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Basic Oilfield Calculations

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AREA

Width

Length

Diameter

Area of a Rectangle = Length x Width


Answer in Square Units.

Area of a Circle = r2
=xrxr
= x D/2 x D/2
= D2/4
= 0.7854 x D2
= 0.7854 D2

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Cross- Sectional Area

The Cross-Sectional area is the


difference in area between the larger
circle and the smaller circle.

I.E. X-Section Area = (D2 x


0.7854) (d2 x 0.7854)
As 0.7854 is common to both
sets of brackets we can
simplify this equation.
X-Section Area = 0.7854 x (D2
d2 )

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Grade & Yield Strength of Steel

Tubing & Casing are classified according to 4


criteria.

OD (inches or millimetres)
Weight (per foot in air)
Grade ( A letter followed by a number e.g. N-80)
Thread

The grade tells you the strength of the material.


E.G. N-80 means the yield strength of the steel is 80,000 psi.
P-110 means the yield strength of the steel is 110,000 psi.

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Grade & Yield Strength of Steel

The Grade of the steel refers to the yield of the steel in Lbs/sq in.

We can use this in conjunction with the X-Sectional Area to


work out the joint yield strength of the tubing or casing.

Example:- Red Book Section 200, page 10. 3 1/2 N-80 10.3#
Tubing.

OD = 3.5, ID = 2.922 Grade = 80000psi.


Pipe yield = 0.7854 (3.502 2.9222) x 80,000 psi

= 2.915 sq. in. x 80,000 lbs/sq.in.


= 233,227lbs.
233,000lbs

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Volume

Volume of a Cube = Length x


Width x Height
Answer in Cubic Units.

H
W
L

Volume of a Cylinder = X-Sectional Area x Height


= 0.7854 x D2 x Height

Answer in Cubic Units

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Volume

Tubing, Casing & The Red Book

H/L

Feet

Diameter in inches
Height/Length in Feet
Volume in Barrels
From Red Book Section 210 Capacity

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Pressure
Hydrostatic Pressure
The Pressure Due to the Height of a Column of Fluid.
The only Two things that effect Hydrostatic pressure is
the height (TVH) & the Density of the Fluid Column.

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Pressure
Hydrostatic Pressure
The Pressure Due to the Height of a Column of Fluid.
The only Two things that effect Hydrostatic pressure
are the (TVH) & the Density of the Fluid Column.
Depth is measured in Feet & Density is measured in
Lbs/Gallon or ppg.
We need to be able to Convert the Density to a
Hydrostatic Pressure Gradient.
We do this by dividing the fluid density (ppg) by
19.25
The Gradient of a Fluid is the weight of a 1 Foot High 1
square column of the Fluid.

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Pressure
Determine Fluid Hydrostatic Pressure Gradient

Start with rectangular


tube (closed on
bottom and open on
top)
231 in.

Fill with one gallon of


fluid
Height of fluid
measures 231 inches

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10

Pressure
Determine Fluid Hydrostatic Pressure Gradient

Convert 231 inches to 19.25 ft


(gradient of interest is psi/ft)

231 in.

To solve for the hydrostatic


pressure gradient of any
density fluid: Fluid density
(ppg) 19.25 in/ft
Example: 10 ppg 19.25 in/ft =
0.5194805 psi/ft hydrostatic
pressure gradient

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11

Specific Gravity

Pressure

Fresh water has been assigned the Specific Gravity of 1.


Specific Gravity is a dimensionless figure! It is actually a
ratio.
Any thing heavier than fresh water will have a Specific
Gravity greater than 1.
Anything lighter than water will have a Specific gravity less
than 1.
This ratio helps us when we are working out hydrostatic
pressures.
E.G.: If the fluid has a S.G. of 0.85, then its gradient will be
0.85 of the gradient of fresh water.
I.E.: 0.433 psi/ft x 0.85 = 0.368 psi/ft.

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12

API Gravity

Pressure

Fresh water has been assigned the oAPI (American


Petroleum Institute) Gravity of 10.
When measured on their scale it gave a reading of 141.5.
We have to use the following equation to convert oAPI
Gravity to a Specific Gravity

___141.5__ = Specific Gravity


131.5 + oAPI
E.G.: API Gravity = 38o
Specific Gravity = 141.5
131.5 + 38

= _141.5
= 0.835
169.5

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13

Types of Pressure

Pressure

14

Hydrostatic Pressure ? Pressure created by the weight of a column of fluid.

Applied Pressure ?

The Pressure applied to a system with


a pump or by the Formation.
Felt equally throughout a closed liquid
system.

Total Pressure ?

Hydrostatic Pressure + Applied Pressure.

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Pressure & Force


Force = Pressure x Area

Force
Pressure

Area

Pressure = Force/Area

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Area = Force/Pressure

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16

Pressure Due to a Column of Gas

Gas is Compressible so its gradient will change according to


depth and the Gravity of the gas concerned.
To make life easier for us Non Mathematicians, we use a
correction Factor Chart when working out pressure at depth.

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17

Pressure Due to a Column of Gas

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