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CONTROL

Presented by

Chinta Manohar

D Surya Suvidha

of numerical coefficients

of the error/time curve

multivariable control

to consider deadtime and unusual dynamic behavior

solve complex multivariable control calculations quickly

solving an openloop optimization problem for

the prediction horizon

First value of the computed control sequence is

applied

At the next time step, new system is recomputed

Consider

(Cutlet & Ramaker)

Process

Heater

MV (manipulated variable)

Fuel

flow FIC

DV(dynamic

Inlet

variable)

temperature TI

CV(control

Outlet

Process Flow

Ti

Fp

FIC

variable)

temperature TIC

Fuel

TIC

CONT

furnace DMC

model is defined by its

dynamic coefficients a

and b

Response to step

change in fuel, a

Response to step

change in inlet

temperature, b

0.014

0.086

0.214

0.0

0.240

0.340

0.414

0.600

0.465

0.540

The

,b

0.736

0.836

0.590

0.622

0.904

0.949

0.640

0.653

0.986

0.658

CONT

DMC

Dynamic

coefficents

Response to step

change in fuel, a

Response to step

change in inlet

temperature, b

Fuel Coefficients ai

1.5

1

0.5

0

Fuel Coefficients ai

10

1

Inlet Temperature

Coefficients bi

0.5

0

0

10

MATRIX COMPUTATION

The

coefficients and the independent variable changes

CV 1

2

CV

a1

a

2

0

a1

0

0

b1

b2

0

b1

CV 3 a3 a2

CV i ai ai 1

a1

b3

b2

ai 2

bi

bi 1

MV 1

0

2

MV

0

MV 3

b1

1

DV

DV 2

bi 2

3

DV

8

FEED FORWARD PREDICTION

Feedforward

DV to the left hand side

CV 1 b1

CV

CV 3 b3 DV 1

CV i bi

a1

a2

0

a1

a3 a2

ai ai 1

0

0 MV 1

2

a1 MV

MV 3

ai 2

9

CONT

Controller

definition

Prediction

horizon = 30

time steps

Control horizon = 10

time steps

Initialization

Set

CV prediction vector

to current outlet

temperature

Calculate error vector

CV 1 CV 0

CV 30 CV 0

e1 SP1 CV 1

e 30 SP 30 CV 30

10

Least

suppression

0

a1

a2

0

0

a1

a

30

a29

a28

1,1 0

0

2, 2

0

0

0

9,9

0

a1

a

2

a3

Move

suppression

0

0

a1

MV 1

MV 2

a21

0 MV 30

0

10,10

e1

2

e

e10

0

11

CYCLE

Calculate moves using least square solution

Use predicted fuel moves to calculate changes to outlet

temperature and update predictions

Shift prediction forward one unit in time

Compare current predicted with actual and adjust all 30

predictions (accounts for unmeasured disturbances)

Calculate feedforward effect using inlet temperature

Solve for another 10 moves and add to previously

calculated moves

12

FURNACE RESPONSE

Furnace

Temperature

Example

Temperature

Disturbance

DT=15 at t=0

Three Fuel

Moves Calculated

15

10

5

0

-5 0

-10

-15

625

600

5

Fuel_0

Temp_0

Fuel_1

Temp_1

Fuel_2

Prediction

10

Time

13

15

575

Constrain

interval

Constrain min/max MV values at all times

Constrain min/max CV values at all times

Drive to economic optimum

Allow for feedforward disturbances

14

CONT

Restrict

suppression)

Relative weighting of MV moves

Relative weighting of CV errors (equal concern

errors)

Minimize control effort

15

CONT

For

can be given by the convolution theorem

k

CV k 1 CV 0 ak j 1 MV j d k

j 0

CV 1 CV 0 a1 MV 0 d 0

CV 2 CV 0 a2 MV 0 a1 MV 1 d 1

CV 3 CV 0 a3 MV 0 a2 MV 1 a1 MV 2 d 2

16

CONT

Breaking

future contributions

CV k l CV

k l

k N 1

ak l j MV

j k

k 1

k 1

CV CV a1 MV k

k 2

k 2

CV CV a2 MV k a1 MV k 1

CV

k 3

CV

k 3

a3 MV k a2 MV k 1 a3 MV k 2

17

CONT

Let

reach steady state, then in matrix form

CV

k 2

CV

CV

k 1

k M

CV

k 1

k 2

a1

a

2

CV a N

k M

CV

aM

aM

0

a1

a N 1

aM 1

aM

MV k

a1 MV k 1

aM N 1 MV k N 1

aM

18

CONT

Setting

subtracting the past contributions, the simple DMC

equation results

CV k 1 CV k 1

S

k 2

S

CV

CV

CVSk M CV

k 2

k M

e A MV

19

CONT

Predicted

outlet temperature, predicted changes and past

history of the MVs and DVs

Desired response is determined by subtracting

the predicted response from the setpoint

Solve for future MVs -- Overdetermined system

Least square criteria (L2 norm)

Very large changes in MVs not physically

realizable

Solved by introduction of move suppression

20

SCALING OF RESIDUALS

1

posed

1

Min W 2 A MV e

2

2

w1

For example,

the relative

weights with

two CVs

w1

1

2

w1

w2

w2

w2

21

DMC-RESTRICTION

To

calculated moves a

relative weight for

each of the MVs is

imposed

Min W MV

2

R

1

2

r1

r1

r1

r2

r2

r2

22

CONT

Subject

The

to linear constraints

MV LO

LO

MV

MV

LO

MV HI

HI

MV

MV

k 1

MV

k N 1

HI

MV

MV

k

23

CONT

Subject

to linear constraints

Size

time interval

MV k

k 1

MV

MV

MV

MV

k N 1

MV

MV

IL

1 0 0 MV k

1 1

k 1

MV

k N 1

1 1 1 MV

24

CONT

Subject

to linear constraints

MV calculated

MV LO

MV

MV k

k 1

MV HI

MV

MV MV I MV

MV MV

L

LO

k N 1

HI

MV MV

MV

MV MV

LO

HI

25

CONT

Subject

to linear constraints

CV calculated

low limits

CV

LO

CV

LO

CV

LO

CV k 1

MV k CV HI

k 2

k 1

HI

MV

CV

CV

k M

k N 1

HI

MV

CV

CV

26

The

where

Subject to:

CV1LO g11MV1* g12 MV2* g13MV3* CV1HI

CV2LO g 21MV1* g 22 MV2* g 23MV3* CV2HI

27

MODIFIED DMC

The

Aij

to the jth MV,

A 11

A

21

A 1t

0

0

A 12

A 22

0

1t

0

A13

A 23

0 ,e

1t

e1

e2

MV1* MV 1

*

MV2 MV 2

MV3* MV 3

28

Approximate

controller output to measured process variables

29

CONT

Select

Compute

horizon, N

30

CONT...

Compute

Select

process variable units to be the same

Compute

31

CONT

response of the actual process and the initial

values of parameters

32

RESPONSE OF DMC

T=100, P=N=198, =3.53

33

REFERENCES

Dougherty and Douglas J. Cooper-Ind. Eng.

Chem. Res. 2003, 42, 1739-1752

http://web.stanford.edu/class/archive/ee/ee392m/

ee392m.1056/Lecture14_MPC.pdf

www.che.utexas.edu/course/che360/lecture_notes

tx.technion.ac.il/~dlewin/054414/LECTURE_12.

34

THANK YOU

35

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