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# Liquidity Risk

Chapter 24

Risk Management and Financial Institutions 4e, Chapter 24, Copyright John C. Hull 2015

## Types of Liquidity Risk

Liquidity

Liquidity funding risk

Risk Management and Financial Institutions 4e, Chapter 24, Copyright John C. Hull 2015

Price

## The mid market price

How much is to be sold
How quickly it is to be sold
The economic environment

As

## we found in August 2007 transparency

is also a factor that affects liquidity

Risk Management and Financial Institutions 4e, Chapter 24, Copyright John C. Hull 2015

## Bid-Offer Spread As a Function of

Quantity (Figure 24.1, page 448)

Offer Price

Bid Price

Quantity

Risk Management and Financial Institutions 4e, Chapter 24, Copyright John C. Hull 2015

## Bid-Offer Spread (page 450)

Dollar bid - offer spread, p Offer price Bid price
Proportional Bid - offer spread, s

## Offer price Bid price

Mid - market price

## Cost of liquidation in normal markets

n

1
si i

2
i 1
where n is the number of positions, i is the position
in the ith instrument, and si is the proportional
bid - offer spread for the ith instrument.
Risk Management and Financial Institutions 4e, Chapter 24, Copyright John C. Hull 2015

## Cost of Liquidation in Stressed

Markets
n

1
( i i ) i

i 1 2
where i and i are the mean and standard
deviation of the spread and gives the required
confidence level

Risk Management and Financial Institutions 4e, Chapter 24, Copyright John C. Hull 2015

## Liquidity-Adjusted VaR (page 452)

n

1
Liquidity - adjusted VaR VaR si i
i 1 2
n

1
Liquidity - adjusted stressed VaR VaR ( i i ) i
i 1 2

Risk Management and Financial Institutions 4e, Chapter 24, Copyright John C. Hull 2015

## Unwinding a Position Optimally

(page 452-454)
Suppose dollar bid-offer spread as a function of
units traded is p(q)
Suppose standard deviation of mid-market price
changes per day is
Suppose that qi is amount traded on day i and xi is
amount held on day i (xi = xi-1qi)

## Traders objective might be to choose the qi to

minimize
n

2 2

xi
i 1

i 1

1
qi p(qi )
2

Risk Management and Financial Institutions 4e, Chapter 24, Copyright John C. Hull 2015

A

## trader wishes to unwind a position in

100 million units over 5 days
p(q) = a+becq with a = 0.1, b = 0.05, and c =
0.03
= 0.1
With 95% confidence level the amounts
that should be traded on successive days
is 48.9, 30.0, 14.1, 5.1, and 1.9
Risk Management and Financial Institutions 4e, Chapter 24, Copyright John C. Hull 2015

Liquidity
Volume

## of trading per day

Price impact of a trade
Absolute value of daily return divided by
daily dollar volume (suggested by Amihud
in 2002)
Research shows that an assets expected
return increases as its liquidity decreases
Risk Management and Financial Institutions 4e, Chapter 24, Copyright John C. Hull 2015

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Sources

of liquidity

## Cash and Treasury securities

Ability to liquidate trading positions
Ability to borrow
Retail and wholesale depoosits
Securitization
Central bank borrowing

Risk Management and Financial Institutions 4e, Chapter 24, Copyright John C. Hull 2015

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Liquidity

## coverage ratio: designed to make

sure that the bank can survive a 30-day
period of acute stress
Net stable funding ratio: a longer term
measure designed to ensure that stability
of funding sources is consistent with the
permanence of the assets that have to be
funded
Risk Management and Financial Institutions 4e, Chapter 24, Copyright John C. Hull 2015

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Problems
Northern

## Rock (Business Snapshot 24.1)

Ashanti Goldfields (Business Snapshot 24.2)
Metallgesellschaft (Business Snapshot 24.3)

Risk Management and Financial Institutions 4e, Chapter 24, Copyright John C. Hull 2015

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A

## liquidity black hole occurs when most

market participants want to take one side
of the market and liquidity dries up
Examples:
Crash of 1987 (Business Snapshot 24.4, page 464)
British Insurance Companies (Business Snapshot

3.1)

## LTCM (Business Snapshot 22.1)

Risk Management and Financial Institutions 4e, Chapter 24, Copyright John C. Hull 2015

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A

## positive feedback trader buys after a

price increase and sells after a price
decrease
A negative feedback trader buys after a
price decrease and sells after a price
increase
Positive feedback trading can create or
accentuate a black hole
Risk Management and Financial Institutions 4e, Chapter 24, Copyright John C. Hull 2015

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Computer

## models incorporating stop-loss

Dynamic hedging a short option position
Creating a long option position
synthetically
Margin calls

Risk Management and Financial Institutions 4e, Chapter 24, Copyright John C. Hull 2015

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If

## all financial institution were regulated in

the same way, they would tend to react in
the same way to market movements
This has the potential to create a liquidity
black hole

Risk Management and Financial Institutions 4e, Chapter 24, Copyright John C. Hull 2015

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## The Leveraging Cycle (Figure 21.2)

Risk Management and Financial Institutions 4e, Chapter 24, Copyright John C. Hull 2015

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## The Deleveraging Cycle (Figure 21.3)

Risk Management and Financial Institutions 4e, Chapter 24, Copyright John C. Hull 2015

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Is Liquidity Improving?