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BSQ3113

Land Surveying

Chapter 1 : Introduction to
Surveying

Introduction
Surveying

Science and techniques used to determine the


relative and absolute spatial location of points on
the earths surface.
Involves staking out the lines and grades needed
for construction of buildings, roads, dams, &
other engineering structures.
Includes the computation of areas, volumes, and
other quantities (field measurements), as well as
the preparation of necessary maps and diagrams.

Contents
1.1 Units of Measurement
1.2 Measurement Conversions
1.3 Trigonometric Ratios
1.4 Rules of Sine and Cosine
1.5 Area of Triangles
1.6 Scale
1.7 Drawing to Scale

1.1 Units of
Measurement
Systme Internationale (SI)

Most common system used in the


measurement of distance and angle.
Basic and derived units agreed
internationally.

1.1 Units of
Measurement
Table below shows the basic unit of prime
interest :
Quantity

Unit SI

Symbol

Length

metre

Area

square metre

m2

Volume

cubic metre

m3

Mass

kilogram

kg

Capacity

litre

1.1 Units of
Measurement
Prefix

Multiplication
factor

Derived
unit

SI recommended
unit

kilo

1000

kilometre

kilometre

hecto

100

hectometr
e

deca

10

decametre

metre

deci

0.1

decimetre

centi

0.01

centimetre

mili

0.001

milimetre

metre

milimetre

1.1 Units of
Measurement
Angle

Measured in degree (sexagesimal unit


numeral system with sixty as its base).
Degree is subdivided into minutes and
seconds. (similar to time).
1 (degree) = 60 (minutes)
1 (minute) = 60 (seconds)

1.2 Measurement
Conversions
Linear
1
1
1
1
1
1

km = 1,000 m
m = 100 cm
cm = 10 mm
foot = 12 inches
inch = 2.54 cm
km = 0.631371 mile
Area

1 km2 = 1,000,000 m2
1 km2 = 247.1 acres
1 hectare = 10,000
m2

Volume
1 m3 = 1,000,000 cm3
1 litre = 1,000 cm3
1 litre = 0.264 U.S.
gal
Weight
1 metric ton = 1,000
kg
1 kg = 1,000 g
1 kg = 2.2 Ib
1 Ib = 16 ounces
Angle
1 degree = 60
minutes

1.2 Measurement
Conversions
Challenge your mind
Convert the following measurements to the
required unit in brackets :

(a)3.3 feet [m]

Solution 1.2a

(b)7200 [ ]

Solution 1.2b

1.3 Trigonometric Ratios


Let R (x, y) be a point in XY y
coordination system.
is an angle formed by line
OR and the x-axis (O is an origin).
If a line is drawn perpendicular
to the x-axis at S, a right angle
triangle ORS is formed.
OR is called hypotenuse (r), 0
RS is opposite (y), and
OS is adjacent (x).

R (x,
y)
r
y

1.3 Trigonometric Ratios

Note:

1.3 Trigonometric Ratios


Challenge your mind

y
R (4, 5)

If coordinate R is (4, 5),


determine :

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

length r
sin
cos
tan
angle

Solution 1.3a, 1.3b-d, 1.3e

1.4 Rules of Sine and


Cosine
a

C
b

B
A
c-x
x

1.4 Rules of Sine and


Cosine
Challenge your mind

If a = 5 cm, b = 6 cm,

c = 7 cm, determine :

A
c

(a) angle A
(b) angle B
(c) angle C

Solution 1.4a-c

1.5 Area of Triangles


h

For a right angle triangle or an arbitrary


triangle shown above, if the base (b)
and the altitude or height (h) of the
triangle are given, then

1.5 Area of Triangles


For an arbitrary
triangle shown
on the right,

C
b

B
A
c-x
x

1.5 Area of Triangles


Challenge your mind

Determine area of triangle :


B

(a) If a = 4 m, b = 6 m,
and C = 65 35 56.
Solution 1.5a

(b) If a = 45 cm, b = 50 cm,


and c =35 cm
Solution 1.5b

A
c

1.6 Scale
Scale
Ratio between drawing of an object and actual
object itself.
Scale of a map or plan can be shown in 3 ways:
Expressed in words.
e.g. 1 centimetre represents 1 metre.
By definition of scale, this simply means that one
centimetre on the plan represents 1 metre on the
ground.

1.6 Scale
By a drawn scale.
A line is drawn on the plan and is divided into
convenient intervals that distances on the map can
be easily obtained from it. Scale in the diagram
below : Scale of 1 cm represents 1 m.

Note : Diagram is not to scale.

1.6 Scale
By a representative fraction (RF).
A fraction is used, in which the numerator
represents the number of units on the map (always
unit 1) and the denominator represents the number
of the same units on the ground.
For a scale of 1 cm represents 1 m, its RF is 1/100,
shown as 1:100, since there are 100 cm in 1 m.

1.6 Scale
By a representative fraction (RF).
RF-related simple formula for calculating plan area
is as follows :
Plan area = Ground area x (RF)2

1.6 Scale
Challenge your mind
An area of 250 cm2 was measured on a
plan,

using a planimeter. Given that

the plan scale is

1:500, calculate the

ground area in m2.


Solution 1.6

1.7 Drawing to Scale


The whole idea behind creating scale drawings
is to allow the drafter to create a drawing
which is proportionately the same as the
artifact it represents.
Using a measuring device called a scale,
accurate drawings of both very large objects or
very small objects can be created and fitted on
a standard size piece of paper.

1.7 Drawing to Scale


A surveyors main objective is to achieve
accuracy in field operations.
Unless results can be depicted accurately,
legibly and pleasingly on paper, proficiency in
the field is robbed of much of its value.
Some of equipment required for plotting
include paper (A4, A3, A1, ), scale rule
(usually manufactured with eight scales 1:1,
1:5, 1:50, 1:100, 1:200, 1:250, 1:1250,
1:2500), two set squares (45 & 60),
protractor, varying grade of pencils, etc.

1.7 Drawing to Scale


Triangular
scale :

1.7 Drawing to Scale


Set square :

1.7 Drawing to Scale


Pencils
grade:

End of Chapter 1
Revise
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7

Units of Measurement
Measurement Conversions
Trigonometric Ratios
Rules of Sine and Cosine
Area of Triangles
Scale
Drawing to Scale

Solution(s)
Solution 1.2(a)

3.3 feet
=
=
=
=
=

= 3.3 ft (12 in. 1 ft)


39.6 in.
39.6 in. (2.54 cm 1 in.)
100.584 cm
100.584 cm (1 m 100 cm)
1.00584 m

Solution(s)
Solution 1.2(b)

7200 = 7200 (1 60)


= 120 0
= 120 (1 60)
= 2 0 0

Solution(s)
Solution 1.3(a)

r = x + y
r = 4 + 5
r = (4 + 5)
= 6.403 unit

y
R (4, 5)
6.403

Solution(s)
Solution 1.3(b),(c),(d)

sin = 5 6.403
= 0.781
cos= 4 6.403
= 0.625
tan= 5 4
= 1.250

y
R (4, 5)
6.403

Solution(s)
Solution 1.3(e)

= sin 0.781
= 51 21 08
= cos-1 0.625
= 51 19 04
= tan-1 1.250
= 51 20 25

R (4, 5)

-1

6.403

Solution(s)
Solution 1.4(a),(b),(c)
a

c = a + b - 2abcosC
b
7 = 5 + 6 - 2(5)(6)cosC
2(5)(6)cosC = 5 + 6 - 7 B
cosC
= (5 + 6 - 7) ( 2 5 6)
A
C = cos-1 0.2
c
= 78 27 47

Solution(s)
Solution 1.4(a),(b),(c)
a

C
b

A
= sin-1 [5 sin(78 27 47) 7]
c
= 44 24 55
B
= sin-1 [6 sin(78 27 47) 7]
= 57 07 18

Solution(s)
Solution 1.5(a)

Area
= ab sin C
= (4)(6) sin 65 35 56
= 10.928 m2

Solution(s)
Solution 1.5(b)

s = (45 + 50 + 35) 2
= 65 cm
= [65(65 45)(65 50)(65 35)]
= 1099.545 cm2

Solution(s)
Solution 1.6

Plan area
= 250 cm2
RF (scale)
= 1:500
Plan area
= Ground area x (RF)2
Ground area = Plan area (RF)2
= 250 cm2 (1/500) 2
= 62,500,000 cm2
= 6250 m2

Extra(s)
Planimeter

Precision tool for measuring the areas of


irregular shaped objects.
Simply trace the outline of the object
and the planimeter will display the area.
This video features the Planix 7 digital
Planimeter but the general operation is
the same for all digital roller
planimeters.