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NRG - Free Span

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10 August 2006

NRG ENGINEERING

training@nrgengineering.com

August

2 2 August 28,

by Mr. 4Eng Bin NG

5

1

3

Pipe

Allowable

Applicable

Codes

On-bottom

Stability

(Concrete

Coating)

Design

Wall

Thickness

Design

Cathodic

Protection

Design

Expansion

Calculations

Free Span

Calculations

Flexibility

Analysis

Methodology

On-bottom

Roughness

Analysis

Use of

Spoilers for

Pipe Selfburial

&

Unconventional

against

Anchors, Wave

Liquefaction &

Earthquake

10

Pipeline

Construction

- Conventional

Pipeline

Protection

Installation

Engineering

(1/2)

Installation

Engineering

(2/2)

NRG ENGINEERING

27 May 2015

Weekending

Aug 4

Aug 11

Aug 18

Aug 25

1 2

28

10 11 14 15 16 17 18 21 22 23 24 25 28

Design

On-bottom Stability (Concrete

Coating) Design

Pipe Expansion Calculations,

Flexibility Analysis Methodology

Allowable Free Span Calculations,

On-bottom Roughness Analysis

Pipeline Protection against Anchors,

Wave Liquefaction & Earthquake

Cathodic Protection Design

Today

Pipeline Construction - Conventional

& Unconventional

Installation Engineering

NRG ENGINEERING

27 May 2015

Introduction

The pipeline span analysis is performed to determine

allowable pipeline free spans in installation, hydrotest and

operation conditions.

The allowable pipeline span is established from static load

considerations and dynamic (vortex shedding).

Static span design criteria are based on the allowable

bending stress for the pipeline. The static span calculations

take into account the pipeline weight, design pressure,

design temperature and additional forces due to current and

significant waves associated with the relevant return period.

The hydrodynamic loading is computed based on the design

water depth.

The vortex shedding calculations are based on the design

NRG ENGINEERING

27 May 2015

Power to Deliver #4

currents and significant waves

associated with theTherelevant

Static Span

The maximum allowable span length based on static stress

considerations are dependent on self-weight of the pipe and

coatings and the uniformly distributed load from the

environment.

The allowable static span length for a pipeline is calculated

by limiting the equivalent stress in the span to ab where

ab is the allowable bending stress based on the Von Mises

equation after deducting the axial stress.

NRG ENGINEERING

27 May 2015

NRG ENGINEERING

27 May 2015

Where

ab

Ls

= (Fv2 + FH2)0.5

Fv

= Ws

FH

=

NRG ENGINEERING

FD FI

27 May 2015

FD

=

=

FI

sw

NRG ENGINEERING

0.5C D sw Dt (Vc U s cos ) 2

0.25C I sw Dt As sin

CD

Drag Coefficient

CI

Inertia Coefficient

Ws

27 May 2015

Dt

Vc

Us

velocity

As

NRG ENGINEERING

=

Wave induced horizontal water particle

normal to pipe axis (m/s)

Horizontal water particle acceleration normal to

the pipe axis (m/s2)

Wave phase angle (deg)

27 May 2015

restrained pipeline, which gives the most critical span

requirement.

The allowable bending stress due to span effect is determined by

using the Von Mises equation. The allowable bending stress is

computed by setting the allowable equivalent stresses and

deducting the stress due to internal pressure, curvature and

temperature effect.

The pipe stresses must not exceed the allowable combined

stresses in all conditions. These allowable stresses are used in the

static span calculation to determine the allowable span length

with self-weight and 1 year and 100 year environmental loading.

NRG ENGINEERING

27 May 2015

TABLE 4.2 ALLOWABLE STRESS CRITERIA

Description

(%SMYS)

Installation

72

Hydrotest

90

Operation

90

NRG ENGINEERING

27 May 2015

Dynamic Span

The dynamic span is calculated by considering the vortex

induced vibration (VIV) from the flow velocity acting on the

pipeline.

The excitation due to vortex shedding is analysed in

accordance with Appendix A of 1981 DNV Rules of Submarine

Pipeline System (Ref. [2]). In this guideline, the pipeline is

designed for no vortex shedding vibration.

Under the guidelines of DNV 81 (Ref. [2]), to avoid the

occurrence of vortex shedding excitation, the maximum

permissible free-span length will be determined based on a

comparison of the frequency of vortex shedding and the

natural frequency of the pipe span.

NRG ENGINEERING

27 May 2015

S tU c

fv

Dt

Where:

fv

St

NRG ENGINEERING

Strouhal number

Uc

Dt

27 May 2015

shedding induced oscillations may occur, a parameter

called the reduced velocity Vr, is used. Vr is defined as:

Vr

Where:

NRG ENGINEERING

Vr

Uc

f n Dt

Reduced velocity

Uc

fn

Dt

27 May 2015

C1

fn

2

here:

C1

E

=

=

EI

4

me L

1

2

Youngs modulus (N/m2)

me

NRG ENGINEERING

27 May 2015

restraint conditions, varies over the range to 22.0 for end

conditions varying from simply supported to fully fixed. In

this case, C1 is taken as 15.4 (fixed/pinned condition).

NRG ENGINEERING

27 May 2015

me m p mc m a

Where: me

(kg/m)

mp

mc

mass

ma

=

=

NRG ENGINEERING

Effective

mass of water displaced by the volume

of the coated pipe

27 May 2015

is the stability parameter, Ks, defined as:

2me

Ks

w Dt

Where:

Ks

me

NRG ENGINEERING

=

=

Logarithmic decrement of structural

damping (-)

Dt

27 May 2015

Types of Oscillations

Two types of oscillations may occur:

oscillations in-line with the velocity vector (in-line motion),

and

oscillations perpendicular to the velocity vector (cross-flow

motion).

NRG ENGINEERING

27 May 2015

In-Line Oscillations

oscillations may occur when 1.0 < Vr < 3.5 and

Ks < 1.8.

is dependent on Ks. The relationship is given in

Figure A.3 of DNV 1981 Rules (Ref. [1]).

will either be shed symmetrically or,

alternatively, from either side of the pipe.

symmetrical

vortex excitation may be determined from

1981 DNV Rules (how?).

NRG ENGINEERING

27 May 2015

Cross-flow Oscillations

Cross-flow oscillations may occur for Ks < 16 and values of Vr as determined from DNV

1981 Rules.

The velocity for onset of cross-flow motion is dependent on the Reynolds Number of the

flow across the pipe span (See Figure A.5 of DNV 1981 (Ref. [1])).

The amplitude of the cross-flow motion is dependent on Ks, the stability parameter. The

maximum value, as predicted by the DNV approach, may be determined from 1981 DNV

Rules (how?).

NRG ENGINEERING

27 May 2015

is calculated using the procedure given below:

Establish the value of Ks and hence determine the reduced velocity for

onset of in-line and cross-flow motion, Vr. Re-arrange and combine the

formulae given above to give an expression for the critical span length.

BDt Vr

U

c

Lcr

Where: Lcr

1

2

1

2

15.4 EI

2 me

Substitute the appropriate values in the above formula and determine

the critical span length for vortex induced span excitation.

NRG ENGINEERING

27 May 2015

Any questions?

NRG ENGINEERING

training@nrgengineering.com

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