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TAHAPAN

PENELITIAN
KUALITATIF DAN
KUANTITATIF
Panji Anugrah Permana

BASIC QUESTIONS

What we want to study (research question)


How do we want to study it (research design)
Whom we want to study (the case, cases, or
sample)
How best to acquire information (the datacollection techniques)
How best to analyze and interpret the information
that we acquire (the data analysis)
How and with whom to share our findings (the
dissemination process)
How to confirm our findings (the verification
process)

STEPS IN THE RESEARCH


PROCESS (NEUMANN 1991, 11)
Choose
topic
Focus
research
question

Inform
others

Interpret
data

Design
study

Analyze
data

Collect data

STEPS IN QUANTITAVE RESEARCH (WITH


THE FOCUS ON THEORY)
(CRESWELL 2009)

Reseachers tests or verifies a theory


Researcher tests hypotheses or research
questions from the theory
Researcher defines and operationalizes
variables derived from the theory
Researcher measures or observes variables
using an instrument to obtain scores

STEPS IN QUALITATIVE RESEARCH (WITH


THE FOCUS ON THEORY)

(CRESWELL 2009)

Researcher poses generalizations or theories from


past experiences and literature
Researcher look for broad pattern, generalizations, or
theories from themes or categories
Researcher analyzes data to form themes or
categories
Researcher asks open-ended questions or participants
or record fieldnotes
Researcher gathers information (eg, interviews,
observations)

THEORY-BEFORE-RESEARCH
MODEL

idea

theory

design

data
collection

analysis

Findings

RESEARCH-BEFORE-THEORY
MODEL

idea

design

data
collection

theory

analysis

findings

SPIRAL MODEL

Idea-

Theory

Design->

Data
collection

Analysis

findings

SPIRAL MODEL

idea

Literature
review

design

Data
collection
and
organization

Analysis
and
findings

disseminati
on

DETERMINING WHAT WE KNOW:


DOING LITERATURE REVIEW
Select a topic and identify literature to review
a. Identify appropriate databases, review articles, and classic studies
b. Review recent literature first and work backward
c. Define what is known and what is unknown as quickly as possible
. Analyze the literature
a. Use consistent form for summarizing articles
b. Looks for strengths and weaknesses
c. Identify gaps in what is known
. Criticize the literature
a. Summarize nature of the research (quant or qual, theory/ practice)
b. Identified who participated and how variables were measured
c. Identify limitations to be addressed in efforts to strengthen your research
. Synthesize the literature
a. Avoid note card presentation and strive to represent an integrated body of knowledge
b. Use headings to organize presentation
c. Introduce and summarize each section of the review
. Document the literature
a. Move from the very general to very specific representations of what is known
b. Explain inconsistencies
c. Use table to compare, contrast, and summarize bodies of knowledge

QULITATIVE PROPOSAL
Introduction
a. Statement of the problem (including existing
literature about the problem, significance of the
study)
b. Purpose of the study and how the study will be
deliminated (innovation of the study)
c. The research questions
. Procedures
a. Methodology/ qual research strategy
b. Data collection procedures
c. Strategies for validating findings
d. Proposed narrative structure of the study

QUANTITATIVE PROPOSAL
Introduction
a. Statement of the problem (issue, significance of
issue)
b. Purpose of the study and deliminations
c. Theoretical perspective
d. Research questions or hypothesis
. Review of the literature
. Methods
a. Type of RD
b. Population, sample, and participants
c. Data collection instruments, variables, and materials
d. Data analysis procedures

DETERMINING WHAT WE KNOW:


DOING LITERATURE REVIEW
Select a topic and identify literature to review
a. Identify appropriate databases, review articles, and classic studies
b. Review recent literature first and work backward
c. Define what is known and what is unknown as quickly as possible
. Analyze the literature
a. Use consistent form for summarizing articles
b. Looks for strengths and weaknesses
c. Identify gaps in what is known
. Criticize the literature
a. Summarize nature of the research (quant or qual, theory/ practice)
b. Identified who participated and how variables were measured
c. Identify limitations to be addressed in efforts to strengthen your research
. Synthesize the literature
a. Avoid note card presentation and strive to represent an integrated body of knowledge
b. Use headings to organize presentation
c. Introduce and summarize each section of the review
. Document the literature
a. Move from the very general to very specific representations of what is known
b. Explain inconsistencies
c. Use table to compare, contrast, and summarize bodies of knowledge

INTRODUCTION
Establishes the issue or concern leading to the research
by conveying information about the problem.
Research problem: the problem or issue that leads to
the need for a study.
RP in qual : exploring a concept or phenomenon
RP in quan: what factors or variables influence an
outcome
Deficiencies model of introduction:
1. The research problem
2. Studies that have addressed the problem
3. Deficiencies in the studies
4. The significance of the study for particular audiences
5. The purpose of statement

RESEARCH QUESTIONS
Qual: use exploratory verbs (discover/ GT, seek
to understand/ ethnography, explore a process/
case study, describe the experience/
phenomenology, report the stories/ narrative
research)
Quan: use directional words: affect, influence,
impact, determine, case, relate.
Types of questions:
1. Descriptive (what)
2. Inferential (relating IV and DV)
3. Elaborative (how...under what/ which
conditions)

PURPOSE STATEMENTS

As the central controlling idea


Qual: focus on single phenomenon,
nondirectional language (describe,
understand, develop, examine, discover)
Definition of the central phenomenon
Strategy of research
Object of the study and site
Quan: identify the theory, model, or
conceptual framework, identify the IV and
DV.

SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

How the study adds to the scholarly and


literature in the field (theory development)
How the study helps improve practice and
improve policy

SOME OTHER ELEMENTS

Ethical issues
Tranparancy
Informants privacy