are rationalism, empiricism, structuralism, poststructuralism, and
phenomenology
In the late 20th century a new concept was added to those included in the compass
of both structure and function, the consideration of sustainability. To satisfy the
modern ethos a building should be constructed in a manner which is
environmentally friendly in terms of the production of its materials, its impact upon
the natural and built environment of its surrounding area and the demands that it
makes upon non-sustainable power sources for heating, cooling, water and waste
management and lighting.

The dissatisfaction with such a general situation at the turn of the twentieth century
HUMAN
SOCIETY
MANUSIA)
HARUS
gave rise
to many new(MASYARAKAT
lines of thought that served
as precursors to
Modern Architecture.
Notable among
these is the
Deutscher
Werkbund, formed
in
DIANGGAP
SEBAGAI
BAGIAN
DARI
EKOSISTEM
DAN
1907 to produce better quality machine made objects. The rise of the profession of
DARI
industrial designBAGIAN
is usually placed
here. LINGKUNGAN
Following this lead, the Bauhaus school, founded in Germany in 1919, consciously
rejected history and looked at architecture as a synthesis of art, craft, and
technology.
When Modern architecture was first practiced, it was an avant-garde movement with
moral, philosophical, and aesthetic underpinnings. Immediately after World War I,
pioneering modernist architects sought to develop a completely new style
appropriate for a new post-war social and economic order, focused on meeting the
needs of the middle and working classes. They rejected the architectural practice of
the academic refinement of historical styles which served the rapidly declining
aristocratic order.
The approach of the Modernist architects was to reduce buildings to pure forms,
removing historical references and ornament in favor of functionalist details.
Buildings that displayed their construction and structure, exposing steel beams and
concrete surfaces instead of hiding them behind traditional forms, were seen as
beautiful in their own right. Architects such as Mies van der Rohe worked to create
beauty based on the inherent qualities of building materials and modern construction
techniques, trading traditional historic forms for simplified geometric forms,
celebrating the new means and methods made possible by the Industrial Revolution.
Many architects resisted Modernism, finding it devoid of the decorative richness of
ornamented styles. As the founders of the International Style lost influence in the
late 1970s, Postmodernism developed as a reaction against the austerity of
Modernism. Robert Venturi's contention that a "decorated shed" (an ordinary
building which is functionally designed inside and embellished on the outside) was

HUMAN
SOCIETY
HARUS
] Architecture
today (MASYARAKAT MANUSIA)
Main article: Contemporary
architecture
DIANGGAP
SEBAGAI
BAGIAN DARI EKOSISTEM DAN
Part of the architectural profession, and also some non-architects, responded to
BAGIAN DARI
Modernism and Postmodernism
by goingLINGKUNGAN
to what they considered the root of the
problem. They felt that architecture was not a personal philosophical or aesthetic
pursuit by individualists; rather it had to consider everyday needs of people and use
technology to give a livable environment. The Design Methodology Movement
involving people such as Christopher Alexander started searching for more peopleoriented designs. Extensive studies on areas such as behavioral, environmental,
and social sciences were done and started informing the design process.
As the complexity of buildings began to increase (in terms of structural systems,
services, energy and technologies), architecture started becoming more multidisciplinary. Architecture today usually requires a team of specialist professionals,
with the architect being one of many, although usually the team leader.
During the last two decades of the twentieth century and into the new millennium,
the field of architecture saw the rise of specializations by project type, technological
expertise or project delivery methods. In addition, there has been an increased
separation of the 'design' architect [a] from the 'project' architect.[b]
Moving the issues of environmental sustainability into the mainstream is a significant
development in the architecture profession. Sustainability in architecture was
pioneered in the 1970s by architects such as Ian McHarg in the US and
Brenda and Robert Vale in the UK and New Zealand. There has been an
acceleration in the number of buildings which seek to meet green building
sustainable design principles. It is now expected that architects will integrate
sustainable principles into their projects.[19] An example of an architecturally
innovative green building is the Dynamic Tower which will be powered by
wind turbines and solar panels.[20]

Sociological changes, new technology in industry and commerce, new building codes, other new
laws and regulations, inflationary economies of nations, and advances in building technology
place an ever-increasing burden on building designers and constructors.
They need more and more knowledge and skill to cope with the demands placed on them.
PRINCIPLES OF ARCHITECTURE
A building is an assemblage that is firmly attached to the ground and that provides total or nearly
total shelter for machines, processing equipment, performance of human activities, storage of
human possessions, or any combination of these.
Building design is the process of providing all information necessary for construction of a
building that will meet its owners requirements and also satisfy public health, welfare, and safety
requirements.
Architecture is the art and science of building design.
Building construction is the process of assembling materials to form a building. Building
design may be legally executed only by persons deemed competent to do so by the state in
which the building is to be constructed. Competency is determined on the basis of education,
experience, and ability to pass a written test of design skills.
Architects are persons legally permitted to practice architecture. Engineers are experts in
specific scientific disciplines and are legally permitted to design parts of buildings; in some cases,
complete buildings. In some states, persons licensed as building designers are permitted to
design certain types of buildings.
Building construction is generally performed by laborers and craftspeople engage for the purpose
by an individual or organization, called a contractor. The contractor signs an agreement, or
contract, with the building owner under which the contractor agrees to construct a specific
building on a specified site and the owner agrees to pay for the materials and services provided.

FUNGSI BANGUNAN
KONSEP BANGUNAN MODERN JAUH LEBIH KOMPLEKS DARI ARSITEKTUR
VERNAKULAR
SECARA FUNGSIONAL ARSITEKTUR HARUS SESUAI HARAPAN, HARAPAN
TERHADAP ARSITEKTUR TUMBUH SANGAT CEPAT
FUNGSI YANG DIHARAPKAN PADA SAAT INI:
MENYEDIAKAN most of the immediate necessities bagi metabolisme pengguna
(manusia): udara bersih (pernafasan); air bersih (makan, minum), pembersih; In many
types of buildings, facilities for the preparation and consumption of food; Removal and
recycling of wastes, including excrement, wash water, food wastes, and rubbish
Menciptakan kondisi yang diperlukan untuk human thermal comfort:

A. Control of the mean radiant temperature


B. Control of the air temperature
C. Control of the thermal characteristics of surfaces contacted directly by the human body
D. Control of humidity and the flow of water vapor
E. Control of air circulation

to create the necessary conditions for nonthermal sensory comfort, efficiency, and privacy:

A. Optimal seeing conditions


B. Visual privacy
C. Optimal hearing conditions
D. Acoustical privacy

to control the entry and exit of living creatures of every kind, from viruses to elephants,
including human beings. in a useful, economical manner.

to distribute concentrated energy to convenient points for use in powering various


lights, tools, and appliances.
to provide up-to-date channels of connection and communication with the world
outside: windows, telephones, mailboxes, computer networks, video cables, satellite
dishes, and so on.
to facilitate bodily comfort, safety, and productive activity by providing useful surfaces:
floors, walls, stairs, shelves, countertops, benches, and the like.
to provide stable support for the weights of all the people, belongings, and
architectural devices in the building and to provide sufficient structural resistance to
the physical forces of snow, wind, and earthquake.
to protect its own structure, surfaces, internal mechanical and electrical systems, and
other architectural devices from wetting by precipitation or other water.
to adjust to its own normal movements, such as foundation settlement, thermal
expansion and contraction, and movement induced by changes in moisture content of
building materials, without damage to itself or its contents.
to furnish reasonable protection to its occupants, its contents, and itself against
damage by fire.
to be built without excessive expense or difficulty.
to be capable of being operated, maintained, and changed in a useful, economical
manner.

In the design of a building, architects should be guided by the following principles:


1. Bangunan harus bisa dikonstruksi
dikehendaki.

untuk menunjang tujuan penggunaan

yang

2. Rancangan harus bisa di konstruksi dengan teknik yang umum diketahui dan dengan
tenaga kerja dan peralatan yang tersedia dalam jangka waktu yang bisa diterima.
3. The building should be capable of withstanding the elements and normal usage for a
period of time specified by the client.
4. Both inside and outside, the building should be visually pleasing.
5. No part of the building should pose a hazard to the safety or health of its occupants under
normal usage, and the building should provide for safe evacuation or refuge in emergencies.
6. The building should provide the degree of shelter from the elements and of control of the
interior environmentair, temperature, humidity, light, and acousticsspecified by the client and
not less than the minimums required for safety and health of the occupants.
7. The building should be constructed to minimize adverse impact on the environment.
8. Operation of the building should consume a minimum of energy while permitting the
structure to serve its purposes.
9. The sum of costs of construction, operation, maintenance, repair, and anticipated future
alterations should be kept within the limit specified by the client.

For a building to be treated as a system, as required in systems design, it is


necessary to know what a system is and what its basic characteristic are.
A system is an assemblage formed to satisfy specific objectives and subject to
constraints and restrictions and consisting of two or more components that are
interrelated and compatible, each component being essential to the required
performance
of the system.
Because the components are required to be interrelated, operation, or even the
mere existence, of one component affects in some way the performance of other
components. Also, the required performance of the system as a whole, as well as
the constraints on the system, imposes restrictions on each component.
A building meets the preceding requirements. By definition, it is an assemblage
(Art. 1.1). It is constructed to serve specific purposes. It is subject to constraints
while doing so, inasmuch as designers can control properties of the system by
selection of components (Art. 1.9). Building components, such as walls, floors,
roofs, windows, and doors, are interrelated and compatible with each other. The
existence of any of thee components affects to some extent the performance of the
others. And the required performance of the building as a whole imposes restrictions
on the components. Consequently, a building has the basic characteristics of a
system, and systems-design procedures should be applicable to it.

ARSITEKTUR sebagai SISTEM


Arsitektur / bangunan bisa diangap sebagai suatu sistem, perlu diketahui :
Apakah Sistem itu
Apa Karakteristik Dasar suatu sistem
A system is an assemblage formed to satisfy specific objectives and subject to constraints and restrictions
and consisting of two or more components that are interrelated and compatible, each component being
essential to the required performance of the system.
Suatu sistem adalah suatu rakitan yang dibentuk untuk memantapkan tujuan spesifik subyek terhadap
hambatan dan restriksi,Terdiri atas dua atau lebih komponen yang saling berhubungan satu sama lain dan
compatibel dari komponen-komponennya menjadi sangat penting bagi kinerja yang disyaratkan oleh
sistem tersebut
Because the components are required to be interrelated, operation, or even the mere existence, of one
component affects in some way the performance of other components. Also, the required performance
of the system as a whole, as well as the constraints on the system, imposes restrictions on each
component.
A building meets the preceding requirements. By definition,
it is an assemblage
It is constructed to serve specific purposes.
It is subject to constraints
while doing so, in as much as designers can control properties of the system by selection of components.
Building components, such as walls, floors, roofs, windows, and doors, are interrelated and compatible
with each other.
The existence of any of the components affects to some extent the performance of the others.
And the required performance of the building as a whole imposes restrictions on the components.
Consequently, a building has the basic characteristics of a system, and systems-design procedures should
be applicable to it.