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#1

Telephone switches

switch samples

INPUTS

Datagram routers

switch datagrams

ATM switches

switch ATM cells

OUTPUTS

#2

Two key router functions:

run routing algorithms/protocol (RIP, OSPF, BGP)

#33

and gateways

Repeaters/Hubs: at physical level (L1)

Bridges: at datalink level (L2)

discover attached stations by listening

participate in routing protocols

Application level gateways: at application level (L7)

treat entire network as a single hop

Gain functionality at the expense of forwarding

speed

possible

#4

Types of services

Packet vs. circuit switches

packets have headers and samples dont

Connectionless vs. connection oriented

setup is handled in control plane by switch

controller

connectionless switches deal with selfcontained datagrams

#5

Participate in routing algorithms

to build routing tables

Next Lecture!

Resolve contention for output trunks

buffer scheduling

Previous Lecture!

Admission control

to guarantee resources to certain streams

#6

Requirements

Capacity of switch is the maximum rate at which it

simultaneously active

Primary goal: maximize capacity

#7

Internal switching

In a circuit switch, path of a sample is determined

field

Datagram

lookup based on entire destination address

Cell

lookup based on VCI used as an index to a table

Other than that, switching units are very similar

#8

Can have both internal and output blocking

Internal

no path to output

Example: head of line blocking.

Output

drop it

#9

Overprovisioning

Buffers

at input or output

Backpressure

packet from entering until path is available

increases effective switching capacity

#10

switches

Different trade-offs between cost and

performance

Represent evolution in switching capacity,

rather than in technology

switch achieves greater capacity, but at

greater cost

current products

#11

computer

CPU

queues in memory

linecard

linecard

linecard

routers

Bottleneck can be CPU, host-adaptor or

I/O bus, depending

#12

computer

bus

front end processors

or line cards

Bottleneck is the bus (or ring)

#13

Third generation switch provides parallel

paths (fabric)

ILC

IN

ILC

OLC

NxN

packet

switch

fabric

ILC

OLC

OUT

OLC

control

#14

Features

self-routing fabric

output buffer is a point of contention

as long as we can resolve contention for output buffer

#15

Switching - Fabric

#16

#17

Multiplexor: aggregates sessions

N input lines

Output runs N times as fast as input

Demultiplexor: distributes sessions

one input line and N outputs that run N times

slower

Can cascade multiplexors

1

2

1

2

MUX

N

1 2

De-Mux

N

#18

Key idea: when demultiplexing, position in

Time division switching interchanges

sample position within a frame:

M

U

X

TSI

D

E

M

U

X

#19

example

sessions: (1,3) (2,1) (3,4) (4,2)

1

2

3

4

4 3 2 1

1

2

3

4

3 1 4 2

4

1

3

#20

TSI

Simple to build.

Multicast: easy (why?)

Limit is the time taken to read and write to memory

For 120,000 telephone circuits

Each circuit reads and writes memory once every 125 ms.

Number of operations per second : 120,000 x 8000 x2

each operation takes around 0.5 ns => impossible with

current technology

Need to look to other techniques

#21

Each sample takes a

different path

through the switch,

depending on its

destination

Crossbar: Simplest

possible space-division

switch

Crosspoints can be

turned on or off

i

n

p

u

t

s

outputs

#22

Crossbar - example

inputs

1

2

3

4

1

output

#23

Crossbar

Advantages:

simple to implement

simple control

strict sense non-blocking

Multicast

Drawbacks

number of crosspoints, N2

large VLSI space

vulnerable to single faults

#24

Time-space switching

Precede each input trunk in a crossbar with

a TSI

Delay samples so that they arrive at the

right time for the space division switchs

schedule

Crosspoint: 4 (not 16)

1

2

3

4

M

U

X

M

U

X

2 1

TSI

12

4 3

TSI

43

DeMux

DeMux

#25

Build a routing graph

nodes - input links

session connects an input and output nodes.

Feasible schedule

Computing a schedule

1

2

1

2

3

4

3

4

#26

Time-Space: Example

time 1

time 2

2 1

2 1

4 3

TSI

3 4

3

1

2

4

TSI

#27

Re-arrangeable

Can route any permutation from inputs to outputs.

Strict sense non-blocking

Given any current connections through the switch.

Any unused input can be routed to any unused output.

Wide sense non-blocking.

for any sequence of connections and releases,

Any unused input can be routed to any unused output,

assuming all the sequence was served by the routing

algorithm.

#29

graph representation

transmitter nodes

receiver nodes

internal nodes

Feasible schedule

edge disjoint paths.

cost function

number of crosspoints (complexity of AxB is

AB)

internal nodes

#30

Crossbar - example

1

2

3

4

1

#31

outputs

inputs

Another Example

#32

Another Example

outputs

inputs

#33

Clos Network

Clos(N, n , k) : N - inputs/outputs;

cross-points: 2 (N/n)nk + k(N/n)2

nxk

2x2

N

2x2

(N/n)x(N/n)

3x3

3x3

2x2

N/n

kxn

2x2

2x2

N=6

n=2

k=2

2x2

k

N/n

#34

non-blocking

Holds for k 2n-1

Proof Methodology:

S= The k middle switches

A = middle switches reachable from the inputs

B = middle switches reachable from the outputs

Our case:

|S|=k

|A| k-(n-1)

|B| k-(n-1)

#35

non-blocking

Holds for k 2n-1

Proof:

Input box connected to at most n-1 middle layer switches

output box connected to at most n-1 middle layer

switches

There exists an unused" middle switch good for both.

n-1

nxk

kxn

n-1

#36

Example

Clos(8,2,3)

Need to route a new call

2x3

4x4

3x2

2x3

4x4

3x2

2x3

2x3

4x4

3x2

N=8

n=2

k=3

3x2

#37

Clos Network

Why is k=n internally blocking?

nxk

2x2

2x2

2x2

(N/n)x(N/n)

3x3

3x3

kxn

2x2

2x2

N=6

n=2

k=2

2x2

#38

Holds for k n

Proof:

Consider the routing graph.

find a perfect matching.

route the perfect matching through a

single middle switch!

remaining network is Clos(N-N/n,n-1,k-1)

1

2

1

2

3

4

3

4

summary:

smaller circuit

weaker guarantee

Multicast ?

#39

The basic element:

The dimension: r=0

The two states:

#40

Recursive Construction:

Benes Network

r-1 dimension

N/2 size

r-1 dimension

N/2 size

#41

Example 16x16

#42

Benes Networks

Symmetry

Size:

Rearrangable

Proof I:

Find 2 matchings

route one in the upper Benes and the other in

the lower.

#43

Start with an arbitrary node

i1

set i1 to upper.

set o2 to lower.

Completing a cycle.

Solve for the upper and lower Benes

recursively.

#44

I1

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

level 0 switches

I2

level 2r switches

#45

Example

(

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

1 5 6 8 4 2 3 7

1

2

I1

3

4

5

6

7

8

level 0 switches

I2

level 2r switches

#46

Example

(

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

1 5 6 8 4 2 3 7

1

2

I1

3

4

5

6

7

8

level 0 switches

I2

level 2r switches

#47

Example

(

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

1 5 6 8 4 2 3 7

1

2

I1

3

4

5

6

7

8

level 0 switches

I2

level 2r switches

#48

Example

(

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

1 5 6 8 4 2 3 7

1

2

I1

3

4

5

6

7

8

level 0 switches

I2

level 2r switches

#49

50 Gbps

136 Bytes cells

40 Gbps

8 of 8

S1

S2

16

S3

2 of 8

2

Line Card

100 Gbps/LC(2)

(2.5X Speedup)

Fabric

Chassis

1 of 8

S1

S2

S3

Line Card

2 LEVELS OF PRIORITY

MULTICAST SUPPORT

1M multicast groups

S1

S2

S3

Multi-stage Interconnect3 Stage Benes topology

#50

3 Main components: Line cards,Switching mechanism,

Route Processor(s), Routing Applications

Forwarding Component

Control Components

Interconnect

#51

N/2 x N/2

.

.

.

N/2 x N/2

.

.

.

N/2 x N/2

#52

Properties

Size:

strict sense non-blocking

Clos network with k=3 n=2

Better parameters:

n=sqrt{N}, k=2sqrt{N}-1

recursive size sqrt{N} x sqrt{N}

Circuit size O(N log2.58 N)

#53

Cantor Networks

m copies of Benes network.

Network size N log2 N

Example

For

#54

Cantor Network

m=4

#55

Proof

Sketch:

Benes network:

2 log N -1 layers,

N/2 nodes in layer.

Middle layer= layer log N -1

There are Nm/2 nodes in in all of them combined.

Bound (from below) the number of nodes

If the sum is more than Nm/2:

There is an intersection

there has to be a route.

#56

Proof Sketch:

Let A(k) = number of nodes reachable at

level k.

A(0)=m

A(1)= 2A(0)-1

A(2)=2A(1)-2

A(k)=2A(k-1) - 2k-1 = 2k A(0) - k 2k-1

A(log N -1) = Nm/2 - (log N -1) N/4

Need that: 2A(log N -1) > Nm/2.

#57

Advanced constructions

There are networks of size

the constants are huge!

switches.

#58

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