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Armstrong International, Inc.

Navigating This Course

Learning Objectives

What
What superheated
superheated steam
steam is
is
and
and how
how itit is
is generated
generated

Typical
Typical system
system components
components
used
used with
with superheated
superheated steam
steam

Benefits
Benefits and
and drawbacks
drawbacks of
of
superheated
superheated steam
steam
Recommended
Recommended optimizations
optimizations
for
for superheated
superheated steam
steam
Common
Common applications
applications for
for
superheated
superheated steam
steam

Course Prerequisites

SH Glossary

What Is Superheated
Steam?

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Superheated Steam (SH) and


Its Uses
Additional
SH
superheating
for
Additional
SH used
used
superheating
for steam
steamtubes
tubes
are
distribution
in
lines
are place
place
distribution
in the
the boiler
boiler
linessection
section
Heat
SH
energy
created
elevates
by
the
extra
Heat
SH is
is
energy
created
elevates
by adding
adding
the steam
steam
extra
coils
temperature
inside
without
exhaust
increasing
area
coils
temperature
inside boiler,
boiler,
without
exhaust
increasing
area
of
boiler,
steam
or
pressure
ofthe
the
boiler,
steam
or superheater
superheater
pressure
SH
SH
also
is
called
SH is
is
SH
also
is high-temperature
high-temperature
called Superheat
Superheat and
and
High
steam
Pressure/High
used
Temperature
to
High
steam
Pressure/High
used by
by turbines
turbines
Temperature
to
generate
(HPHT)
steam
generate
(HPHT)electricity
electricity
steam

Superheated Steam (SH)


Creation
Superheat
Superheat created
created by
by use
use of
of aa superheater
superheater

Superheated Steam Created


by Throttling
Superheat
Superheat can
can also
also be
be created
created by
by
throttling
throttling high
high pressure
pressure saturated
saturated
steam
steam to
to lower
lower pressure.
pressure.

Low-pressure
Low-pressure steam
steam can
can be
be
superheated
superheated as
as well
well as
as saturated
saturated or
or
wet
wet steam.
steam. Actual
Actual pressure
pressure
reduction
reduction determines
determines final
final condition.
condition.

Throttling
Throttling is
is aa constant
constant enthalpy
enthalpy
process
process with
with low-pressure
low-pressure steam
steam
having
having approximately
approximately the
the same
same
heat
heat value
value as
as high-pressure
high-pressure steam.
steam.
Downstream
Downstream piping
piping from
from the
the PRV
PRV
should
should include
include aa minimum
minimum of
of 20
20
outlet
outlet pipe
pipe diameters
diameters of
of straight
straight
pipe
pipe run
run before
before the
the first
first turn.
turn.

Throttling Governor on SH Turbine

Superheat Considerations
SH
SH is
is unsuitable
unsuitable for
for heat
heat
transferbut
transferbut ideal
ideal for
for work
work and
and
mass
mass transfer
transfer
Pressure
Pressure and
and temperature
temperature of
of
SH
SH are
are independent,
independent, unlike
unlike
saturated
saturated steam
steam
SH
SH temperature
temperature must
must be
be
reduced
reduced to
to saturation
saturation
temperature
temperature for
for process
process use
use

Superheat Considerations
(cont.)

SH
SH has
has low
low BTU
BTU value,
value,
making
making itit aa poor
poor heat
heat
transfer
transfer medium
medium

SH
SH can
can lose
lose heat
heat through
through
radiation
radiation without
without
forming
forming condensate
condensate

U
U value
value of
of SH
SH can
can
be
be very
very low
low

SH
SH increases
increases the
the performance
performance
of
of rotating
rotating equipment
equipment

SH
SH helps
helps minimize
minimize
condensation
condensation formation
formation

Benefits of Superheated
Steam
100%
100% Steam
Steam Quality
Quality

No
No liquid
liquid to
to corrode
corrode piping
piping or
or
equipment
equipment and
and no
no entrained
entrained
water
water to
to damage
damage turbine
turbine blades
blades
Higher
Higher specific
specific volume
volume to
to
provide
provide additional
additional rotational
rotational
work
work in
in turbines
turbines
Less
Less potential
potential for
for condensate
condensate
to
to form
form in
in extensive
extensive
distribution
distribution systems
systems

Drawbacks of Superheated
Steam
Low
Low heat
heat transfer
transfer coefficient
coefficient

Severe
Severe duty
duty for
for steam
steam traps
traps
and
and valvespotential
valvespotential reduction
reduction
in
in service
service life
life

Will
Will maintain
maintain dry
dry supply
supply system
system
can
can hinder
hinder proper
proper operation
operation
of
of some
some equipment
equipment

Worker
Worker safety
safety is
is critical
critical due
due
to
to high
high temperatures
temperatures
and
and pressures
pressures

IfIf superheated
superheated steam
steam is
is used
used for
for process
process heating,
heating, steam
steam will
will
give
give up
up superheat
superheat at
at aa slow
slow rate
rate before
before condensing
condensing
Decrease
Decrease in
in effective
effective surface
surface area
area reduces
reduces heat
heat transfer
transfer
and
and can
can greatly
greatly affect
affect overall
overall productivity
productivity

Properties of
Superheated Steam

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Types of Heat
Sensible
Sensible Heat--heat
Heat--heat energy
energy
required
required to
to raise
raise temperature
temperature of
of
liquid
liquid to
to boiling
boiling point
point

Condensation--the
Condensation--the process
process by
by
which
which aa gas
gas or
or vapor
vapor changes
changes to
to
aa liquid
liquid

Latent
Latent heat--energy
heat--energy required
required to
to
cause
cause aa change
change of
of phase
phase of
of aa
liquid
liquid at
at its
its boiling
boiling point
point to
to vapor
vapor

Saturated
Saturated steamsteam
steamsteam
contains
contains only
only the
the amount
amount of
of heat
heat
energy
energy required
required to
to maintain
maintain vapor
vapor
state
state

Sensible Heat and Latent


Heat

Water
Water and
and
Steam
Steam

Superheated
Superheated
Steam
Steam

Satura
te
Steam d

Satu
r

ated

Wate
r

Water
Water

Sensible Heat and Latent


Heat (cont.)

Stage 5
Stage 3
Stage 2
212F (100C)

Stage 1
32F (0C)

Stage 4

Saturated Steam

Saturated
Steam
212F (100C)

32F (0C)

Superheated Steam
Superheated
Superheated steam
steam is
is steam
steam that
that is
is heated
heated to
to
aa temperature
temperature higher
higher than
than the
the boiling
boiling point
point of
of
water
water corresponding
corresponding to
to its
its pressure
pressure

Superheated
Superheated steam
steam cannot
cannot exist
exist in
in
contact
contact with
with water,
water, nor
nor contain
contain water,
water,
and
and resembles
resembles aa perfect
perfect gas
gas
Unlike
Unlike saturated
saturated steam,
steam, there
there is
is no
no
temperature-pressure
temperature-pressure relationship
relationship with
with
superheated
superheated steam
steam

Superheated Steam Curve


Superheated
Superheated
steam
steam and
and water
water
cannot
cannot coexist
coexist

Superheated
Steam
212F (100C)

32F (0C)

Superheated Steam
Characteristics
SH
SH == Steam
Steam temp
temp higher
higher than
than waters
waters
specific
specific boiling
boiling point
point
Adding
Adding energy
energy to
to saturated
saturated steam
steam at
at
constant
constant pressure
pressure produces
produces SH
SH
SH
SH is
is designated
designated by
by the
the number
number of
of degrees
degrees
steam
steam is
is heated
heated above
above saturation
saturation
SH
SH and
and condensate
condensate cannot
cannot exist
exist in
in
thermodynamic
thermodynamic equilibrium
equilibrium
Pressure
Pressure reduction
reduction of
of superheat
superheat will
will
produce
produce saturated
saturated steam
steam

Superheated Steam
Reminders
Steam
Steam flows
flows only
only ifif there
there is
is
pressure
pressure differential
differential

Pressure
Pressure reduction
reduction of
of
saturated
saturated steam
steam will
will
produce
produce superheated
superheated steam
steam

Steam
Steam only
only condenses
condenses ifif
itit is
is at
at saturation
saturation

Saturated
Saturated steam
steam is
is better
better
for
for heat
heat transfer
transfer

IfIf flow
flow stops,
stops, radiation
radiation
losses
losses will
will be
be enough
enough to
to
produce
produce condensate
condensate

Superheat
Superheat increases
increases
operating
operating efficiency
efficiency of
of
turbines
turbines

Additional
Additional condensate
condensate can
can
flood
flood traps
traps and
and cause
cause
water
water hammer
hammer

Superheat
Superheat minimizes
minimizes
condensate
condensate load
load in
in large
large
distribution
distribution systems
systems

Saturated versus Superheat


Properties

Heat
Heat value
value of
of steam
steam is
is in
in the
the latent
latent heat
heat

Adding
Adding energy
energy to
to saturated
saturated steam
steam results
results in
in superheat
superheat

Superheat
Superheat generally
generally isnt
isnt usable
usable steam
steam except
except at
at aa turbine
turbine
or
or for
for transport
transport to
to other
other locations
locations

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Superheated Steam
Applications

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Superheated Steam
Applications

Turbine Using Superheated


Steam vs Saturated Steam
SATURATED STEAM
Turbine operating performance: 30lb/hphr (water rate), 650 psig @ 497 F
(18,22 kg/kWh, 45bar @ 259C)
Pump power requirement:100 hp (74,57kW)
Total steam consumption requirement: 3000 lb/hr (1360 kg/h)
SUPERHEATED STEAM
Turbine operated performance: 23.76 lb/hphr (water-rate), 650psig @ 700F
(14,4 kg/kWh, 45bar @ 371C)
(SUPERHEATED STEAM)
Pump power requirement 100hp (74.57 kW)
Total steam consumption requirement 2376 lb/hr (1074 kg/h)

Using
Using Superheat
Superheat
20.8%
20.8% Less
Less Steam
Steam Consumed
Consumed 3.8%
3.8% Energy
Energy Savings
Savings
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Heat Exchanger Using


Superheated and Saturated
Steam
650psig@497F(saturated) vs. 650psig@700F(superheated) (45 bar @ 258C)
Heat exchanger requirement: 3,000,000 lb/hr (45 bar @ 371C)
Heating oil from 300F to 400F (149C to 204C)
Heat transfer coefficient (U value) for steam to oil: 3.5 btu/fthrf (SH)
26.5 btu/fthrf (SAT)
542,12 J/m.h.C
Calculate surface area required Superheat (17.7% of total steam energy)
Q = UAT(LMTDlogarithmic mean temp. difference)
(3,000,000)(0.177) = (3.5 btu/fthrf )(A)(210LMTD)
A = 722 ft required to absorb superheated steam energy
(3,000,000)(0.823) = (26.5 btu/fthrf)(A)(140LMTD)
A = 665 ft required to condense saturated steam energy
3 167 610 [kJ/h] = 542,12 [kJ/m.h.C] . A . 78,3 [C]
A= 75 m required to condense saturated steam energy

TOTAL
TOTAL SURFACE
SURFACE AREA
AREA REQUIRED
REQUIRED 1387
1387 ft
ft (128.8
(128.8 m)
m)
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Heat Exchanger Using Only


Saturated Steam
650psig@497F(saturated) (45 bar @258C)
Heat exchanger requirement 3,000,000 btu/hr (3 167 610 kJ/h)
Heating oil from 300F to 400F (149C to 204C)
Heat transfer coefficient(U value) for steam to oil 26.5 btu/fthr(SAT)
542,12 J/m.h.C
Calculate surface area required Saturated Steam
Q = UAT(LMTD)
3,000,000 = (26.5 btu/fthrf)(A)(140LMTD)
3,167,610 [kJ/h] = 542,12 [kJ/m.h.C] . A . 78,3 [C]
A = 809 ft (75 m) required to condense saturated steam energy

TOTAL
TOTAL SURFACE
SURFACE AREA
AREA REQUIRED
REQUIRED 809
809 ft
ft (75
(75 m)
m)
42%
42% less
less when
when using
using saturated
saturated steam
steam only
only
Click play to continue

Superheat Limitations with


Heat Exchangers
Superheat
Superheat is
is of
of limited
limited value
value
when
when used
used for
for heat
heat transfer
transfer

Superheat
Superheat gives
gives up
up little
little heat
heat
energy
energy until
until itit has
has cooled
cooled

Superheat
Superheat requires
requires aa larger
larger
heat
heat transfer
transfer area
area and
and larger
larger
diameter
diameter piping
piping

Superheat
Superheat creates
creates uneven
uneven
temperature
temperature gradients
gradients
Can
Can result
result in
in process
process control
control
problems
problems or
or fouling
fouling of
of heat
heat
exchanger
exchanger surfaces
surfaces

Steam Main Sizing


Saturated versus
Superheated Steam
650psig@497F (45 bar@258C) Saturated
650psig@700F (45 bar@371C) Superheated
Design Requirements:
100,000 lb/hr flow @10,000ft/min 45 400 kg/h @ 50 m/s
Saturated Steam requires a 5 Schedule 80 pipe (DN125 Schedule 80)
Superheated Steam requires a 6 Schedule 80 pipe (DN150 Schedule 80)
The only way to counter the larger pipe size required for superheated steam
is to design for a higher velocity. For example, in design requirements for:
100,000 lb/hr flow @10,000ft/min (50m/s) for saturated steam
100,000 lb/hr flow @15,000ft/min (75m/s) for superheated steam
Both conditions would be correct using a 5 or 6 (DN125 or DN150)
Schedule 80 pipe.
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Reducing the Temperature of


Superheated Steam
Superheat
Superheat temperature
temperature must
must
be
be reduced
reduced using
using aa
desuperheater
desuperheater
Desuperheater
Desuperheater injects
injects water
water
or
or other
other coolant
coolant into
into
superheated
superheated steam
steam
Location
Location of
of sensors
sensors on
on
desuperheater
desuperheater is
is important
important
Improperly
Improperly functioning
functioning
desuperheater
desuperheater can
can cause
cause
poor
poor steam
steam quality
quality

Injection Desuperheater

Condensate Injection
Desuperheater In Use
Task: Desuperheat 10,000 lbs/hr (4500 kg/hr) of superheated steam
650psig@700F (45 bar @370C)
Enthalpy 1348 btu/lb (3130 kJ/kg)
How:

Inject treated condensate at 200F (93C)

Final Steam Conditions:


10,000 lbs/hr superheated steam
650psig@547F (45 bar @286C)
Enthalpy 1245 btu/lb (2893 kJ/kg)

(As a rule of thumb, only desuperheat steam to within 25-50F (15-30C) of saturation to
minimize potential for wet steam, corrosion, and water hammer)

Reducing the Temperature of


Superheated Steam
Pressure
Pressure Reducing
Reducing
Desuperheating
Desuperheating Valve
Valve (PRDS)
(PRDS)

Trapping
Superheated Steam
Lines

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Why Trap Superheat


Systems?
Remove
Remove condensate
condensate and
and
non-condensable
non-condensable gases
gases while
while
minimizing
minimizing steam
steam loss
loss

Handle
Handle emergencies
emergencies such
such as
as
superheat
superheat loss
loss or
or bypass
bypass

Condensate
Condensate is
is produced
produced on
on
startup
startup and
and in
in the
the event
event of
of
superheat
superheat loss
loss

During
During emergencies,
emergencies, steam
steam
traps
traps are
are aa necessity
necessity

Primary
Primary reason
reason for
for traps
traps on
on
superheat
superheat is
is startup
startup load
load and
and
shutdown
shutdown

Trap
Trap sizing
sizing is
is critical
critical in
in order
order to
to
keep
keep efficiency
efficiency high
high and
and avoid
avoid
water
water hammer
hammer

Sizing Superheat Loads to


Traps
Condensate
Condensate loads
loads to
to aa trap
trap
vary
vary widely
widely with
with superheat
superheat

Large
Large condensate
condensate flows,
flows,
combined
combined with
with low
low pressure,
pressure,
requires
requires large
large capacity
capacity traps
traps

Thermostatic Bellows
Thermostatic
Thermostatic Bellows
Bellows

SH
SH entering
entering traps
traps will
will cause
cause
vapor
vapor in
in bellows
bellows to
to superheat
superheat
Volume
Volume of
of vapor
vapor in
in
bellows
bellows increases
increases greatly
greatly
Bellows
Bellows cant
cant contain
contain
additional
additional vapor
vapor volume,
volume,
causing
causing possible
possible rupture
rupture

Thermostatic Wafer
Thermostatic
Thermostatic Wafer
Wafer

Trap
Trap has
has limited
limited ability
ability to
to
handle
handle dirt
dirt and
and impurities
impurities
Condensate
Condensate capacity
capacity varies
varies
with
with degree
degree of
of subcooling
subcooling
Should
Should not
not be
be used
used on
on
drip
drip applications
applications that
that
see
see saturated
saturated steam
steam

Thermodynamic Disc
Thermodynamic
Thermodynamic Disc
Disc
Trap
Trap will
will cycle
cycle whether
whether or
or not
not
there
there is
is condensate
condensate behind
behind itit
With
With little
little SH,
SH, any
any trap
trap
opening
opening will
will blow
blow through
through
live
live steam
steam
Quick
Quick cycling
cycling at
at high
high
temperatures
temperatures and
and pressures
pressures
causes
causes wear
wear and
and short
short life
life

Float and Thermostatic


Float
Float and
and Thermostatic
Thermostatic

High
High pressure
pressure float
float required
required
F&T
F&T traps
traps with
with bimetallic
bimetallic
thermostatic
thermostatic elements
elements more
more
suitable
suitable for
for SH
SH than
than traditional
traditional
Ruggedness
Ruggedness and
and limited
limited ability
ability
to
to handle
handle dirt
dirt and
and impurities
impurities
must
must be
be considered
considered

Thermostatic Bimetallic
Thermostatic
Thermostatic Bimetallic
Bimetallic
Can
Can be
be set
set so
so itit wont
wont open
open
until
until condensate
condensate cools
cools to
to
below
below saturation
saturation
As
As steam
steam temp
temp rises,
rises, pull
pull of
of
bimetallic
bimetallic becomes
becomes greater,
greater,
creating
creating greater
greater sealing
sealing force
force
SH
SH tends
tends to
to seal
seal valve
valve better,
better,
so
so thermostatic
thermostatic bimetallic
bimetallic is
is aa
good
good choice
choice for
for SH
SH

Proper
Proper drip
drip leg
leg sizing
sizing and
and
layout
layout is
is mandatory
mandatory

Inverted Bucket
Inverted
Inverted Bucket
Bucket

Water
Water seal
seal prevents
prevents steam
steam
getting
getting to
to valve,
valve, promoting
promoting no
no
live
live steam
steam loss
loss and
and long
long life
life
Valve
Valve at
at top
top makes
makes itit
impervious
impervious to
to dirt
dirt and
and
permits
permits removal
removal of
of air
air
Necessity
Necessity to
to maintain
maintain water
water
seal
seal (prime)
(prime) is
is potential
potential issue
issue

Proper
Proper piping
piping necessary
necessary
to
to maintain
maintain prime
prime

Inverted Bucket Options


Inverted
Inverted Bucket
Bucket

Specify the following options when ordering inverted bucket


traps for superheat:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Inlet tube
Check valve at inlet
Burnished seats and valves
Use smallest orifice possible; restricted orifices if
necessary
a. Size main orifice for pressure
b. Size restricted orifice for start-up load
5. Avoid insulating the trap and the drip leg if possible

Sizing Superheat Traps


Trap
Trap load
load will
will vary
vary from
from severe
severe
load
load to
to virtually
virtually no
no load
load

Size
Size for
for start-up
start-up load
load with
with no
no
safety
safety factor
factor

Select
Select main
main valve
valve for
for max
max
pressure
pressure differential
differential

Specify
Specify aa burnished
burnished valve
valve and
and
seat
seat

Select
Select body
body materials
materials on
on basis
basis
of
of max
max temp
temp and
and pressure
pressure
Properly
Properly sized
sized inverted
inverted bucket
bucket
traps
traps are
are acceptable
acceptable
Bimetallic
Bimetallic thermostatic
thermostatic traps
traps
are
are recommended
recommended

Drip Leg Sizing and


Insulation
Drip
Drip leg
leg sizing
sizing should
should be
be
followed
followed when
when installing
installing traps
traps
on
on superheat
superheat systems
systems
Uninsulated
Uninsulated drip
drip leg
leg and
and
piping
piping allows
allows condensate
condensate to
to
form
form ahead
ahead of
of the
the trap
trap
See
See links
links menu
menu above
above for
for
Trapping
Trapping Superheated
Superheated Steam
Steam
Systems
Systems

Optimizations for
Superheated Steam

Click play to continue

Turbine Performance with


Superheated Steam
No
No condensate
condensate in
in properly
properly
functioning
functioning SH
SH system
system

Inverted
Inverted bucket
bucket trap
trap must
must be
be
properly
properly sized
sized and
and applied
applied

Removing
Removing condensate
condensate only
only
at
at startup
startup

Recommended
Recommended type
type of
of trap
trap is
is
properly-applied
properly-applied bi-metallic
bi-metallic

Saturated
Saturated steam
steam turbine
turbine may
may not
not
last
last as
as long
long as
as SH
SH turbine
turbine

Preventive
Preventive maintenancetrap
maintenancetrap
surveys
surveys at
at least
least annually
annually

AIM
AIM wireless
wireless monitoring
monitoring of
of traps
traps
is
is recommended
recommended

PRV
PRV will
will improve
improve dryness
dryness of
of
steam
steam due
due to
to throttling
throttling process
process

Is
Is itit assumed
assumed that
that steam
steam is
is 100%
100%
at
at inlet
inlet of
of aa PRV
PRV

Conclusion
Superheat
Superheat is
is useful
useful primarily
primarily as
as aa
motive
motive force
force for
for electricity
electricity
generation
generation and
and for
for District
District
Heating
Heating

Superheat
Superheat requires
requires special
special
considerations
considerations and
and
understanding
understanding that
that trapping
trapping is
is still
still
required
required

Quiz Instructions

Superheated Steam

Armstrong provides intelligent system solutions that improve utility


performance, lower energy consumption, and reduce environmental
emissions while providing an "enjoyable experience."
Armstrong International, Inc.