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M . E. Engineering Design

Unit iii

Iso-parametric Formulation

Elements Formulation Numerical Integration Gauss quadrature one-, two- and threedimensional triangular elements formulation rectangular elements Serendipity elements

Illustrative Examples.

Local Coordinates

A local coordinates system whose origin is located within the element in order to simplify the

algebraic manipulations in the derivation of the element matrix.

The use of natural coordinates in expressing approximate functions is advantageous because

special integration formulas can often be applied to evaluate the integrals in the element matrix.

Natural coordinates also play a crucial role in the development of elements with carved

boundaries.

Natural Coordinates

It is a local coordinate system that permits the specification of a point within the element by a

dimensionless parameter whose absolute magnitude never exceeds unity.

It is dimension less.

They are defined with respect to the element rather than with reference to the global coordinates.

Global Coordinates

Global coordinates are convenient for specifying the location of each node, the orientation of each

element, the boundary conditions and the loads for the entire domain.

The solution to the field variable is generally represented with respect to the global coordinates.

http://www.civilengineeringterms.com/structural-engineering/local-

Isoparametric elements use the same set of shape functions to represent both the element

geometry and displacement interpolations (ux, uy). The shape functions are defined by natural

coordinates, such as triangle coordinates for triangles and square coordinates for any quadrilateral.

The

advantages

of

isoparametric

elements

include

the

ability

http://www.answers.com/Q/What_is_isoparametric_element

to

map

more

complex

Lagrangian elements have two disadvantages, It will give one additional internal node(centre

node) and Incomplete polynomial.

Serendipity elements don't have centre node and gives complete polynomial. see Pascal

triangle.

refer "Energy and fem in structural mechanics" by Irving H.Shames.

http://imechanica.org/node/8325

In finite element analysis the following types of integrations are widely used in one

dimensional and two dimensional problems especially for the computation of element

stiffness or for the element nodal vector.

b

f ( x)dx

a

d b

c a

f ( x, y )dx dy

d b

f ( x, y, z)dx dy dz

c a

Several methods are available to solve the integration among the methods Gauss

quadrature method is most widely used. Another method is Newtons cotes

quadrature.

courtesy S.Md.

courtesy S.Md.

to find the approximate value of integral

function similar to above when the variables

are in natural coordinate system as in the

case of stiffness matrix calculation. If E and

11are considered as natural coordinates for

the two dimensional rectangular element as

shown in the above fig then the integral

function and its approximating method will be

given as

courtesy

coordinates as follows.

0.8 and

1,2,3,5 units in the table and the local coordinates

of 0.6 units

the point P is

1

2

3

4

Tutorial 3.1

12

10

Now, once again by substituting the values of shape functions and nodal coordinates in Eqn.

(1), we can get the values of Cartesian coordinates of the point P.

Tutorial 3.1

The Cartesian coordinates of the corner nodes of a quadrilateral element are given by (0, -1), (2,3), (2, 4) and (5, 3). Find the coordinate transformation between the global and local

coordinates. Using this, determine the Cartesian coordinates of the point defined by (r, s) = (0.5,

0.5) in the local coordinate system.

For the given quadrilateral element the Cartesian coordinates

are shown in fig,

1

-2

-1

Tutorial 3.2

Tutorial 3.2

The Cartesian coordinates of the given

element are,

1

-1

Tutorial 3.4

Tutorial 3.4

for the linear quadrilateral

element with its global coordinates as shown in fig .Also evaluate the strain-displacement

matrix.

10

Tutorial 3.5

Tutorial 3.5

Tutorial 3.5

Tutorial 3.5

Tutorial 3.5

Establish the strain-displacement matrix for the linear quadrilateral element as shown in fig. at

Gauss point

in local coordinate system.

Tutorial 3.6

Tutorial 3.6

Tutorial 3.6

Tutorial 3.6

Tutorial 3.6

Tutorial 3.6

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