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Land Surveying

Chapter 1 : Introduction to

Surveying

Introduction

Surveying

relative and absolute spatial location of points on

the earths surface.

Involves staking out the lines and grades needed

for construction of buildings, roads, dams, &

other engineering structures.

Includes the computation of areas, volumes, and

other quantities (field measurements), as well as

the preparation of necessary maps and diagrams.

Contents

1.1 Units of Measurement

1.2 Measurement Conversions

1.3 Trigonometric Ratios

1.4 Rules of Sine and Cosine

1.5 Area of Triangles

1.6 Scale

1.7 Drawing to Scale

1.1 Units of

Measurement

Systme Internationale (SI)

measurement of distance and angle.

Basic and derived units agreed

internationally.

1.1 Units of

Measurement

Table below shows the basic unit of prime

interest :

Quantity

Unit SI

Symbol

Length

metre

Area

square metre

m2

Volume

cubic metre

m3

Mass

kilogram

kg

Capacity

litre

1.1 Units of

Measurement

Prefix

Multiplication

factor

Derived

unit

SI recommended

unit

kilo

1000

kilometre

kilometre

hecto

100

hectometr

e

deca

10

decametre

metre

deci

0.1

decimetre

centi

0.01

centimetre

mili

0.001

milimetre

metre

milimetre

1.1 Units of

Measurement

Angle

numeral system with sixty as its base).

Degree is subdivided into minutes and

seconds. (similar to time).

1 (degree) = 60 (minutes)

1 (minute) = 60 (seconds)

1.2 Measurement

Conversions

Linear

1

1

1

1

1

1

km = 1,000 m

m = 100 cm

cm = 10 mm

foot = 12 inches

inch = 2.54 cm

km = 0.631371 mile

Area

1 km2 = 1,000,000 m2

1 km2 = 247.1 acres

1 hectare = 10,000

m2

Volume

1 m3 = 1,000,000 cm3

1 litre = 1,000 cm3

1 litre = 0.264 U.S.

gal

Weight

1 metric ton = 1,000

kg

1 kg = 1,000 g

1 kg = 2.2 Ib

1 Ib = 16 ounces

Angle

1 degree = 60

minutes

1.2 Measurement

Conversions

Challenge your mind

Convert the following measurements to the

required unit in brackets :

Solution 1.2a

(b)7200 [ ]

Solution 1.2b

Let R (x, y) be a point in XY y

coordination system.

is an angle formed by line

OR and the x-axis (O is an origin).

If a line is drawn perpendicular

to the x-axis at S, a right angle

triangle ORS is formed.

OR is called hypotenuse (r), 0

RS is opposite (y), and

OS is adjacent (x).

R (x,

y)

r

y

Note:

Challenge your mind

y

R (4, 5)

determine :

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

length r

sin

cos

tan

angle

Cosine

a

C

b

B

A

c-x

x

Cosine

Challenge your mind

If a = 5 cm, b = 6 cm,

c = 7 cm, determine :

A

c

(a) angle A

(b) angle B

(c) angle C

Solution 1.4a-c

h

triangle shown above, if the base (b)

and the altitude or height (h) of the

triangle are given, then

For an arbitrary

triangle shown

on the right,

C

b

B

A

c-x

x

Challenge your mind

B

(a) If a = 4 m, b = 6 m,

and C = 65 35 56.

Solution 1.5a

and c =35 cm

Solution 1.5b

A

c

1.6 Scale

Scale

Ratio between drawing of an object and actual

object itself.

Scale of a map or plan can be shown in 3 ways:

Expressed in words.

e.g. 1 centimetre represents 1 metre.

By definition of scale, this simply means that one

centimetre on the plan represents 1 metre on the

ground.

1.6 Scale

By a drawn scale.

A line is drawn on the plan and is divided into

convenient intervals that distances on the map can

be easily obtained from it. Scale in the diagram

below : Scale of 1 cm represents 1 m.

1.6 Scale

By a representative fraction (RF).

A fraction is used, in which the numerator

represents the number of units on the map (always

unit 1) and the denominator represents the number

of the same units on the ground.

For a scale of 1 cm represents 1 m, its RF is 1/100,

shown as 1:100, since there are 100 cm in 1 m.

1.6 Scale

By a representative fraction (RF).

RF-related simple formula for calculating plan area

is as follows :

Plan area = Ground area x (RF)2

1.6 Scale

Challenge your mind

An area of 250 cm2 was measured on a

plan,

Solution 1.6

The whole idea behind creating scale drawings

is to allow the drafter to create a drawing

which is proportionately the same as the

artifact it represents.

Using a measuring device called a scale,

accurate drawings of both very large objects or

very small objects can be created and fitted on

a standard size piece of paper.

A surveyors main objective is to achieve

accuracy in field operations.

Unless results can be depicted accurately,

legibly and pleasingly on paper, proficiency in

the field is robbed of much of its value.

Some of equipment required for plotting

include paper (A4, A3, A1, ), scale rule

(usually manufactured with eight scales 1:1,

1:5, 1:50, 1:100, 1:200, 1:250, 1:1250,

1:2500), two set squares (45 & 60),

protractor, varying grade of pencils, etc.

Triangular

scale :

Set square :

Pencils

grade:

End of Chapter 1

Revise

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

1.6

1.7

Units of Measurement

Measurement Conversions

Trigonometric Ratios

Rules of Sine and Cosine

Area of Triangles

Scale

Drawing to Scale

Solution(s)

Solution 1.2(a)

3.3 feet

=

=

=

=

=

39.6 in.

39.6 in. (2.54 cm 1 in.)

100.584 cm

100.584 cm (1 m 100 cm)

1.00584 m

Solution(s)

Solution 1.2(b)

= 120 0

= 120 (1 60)

= 2 0 0

Solution(s)

Solution 1.3(a)

r = x + y

r = 4 + 5

r = (4 + 5)

= 6.403 unit

y

R (4, 5)

6.403

Solution(s)

Solution 1.3(b),(c),(d)

sin = 5 6.403

= 0.781

cos= 4 6.403

= 0.625

tan= 5 4

= 1.250

y

R (4, 5)

6.403

Solution(s)

Solution 1.3(e)

= sin 0.781

= 51 21 08

= cos-1 0.625

= 51 19 04

= tan-1 1.250

= 51 20 25

R (4, 5)

-1

6.403

Solution(s)

Solution 1.4(a),(b),(c)

a

c = a + b - 2abcosC

b

7 = 5 + 6 - 2(5)(6)cosC

2(5)(6)cosC = 5 + 6 - 7 B

cosC

= (5 + 6 - 7) ( 2 5 6)

A

C = cos-1 0.2

c

= 78 27 47

Solution(s)

Solution 1.4(a),(b),(c)

a

C

b

A

= sin-1 [5 sin(78 27 47) 7]

c

= 44 24 55

B

= sin-1 [6 sin(78 27 47) 7]

= 57 07 18

Solution(s)

Solution 1.5(a)

Area

= ab sin C

= (4)(6) sin 65 35 56

= 10.928 m2

Solution(s)

Solution 1.5(b)

s = (45 + 50 + 35) 2

= 65 cm

= [65(65 45)(65 50)(65 35)]

= 1099.545 cm2

Solution(s)

Solution 1.6

Plan area

= 250 cm2

RF (scale)

= 1:500

Plan area

= Ground area x (RF)2

Ground area = Plan area (RF)2

= 250 cm2 (1/500) 2

= 62,500,000 cm2

= 6250 m2

Extra(s)

Planimeter

irregular shaped objects.

Simply trace the outline of the object

and the planimeter will display the area.

This video features the Planix 7 digital

Planimeter but the general operation is

the same for all digital roller

planimeters.

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