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Chapter 1

Databases & Database

The main reference of this presentation is the
textbook and PPT from : Elmasri & Navathe,
Fundamental of Database Systems, 4th
edition, 2004, Chapter 1
Additional resources: presentation prepared
by Prof Steven A. Demurjian, Sr

Slide 1-2

Overview of Materials
What is a database?
What is a database system?
What is a DBMS?
When is a database system needed?
Motivating database management
Characteristic of database approach
Database users
Advantages of using DBMS approach
A brief history of database application
When not to use a DBMS
Slide 1-3

What is a database?  Example of database application:     Banks. Hospital. etc Extensions:       Multimedia databases Geographic Information Systems Data warehouse On-line analytical processing (OLAP) Active & real-time databases etc Slide 1-4 .

 Database System: The DBMS software together with the data itself. Slide 1-5 . student grades and transcripts at a university. the applications are also included.  Database Management System (DBMS): A software package/ system to facilitate the creation and maintenance of a computerized database.  Data: Known facts that can be recorded and have an implicit meaning. For example. Sometimes.What is a database? (cont) Basic definition:  Database: A collection of related data.  Mini-world: Some part of the real world about which data is stored in a database.

called miniworld or Universe of Discourse Logically coherent collection of data with some inherent meaning Designed. built and populated for specific purpose Slide 1-6 .Properties of database    Represents some aspect of the real world.

What is a database system? Slide 1-7 .

g.. Formatted Data)  Data Relevant Over a Long Time  Data Used by Many Simultaneous Users (Batch and Online Users) for Retrieval & Update Slide 1-8 .When is a database system needed? Examples Typical Environment  Corporate Enterprise  Data With Large Homogenous Parts (e.

What is a DBMS? Database Management System is a general purpose software system that facilitates the process of    defining. constructing and manipulating database for various applications Slide 1-9 .

Main functions of DBMS  Defining a Database: Specifying Data Types. and Constraints  Constructing a Database: the Process of Storing the Data Itself on Some Storage Medium  Manipulating a Database: Function for Querying Specific Data in the Database and Updating the Database Slide 1-10 . Structures.

Consistency  Security Enforcement Prevent Data From Illegal Uses  Concurrency Control Control the Interference Between Concurrent Programs   Recovery from Failure Query Processing and Optimization Slide 1-11 . Validity.Additional functions of DBMS  Interaction with File Manager So that Details Related to Data Storage and Access are Removed From Application Programs  Integrity Enforcement Guarantee Correctness.

 Motivating database management Manual Database Management   Data are Not Stored Programmer Defines Both Logical Data Structure and Physical Structure (Storage) Slide 1-12 .

 Motivating database management File Processing    Data are Stored in Files with Interface Between Programs and Files.G. Indexed. Random) One File Corresponds to One or Several Programs. Various Access Methods Exist (E. Sequential. Slide 1-13 ..

Problems with file systems  Data are Still Highly Redundant   Data is Unstructured       “Flat” Files High Maintenance Costs   Sharing Limited and at the File Level Data Dependence Ensuring Data Consistency and Controlling Access to Data (Concurrent Access Problematic) Difficult to Understand by New Developers Difficulties in Developing New Applications Almost Impossible to Evolve with New Capabilities Risk of Inefficient Applications Slide 1-14 .

. Compiled Programs) No Two Programs Can Concurrently Access the Same File Slide 1-15 .Database vs. Queries) Multiple Users Accessing the Same Data at Same Time File System Coordinates Only the Physical Access to the Data Data Written by One Program May Not Be Readable by Another Program Pre-determined Access to Data (I.E.e. Coordinates Both Physical and Logical Access to the Data Data are Shared by All Programs Authorized to Have Access to It Flexible Access to Data (i..

‘University’ database example Has 5 files (‘tables’):      Student Course Section Grade Report Prerequisite See how do they relate to each other! How do we define. construct & manipulate? Slide 1-16 .

Slide 1-17 .

Characteristic of Database Approach Self-describing nature Insulation between program and data Support of multiple views of data Sharing of data & multiuser transaction processing Slide 1-18 .

Self-describing nature As oppose to unstructured data Contains not only database itself. data definition is part of the application program Slide 1-19 . but also a complete definition of database structure (metadata) In traditional file processing.

Slide 1-20 .Insulation between programs & data Changes to the data structure does not generally require changing the program For example. adding a new field ‘Birthday’ The ‘data structure’ is not in the program We call this program-data independence DBMS provides conceptual representation User or programmer does not need to know how the DBMS store the data in the disk / file.

different needs   Accessing & printing the transcript of each students Checking that students have taken all the prerequisite course Slide 1-21 .Multiple Views  Many users.

Sharing & Multiuser DBMS provides concurrency control to ensure ‘correct’ behavior when multiple users access the same database Example: airline seat reservation It is called On-Line Transaction Processing (OLTP) Slide 1-22 .

Database users Actors on the Scene Database administrator  Authorizing access rights Database designers  Defines the structure of data to be stored End users:     Casual end user Naïve/parametric user Sophisticated users Stand-alone users System analyst and Application programmers (software engineers) Slide 1-23 .

Database users Workers behind the Scene    DBMS system designers and implementers Tool developers Operators and maintenance personnel Slide 1-24 .

Advantages of Using a DBMS Controlling redundancy Restricting unauthorized access Provides persistent storage for data structures Permits inference & actions using rules Multiple user interfaces Represents complex relations amongst data Enforcing integrity constraints Provides backup & recovery Slide 1-25 .

Reduced application development time: incremental time to add each new application is reduced. Slide 1-26 . report structures. screens. meta-data (description of data) etc. display formats.Additional Implications of Using the Database Approach Potential for enforcing standards: this is very crucial for the success of database applications in large organizations Standards refer to data item names.

Economies of scale: by consolidating data and applications across departments wasteful overlap of resources and personnel can be avoided. Availability of up-to-date information – very important for on-line transaction systems such as airline. Slide 1-27 . hotel. car reservations.Additional Implications of Using the Database Approach Flexibility to change data structures: database structure may evolve as new requirements are defined.

Slide 1-28 . Relational DBMS Products emerged in the 1980’s. Relational Model based Systems: The model that was originally introduced in 1970 was heavily researched and experimented with in IBM and the universities.Historical Development of Database Technology Early Database Applications: The Hierarchical and Network Models were introduced in mid 1960’s and dominated during the seventies. A bulk of the worldwide database processing still occurs using these models.

Historical Development of Database Technology Object-oriented applications: OODBMSs were introduced in late 1980’s and early 1990’s to cater to the need of complex data processing in CAD and other applications. Data on the Web and E-commerce Applications: Web contains data in HTML (Hypertext markup language) with links among pages. Their use has not taken off much. This has given rise to a new set of applications and E-commerce is using new standards like XML (eXtended Markup Language). Slide 1-29 .

Slide 1-30 . new operations and storage and indexing schemes in database systems. complex data structures.Extending Database Capabilities New functionality is being added to DBMSs in the following areas:  Scientific Applications  Image Storage and Management  Audio and Video data management  Data Mining  Spatial data management  Time Series and Historical Data Management The above gives rise to new research and development in incorporating new data types.

 If there are stringent real-time requirements that may not be met because of DBMS overhead.  Overhead for providing generality. Slide 1-31 .When not to use a DBMS Main inhibitors (costs) of using a DBMS:  High initial investment and possible need for additional hardware. and integrity functions. well defined. security. recovery. and not expected to change. When a DBMS may be unnecessary:  If the database and applications are simple. concurrency control.  If access to data by multiple users is not required .

Slide 1-32 .When not to use a DBMS When no DBMS may suffice:  If the database system is not able to handle the complexity of data because of modeling limitations  If the database users need special operations not supported by the DBMS.