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ASME Section IX

By
Joseph Davis

05/14/15

ASME Section-IX

WELDING QUALIFICATIONS AND


ESTABLISHING WPS.
ASME Section IX relates to qualification of
welders, welding operators, brazers and
brazing operators and the procedures that they
employ in welding and brazing.
It is divided in two parts, part QW gives
requirements for welding and part QB contains
requirements for brazing. We shall deal only
with part QW.
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ASME Section-IX

WPS & PQR


The purpose of welding procedure specification
(WPS) and procedure qualification records (PQR)
is to determine that the weldment proposed for
construction is capable of providing the required
properties for its intended application.
WPS is intended to provide direction for the
welder and lists the variables, both essential and
non essential and the acceptable ranges of these
variables when using the WPS.

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WPS & PQR

It is presumed that welder or welding operator


performing the welding procedure qualification
test is skilled workman so that welding
procedure qualification test establishes the
properties of weldment and not the skill of the
welder.
The purpose of performance qualification is to
determine if the welder is able to deposit sound
metal or the welding operator is able to operate
welding equipment properly.
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Part QW

Part QW is divided into 4 articles.


Article I -Welding general requirements
Article II-Welding procedure qualifications
Article III-Welding performance qualifications
Article IV-Welding data

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Test Position
Before we proceed let us first understand various
test position in groove welds in plates, groove welds
in pipes and fillet weld in plates etc.
In general,
1G or 1F is called flat positions
2G or 2F is called horizontal and circumferential
3G or 3F is called vertical position
4G or4F is called overhead position
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Test Position
Position 5G is only in welds in pipes. It is a
position when pipe axis is held horizontal and
circumferential seam is welded without rotating.
In a way it is combination of 1G, 3G & 4G.
Position 6G is also for the pipes when pipe axis is
at 45 deg. to horizontal plane and circumferential
seam is welded without rotating the pipe. It is
combination of all positions.

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Position for groove & fillet weld

Fig. 461.1- is the diagram defining the position


for groove welds depending on the inclination
of the axis of the weld and the angle of rotation
of the face of the weld.
There is similar fig. 461.2 giving position for
fillet welds.

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Fig. 451.1 gives the thickness limits and the type and
number of the test specimen required for procedure
qualification of groove

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In case of weld between dissimilar materials where it is difficult to


carry out bending so that weld is at the center of convex position,
transverse bends are replaced by longitudinal bends and the fig. look
like (Refer fig. 463.1 c)

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Fig.451.3 & 451.4 Give the test required to fillet test and fig.462.4 a,d
(it is similar except that instead of bend there is macro examination of
2 section of section)

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Cont.

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Refer fig.452.1,that gives performance qualification limits and type and number
of the test specimen required table. Fig 452.3 gives the diameter limits. It is
worth noting that one, two or more welders can be qualified on just one test
coupon. Each may be using even different processes.

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Refer fig. 462.4 B & C that gives the requirements for performance
qualification of fillet welds.

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Refer fig. 461.9 that gives performance qualification position and


diameter limits.

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Radiographic acceptance standards

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Cont-

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Welding Variables

Article (IV) gives data about various types of


welding variables. It also gives tables for various
welding processes showing essential variables,
supplementary essential variables and non
essential variables for procedures qualification;
and essential variables for performance
qualification.

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Cont.

Essential variables for procedure are


those welding variables whose change
will affect the mechanical properties
(other than notch-toughness) of the
weldment (ex. Change in P-number, filler
metal, electrode type, preheat post heat
etc.)

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Cont.

Supplementary essential variables for


procedure are those welding variables
whose change will affect the notch
toughness properties of weldment (ex.
Uphill or down hill vertical welding, heat
input, preheat or PWHT)

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Cont.

Non essential variables for performance are


those welding variables which will not affect
the mechanical properties of weldment (ex.
Joint design, method of back gauging or
cleaning etc.)

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Cont.

Essential variables for performance are


those welding variables which will affect
the ability of welder to deposit sound
weld (e.g. position, deletion of backing Fnumber etc.
Change in process is essential variable
for procedure as well as performance.

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Have look on some essential


variables tables.

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Welding variables WPQ

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Let us understand the term P-number


A-number and F-number.

All those materials are divided into various Pnumbers depending on their nominal
composition and further divided into groups
depending on the type of refinement / min.
specified UTS etc. QW-422 gives the full
details.

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Cont.

Plain carbon steels, C-Si, Cr-Mn & C-Mn-Si


are grouped as P-1 materials and austenitic
stainless steel as P-8 material. Ferrous welding
consumable are classified under various Anumbers based on their weld metal chemical
composition (table 442) and all welding
electrodes and welding rods are grouped in
different F-number depending on their AWS
classification which is based on type of flux and
chemical composition (table 432)
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QW-120 - TEST POSITIONS FOR GROOVE


WELDS

Angular deviation of 15 deg from the


specified horizontal and vertical planes,
and an angular deviation of 5 deg from
the specified inclined plane are permitted
during welding.

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QW-140 TYPES AND PURPOSES OF TESTS


AND EXAMINATIONS

Tension tests are used to determine the ultimate


strength of groove-weld joints.
Guided-bend tests are used to determine the
degree of soundness and ductility of grooveweld joints.
Toughness Tests are used to determine the notch
toughness of the weldment.

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QW-144 VISUAL EXAMINATION

Visual examination is used to determine


that the final weld surfaces meet
specified quality conditions.

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QW-150 TENSION TESTS

Thicknesses up to and including 1 in. (25


mm), a full thickness specimen shall be
used for each required tension test.
Cold straightening of the test coupon is
permitted prior to removal of weld
reinforcement

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QW-153 ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA,


TENSION TEST

If the specimen breaks in the base metal


outside of the weld or weld interface, the
test shall be accepted as meeting the
requirements, provided the strength is
not more than 5% below the minimum
specified tensile strength of the base
metal.
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QW-163 ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA, BEND


TEST
Open discontinuity in the weld or heat-affected zone
exceeding 1/8 in. (3 mm), measured in any direction on
the convex surface of the specimen after bending. Open
discontinuities occurring on the corners of the
specimen during testing shall not be considered unless
there is definite evidence that they result from lack of
fusion, slag inclusions, or other internal discontinuities.
For corrosion-resistant weld overlay cladding, no open
discontinuity exceeding 1/16 in. (1.5 mm), measured in
any direction, shall be permitted in the cladding, and
no open discontinuity exceeding 1/8 in. (3 mm) shall be
permitted along the approximate weld interface.

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QW-184 MACRO-EXAMINATION,
PERFORMANCE SPECIMENS
Visual examination of the cross section of the
weld metal and heat-affected zone shall show
complete fusion and freedom from cracks, except
that linear indications at the root not exceeding
1/32 in. (0.8 mm) shall be acceptable.
The weld shall not have a concavity or convexity
greater than 1/16 in. (1.5 mm)
There shall be not more than 1/8 in. (3 mm)
difference in the lengths of the legs of the fillet
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QW-201 MANUFACTURERS OR
CONTRACTORS RESPONSIBILITY

Each manufacturer shall qualify the


WPS by the welding of test coupons and
the testing of specimens (as required in
this Code), and the recording of the
welding data and test results in a
document known as a Procedure
Qualification Record (PQR).
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QW-251.2 Essential Variables

Essential variables are those in which a


change, as described in the specific variables, is
considered to affect the mechanical properties
of the weldment, and shall require
requalification of the WPS.
Supplementary essential variables are required
for metals for which other Sections specify
notch-toughness tests and are in addition to the
essential variables for each welding process.

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QW-251.3 Nonessential Variables

Nonessential variables are those in which a


change, as described in the specific
variables, may be made in the WPS
without requalification.

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Tables to be referred
1

QW461.3

Groove welds in test position

QW461.4

Fillet welds in plates test position

QW461.5

Fillet welds in pipe test position

QW462.1
A,b,c,d & e

Method of taking out test specimen

QW463.1
A,b,c,d,e,f

Method of taking out test specimen

QW451

Procedure qualification thk.limits

QW452

Performance qualification & test specimen

QW461.9

Performance qualification & diameter


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limits ASME Section-IX

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Acceptance criteria, Procedure


qualification

QW153 Tension test


QW163 Bend test
QW183 Macro-Examination procedure
specimen
QW184 Macro-Examination performance
specimen
QW191 Radiographic Examination
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