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School of Aerospace Engineering

Computational Analysis of Centrifugal


Compressor Surge Control Using Air
Injection
Alexander Stein, Saeid Niazi and Lakshmi Sankar
School of Aerospace Engineering
Georgia Institute of Technology
Supported by the U.S. Army Research Office Under the Multidisciplinary
University Research Initiative (MURI) on Intelligent Turbine Engines
High Performance Computer Time was Provided by the Major Shared
Resource Center of the U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development
Center (ERDC MSRC).

School of Aerospace Engineering

Outline of Presentation
Objectives and motivation
Background of compressor control
Introduction of numerical tools
Configuration and validation results
DLR high-speed centrifugal compressor (DLRCC)

Off-design results without control


Surge analysis

Off-design results with air injection control


Steady jets
Pulsed jets

Conclusions and recommendations


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Motivation and Objectives


Use CFD to explore and
understand compressor stall
and surge

Sur
ge

Lim
it

Lines of
Constant
Rotational
Speed

Choke
Limit

Apply CFD to compare lowspeed and high-speed


configurations

Desired Extension
of Operating Range

Total Pressure Rise

Develop and test control


strategies (air injection) for
centrifugal compressors

Lines of
Constant
Efficiency

Flow Rate

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Motivation and Objectives


Compressor instabilities
can cause fatigue and
damage to entire engine

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What is Surge?

Mild Surge

Deep Surge

Mean
Pressure Operating Point
Rise

Pressure
Rise

Peak
Performance

Limit Cycle
Oscillations

Flow Rate

Flow Rate

Flow
Rate

Period of
Mild Surge Cycle

Time

Period of Deep
Surge Cycle

Flow
Rate

Flow
Reversal

Time

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How to Alleviate Surge


Diffuser Bleed Valves
Pinsley, Greitzer, Epstein (MIT)
Prasad, Neumeier, Haddad (GT)
Bleed Valves

Movable Plenum Wall


Gysling, Greitzer, Epstein (MIT)
Movable
Plenum Walls

Guide Vanes
Dussourd (Ingersoll-Rand Research Inc.)

Air Injection
Murray (CalTech)
Weigl, Paduano, Bright (NASA Glenn)
Fleeter, Lawless (Purdue)

Guide Vanes

Air-Injection

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Numerical Formulation (Flow Solver)


Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations in finite volume
representation:

qdV Ei Fj Gk n dS Ri Sj Tk n dS

q is the state vector.


E, F, and G are the inviscid fluxes (3rd order accurate). R, S,
and T are the viscous fluxes (2nd order accurate).
A one-equation Spalart-Allmaras model is used.
Code can handle multiple computational blocks and rotorstator-interaction.
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Boundary Conditions (Flow Solver)


Periodic boundary
at clearance gap

Solid wall boundary


at impeller blades
Solid wall boundary
at compressor casing

Inflow
boundary

Periodic
boundary
at diffuser

Solid wall boundary


at compressor hub
Periodic boundary
at compressor inlet

Outflow boundary
(coupling with plenum)

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Outflow Boundary Condition (Flow Solver)


Plenum chamber
up(x,y,z) = 0
pp(x,y,z) = const.
isentropy

.
mt

ap, Vp

Conservation of mass and


isentropic expression for
speed of sound:

dp p

.
mc

dt

2
ap

Vp

c m
t)
(m

Outflow boundary

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DLR High-Speed Centrifugal Compressor


Designed and tested
by DLR
High pressure ratio
AGARD test case

40cm

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DLR High-Speed Centrifugal Compressor


24 Main blades
30 Backsweep
Grid 141 x 49 x 33 (230,000
nodes)
A grid sensitivity study was
done with up to 1.8 Million
nodes.
Design Conditions:
22,360 RPM
Mass flow = 4.0 kg/s
Total pressure ratio = 4.7
Adiab. efficiency = 83%
Exit tip speed = 468 m/s
Inlet Mrel = 0.92
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Validation Results (Design Conditions)


Static Pressure Along Shroud
Static Pressure/Total Pressure, p/p
0 ,

Excellent
agreement
between CFD
and experiment

CFD Fine Grid

2.5

CFD Baseline Grid


Exp (Time Mean)

2
1.5
1
0.5
0
0

0.2

0.4
0.6
Meridional Distance, s/smer

0.8

Results indicate
grid
insensitivity
=> Baseline
Grid is used
subsequently
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Off-Design Results
Performance Characteristic Map
5.5

D C
Total Pressure Ratio

Computational and
experimental data
are within 5%

B
A

4.5

Fluctuations at
3.2 kg/sec are 23
times larger than
at 4.6 kg/sec

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Experiment

3.5
CFD

3
2

2.5

3.5

4.5

Mass Flow (kg/sec)

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Off-Design Results (High-Speed)


10
0

Pressure Rise Fluctuations (%)

Large limit cycle


oscillations develop
near surge line

10
0

20

20
20

10

10

20

30

30

Mass Flow Fluctuations (%)

C: 3.4 kg/sec

20
10
0

10

20

10

10

20

30

20

30

Mass Flow Fluctuations (%)

D: 3.2 kg/sec

20
10
0

10

20
30

B: 3.8 kg/sec

20

10

10

30

Pressure Rise Fluctuations (%)

A: 4.6 kg/sec

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Pressure Rise Fluctuations (%)

Pressure Rise Fluctuations (%)

Performance Characteristic Map

20

20

10

10

20

Mass Flow Fluctuations (%)

30

30

20

10

10

Mass Flow Fluctuations (%)

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Off-Design Results (High-Speed)


Mass Flow Fluctuations
Mild surge
cycles develop
Surge amplitude
grows to 60% of
mean flow rate

Surge frequency = 90 Hz
(1/100 of blade passing frequency)

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Air Injection Setup


Casing

0.04RInlet

Impeller

Compressor
Casing

RInlet

Compressor
Face

Rotation Axis

Systematic study:
injection rate and yaw angle
were identified as the most
sensitive parameters.
Related work: Rolls Royce,
Cal Tech, NASA Glenn
/MIT,

Injected Fluid
Sheet

Yaw Angle
Main Flow

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Air Injection Results (Steady Jets)


Different Yaw Angles, 3% Injected Mass Flow Rate
yaw = 45 deg
yaw = 7.5 deg
yaw = -15 deg

Optimum yaw angle


of 7.5deg. yields best
result

3.5
3
2.5

-25

2
10

20

30

Rotor Revolutions, t/

Positive yaw angle is


measured in opposite
direction of impeller
rotation

40

0
25

Amplitude (%)

Reduction in Surge

Mass Flow (kg/sec)

4.5

-20

50
75
100
0

20

Yaw Angle (Degree)

40

60

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Air Injection Results (Parametric Study)


Optimum:
Surge amplitude/main flow = 8 %
Injected flow/main flow = 3.2 %
Yaw angle = 7.5 degrees

An optimum yaw angle exists.


A reasonable amount (~3%) of injected air is sufficient to suppress surge.

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Nondim. Surge Fluctuations (%)

Air Injection Results (Pulsed Jets)


100

With Phase Angle


Adjustments

Surge fluctuations
decrease as long as
the injection phase
was lagged 180 deg.
relative to the flow
=> suggests feedback
control

Without Phase
Angle Adjustments

50

50

100
0

inj ( t )
m
flow
m

10
15
Rotor Revolutions,
t

20

25

reduction in external
air requirements by
50% (compared to
steady jets)

0.015 0.015 sin(surge t )

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Nondim. Surge Fluctuations (%)

Air Injection Results (Pulsed Jets)


1.5% injected mass
is sufficient to
suppress surge

15
10
5

High-frequency jets
(inj = 4surge)
perform better than
low-frequency jets
(inj = surge)

0
5
10
15
0

10
15
Rotor Revolutions,
t

20

inj ( t )
m
0.015 0.015 sin( 4surge t )
m flow

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Air Injection Results (Pulsed Jets)


Vorticity Magnitudes Near Leading Edge Tip
Increased amounts
of mixing enhance
the momentum
transfer from the
injected fluid to the
low-kinetic energy
particles in the
separation zone

600

Low-Frequency Jets
High-Frequency Jets
No Jets

Vorticity Magnitude

500
400
300
200

Numerical
Probe

100

Jet

0
0

t/2, Rotor Revolutions

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Air Injection Results (Pulsed Jets)


Shear Stresses Near Leading Edge Tip
High-frequency
actuation leads to
significantly larger
shear stress levels.

0.001

Low-Frequency Jets
High-Frequency Jets

0.0009
0.0008

Produce smaller but


intense turbulent eddies.

xy, Shear Stress

0.0007
0.0006

Enhances the mixing at


small length scales.

0.0005
0.0004

Area of
Interest

0.0003
0.0002

Jet

0.0001
0
0

2
3
t/2, Rotor Revolution

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Conclusions
A Viscous flow solver has been developed to
obtain a detailed understanding of instabilities in centrifugal compressors.
determine fluid dynamic factors that lead to stall onset.

Steady jets are effective means of controlling surge:


Alter local incidence angles and suppress boundary layer separation.
Yawed jets are more effective than parallel jets.
An optimum yaw angle exists for each configuration.

Pulsed jets yield additional performance enhancements:


Lead to a reduction in external air requirements.
Jets pulsed at higher frequencies perform better than low-frequency jets due
to enhanced mixing at small length scales.

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Recommendations
Perform studies that link air injection rates to surge amplitude via
a feedback control law.
Use flow solver to analyze and optimize other control strategies,
e.g. inlet guide vanes, synthetic jets, casing treatments.
Employ multi-passage flow simulations to study rotating stall
and appropriate control strategies.
Study inflow distortion and its effects on stall inception.
Improve turbulence modeling of current generation
turbomachinery solvers. Analyze the feasibility of LES methods.
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