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1

(1) VA (2) VB (3) VC (4) VD (5) VAC (6) VAD



(1) VA (2) VB (3) VC (4) VD (5) VAC (6) VAD

(1) VA= VAB = 9V


(2) VB = 0V
(3) VC = VCB = 6V
(4) VD = VDB = VDC + VCB = 3+6 = 9V
(5) VAC = VA VC = 9 6 = 3V
(6) VAD = VA VD= 9 9 =
0V


(1) VX (2) VY (3) VXY (4) VYX


(1) VX (2) VY (3) VXY (4) VYX

(1) VX = 7V
(2) VY = 10V
(3) VXY = VX VY = 7 10 = 3V
(4) VYX = VXY = 3V


1. (electomotive force,emf E)

2. (voltage drop,Vr)

3. (terminal voltage,Vt)

( )

S VBC =12 S VBC =10.8

VAC V
VAB V
VBC V ( S
)

1-9 S VBC =12 S VBC =10.8

(1) S
12
(2) S VBC
10.8
(3) 12 10.8=1.2

VAC 12 V
VAB 1.2 V
VBC 10.8 V ( S
)

1.
2. t Q

3. t N 1 (1e) =
1.610-19

2-1
2-2
2-3
2-4
2-5
2-6

2-1.1
2.

(1) (A)

(2) ( )

(3) ( )

m(

2-2.1

20%
101025%=1k5%

2-2.1

2-2.1

2-4 R=2510110%=24010%
240 240 10%=264
240 240 10%=216
216 264

2-2.1
/

(1)R1

(2)R2

(3)R3

2-2.1
/

(1)R1

(2)R2

(1) R1 = 47104 5% = 470k 5%


(2) R2 = 1010-1 10% = 1 10%
(3) R3 = 51101 20% = 510 20%

(3)R3

2-2.1

2-2.1

(5) 22100 5% = 22 (220.05)


22 220.05 23.1
(6) 20%

2-2.2

(1)R1

(2)R2

2-2.2

(1)R1

(2)R2

(1) R1 = 685 103 5% = 685k 5 %


(2) R2 = 105 10-1 1% = 10.5 1%

2-2.2

2-3.1

1.
2. ( )
3.
4.
5.
(1)47k 10% 1/2W
(2)50 1% 10W

2-3.1
1.

(a)

(b)
1

2-3.1
2. (variable resistor V.R.)
2

(a)

(b)

(c)
2

2-3.1
3.
3

2-3.2
1.
(CdS) (CdSe)

2-3.2
2.

5
1. thermistor

(negative thermal coefficient NTC)


2. sensistor
<
(positive thermal coefficient PTC)
5

1.

(a) (b)

(d)

(c)

(e)-

6 ( )

2.

(a) (b)

(d)

(c)

(e)-

2-8 ( )

3.
(1)


(2)

3.
(3)

(1)A B

(2)

(3)

(1)A B

(2)

(1)A B VAB
VA=12 VB=6 VAB= VA VB=12 6=6 (V)
(2)

I=

VAB 6
= = 3( A)
R
2

(3) A
B

(3)


220V 100W 110V

(1) (2) (3)

(1) (2-7) P = V * I,
V 2 (220) 2
484()
R
P
100

(2)

I =

V 110
=
= 0.227( A)
R 484

(3)
P=VI=1100.227=25 (W)

V
(110)
P= =
= 25(W )
R
484
2

P=I2R=(0.227)2484=25 (W)

1/4

2-6.1

2-6.2
1. (H) (R)

(t ) (I2)
2.

2-6.2
3.
1 1

2-40

4. BTU (British Thermal Unit )


1 1

1BTU 252 1055

3-1
3-2
3-3
3-4
3-5
3-6 Y
3-7
3-8

3-1.1

3-1

(a)

(b)
3-1

3-1.1
1.
2.
3.

3-1.1

(c)

1. 3-2(a)
2. (open circuit) 3-2(b)
3. (short circuit)
3-2(d)

(a)

(b) 1

(c) 2

3-2

(d)

3- 1

3- 1

10
I = = 2A
5

I = 0A

0.002
10
I =
= 5000A
0.002
I = 0A
1

3-1.2

1. (node)
2. (branch)
3. (loop)
4. (mesh)

3-3

3-1.3

(a)
3-4

(b)

3-1.3
1.

(a)

(b)

3-5 ( )

3- 2

(1)

(2) 1

(3) 2

3- 2

(1)

(2) 1

(3) 2

3+3=6V 3-3=0V 3-1.5=1.5V


6/2 = 3A 0A

1.5/2 = 0.75A

3- 3

(1) SA SB OFF

(2) SAOFF SBON

(3) SA SB ON

3- 3

(1) SA SB OFF

(2) SAOFF SBON

(3) SA SB ON

3-1.3
3.

(a)

(b)
3-6

(c)

3-1.4
1.

2.

3-7 n

3-1.4
3.

4.

3-1.4
5.

6.

P P P P ... P
...P I R
P I R P =I R
T

3- 4

(1)

(1) (2) (3) (4)

3-4

3- 4

(1)

(1) (2) (3) (4)


(1) RT 10 15 25
(2) I =

E 100
=
= 4A
RT
25

(3) V1 I10 410 40 V


V2 I15 415 60 V
(4) P1 I210 4210 160 W
P2 I215 4215 240 W
3-4

3- 6

(3)

1/1W 2/4W

3- 6

(3)

1/1W 2/4W

RT=1+2=3
P = I 2 RI1 =
I2 =

P2
=
R2

P1
1
=
= 1A
R1
1

4
= 2A
2

I 1A
P=I2RT=123=3W

3. 10W 50W 10

3. 10W 50W 10

RT=10+10=20

P = I 2R
I1 =

P1
=
R1

10
= 1A
10

I2 =

P2
50
=
= 5A
R2
10

I 1A P= I2 RT =1220=20W

3-2.1 (KVL)
1.

2.

(a) E1=E2+I (R1+R2)

(b) E1+E2=I (R1+R2+R3)

3-8

3- 7

KVL

(1) (1) I (2) V1 V2

3-7 (1)

3- 7

KVL

(1) (1) I (2) V1 V2

(1) KVL =

50= I 12 10 I 8
I2A

(2) V1 I 12 2 12 24 V
V2 I 8 2 8 16V
3-7 (1)

4. (2)
(1) E 6
(2) I 2 RT 9

3-7 (2)

4. (2)
(1) E 6
(2) I 2 RT 9
(1) KVL =
12+E=8 6 4 E 6 V
(2) RT = ET/I = 18/2 = 9

3-7 (2)

3- 8

KVL
()

(1)I (2)Vab

3-8

5. Vcd

3- 8

KVL
()

(1)I (2)Vab
10+20=30+40+I(2+4+6+8)
I = -2A
( )
Vab=22+10=14V
3-8

5. Vcd
Vcd=30 26=18V

3- 9

KVL
()

VA VB

3-9

3- 9

KVL
()

VA VB
KVL =
15 4 5 VA VB
VA 3 2 3 4
VA 12V VB 2V
3-9

3-2.2
3-9
E = I R T = I ( R1 + R 2 )

E
E

RT R1 R2

V1 I R1

E
R1
R1 R2

V2 I R2

E
R2
R1 R2

3-9

3-2.2

3- 10

bc

6. ac
3-10

3- 10

bc

Vbc = 24* 4/(2+4+6) = 8V

6. ac
3-10

3- 10

bc

Vbc = 24* 4/(2+4+6) = 8V

6. ac
3-10

Vac = 24* (2+4)/(2+4+6) = 12V

3- 11

()

3-11

3- 11

()

S1 V 120V

S2 V 120V*3R/4R=
90V
S3 V 120V*2R/4R=
60V
S4 V 120V*R/4R=
30V
3-11

7. S2 S3 80

S2 S3 2 R

V 120V*2R/3R= 80V

3-7 ( )

3-3.1

3-8
1. R3 R4 b c
// R3// R4 R3 R4
2. R1 R2 a
3. R1 R3 c

3-8

3- 12

(a)

(b)

(c)

3- 12

(a)

(b)

(c)

3-3.2
3-12 n

(a)

(b)

3-3.2
1.

2.
E
G1 E
R1
E
I2
G2 E
R2
I1

(G1

1
1
G2 )
R1
R2

3-3.2
3.

4.

3-3.2
5.

R
6.n RT
n

3-3.2
7.

E2
E2
E2
2
2
P1
G1 EP2
G2 E
Pn
Gn E 2
R1
R2
Rn

3- 13

(1) (2) (3)

3-13

3- 13

(1) (2) (3)

3-13

(1)
(2)

RT 1

R1R2
3 6

2
R1 R2 3 6

RT 2

12 12
6
12 12

(3)
36 // 36 18 18 // 18 9 9 // 9 4.5
RT3=4.5

3- 14

(1) (2) (3)


(4) (5)

3- 14

(1) (2) (3)


(4) (5)
(1)

3-14

1
1
1
24
RT

1
1
1
1 1 1
6 3 2 11


R1 R2 R3
4 8 12
24

(2) I

E
24

11A
RT 24
11

(3) I1

24
24
6A I 2 8 3A
4

24

I 3 12 2A

3- 14

(1) (2) (3)


(4) (5)
(4)
E 2 242
P1

144W
R1
4

E 2 242
P2

72W
R2
8

P2 I 22 R2 32 8 72W

E 2 242
P3

48W
R3 12

P1 I12 R1 62 4 144W

P3 I 32 R3 22 12 48W

PT P1 P2 P3 144 72 48 264W
PT E I 24 11 264W

(5)

3-14

10. R1 R2 R3=1 2 3

I1 I2 I3=
P1 P2 P3=

V I1 I2 I3=1/1
1/2 1/3 I =
R
P = I2 R P1 P2 P3=I12 R1 I22 R2 I32 R3 = 9
4.5 3

3- 15

(1) (2)
(3)
(4)

3-15

3- 15

(1) (2)
(3)
(4)

(1) RT = (R1R2)/(R1+R2) = 1000/1001 = 1


(2)

10
I1
10A
1

10
I2
0.01A
1000

(3) I I1 I 2 10 0.01 10.01A

(4) P1= V I1 =100W


P2= V I2 =0.1W

3-15

3-4.1 (KCL)
1.

2.

3-4.1 (KCL)

KCL Iin =Iout I1+I4 = I2+I3+I5


Iin Iout=0 I1+I4-I2-I3-I5=0

(a)

(b)
3-13

3- 16

KCL( )

IX

3-16

3- 16

KCL( )

IX

KCL
3 1 4 2 7
5 6 IX
IX 6A
3-16

3- 17

KCL( )

I1 I2 I3

3-17 (1)

3- 17

KCL( )

I1 I2 I3
KCL I1 I2 I3
I1 8 1 I1 3 I1
4A
I2 I1 6 4 I2
4 6 4 I2 I2
6A
I3 I2 I3 1 5
6 I3 1 5 I3
2A

3-17 (1)

11. (2)
IX 4 A IY 5 A

3-17 (2)

11. (2)
IX 4 A IY 5 A
I1 2 + 5 3 = 4A
I2 7 1 I1 = 2A
IX 4 + 2 I2 = 4A
IY IX + 6 5 = 5A

I2

3-17 (2)

3- 18

KCL( )

(1) I2 (2)E (3) R2 (4)R3

3-18

3- 18

KCL( )

(1) I2 (2)E (3) R2 (4)R3


(1)
KCL
I2 =8 1 3=4A
(2) E=I23=43=12V
(3) E=I1R1=1R1=12 R1=12
(4) E=I3R3=3R3=12 R3=4

3-18

3-4.2
3-14 3-3

RT

E I RT I

R1R2
R1 R2
R1 R2
R1 R2

R1 R2
E
R
R R2
I1
T I 1
I
R1
R1
R1
R1 R2
E
R
R R2
I2
T I 1
I
R2
R2
R2

3-4.2

3-4.2

3- 19

()

(1) (2)

3-19

3- 19

()

(1) (2)
(3-19)
I1 = 9*60/(30+60) = 6A, I2 = 9*30/(30+60) = 3A

I2 KCL I=I1+I2
I2 I I1= 9 6 3A
E = I1R1 = I2R2 = 6 30 = 3 60 = 180 V

3-19

3- 20

()

3-20

3- 20

()

RT 6 // 3 // 2 1
(3-20)
I1 = I*RT/R1 = 18*1/6 = 3A
I2 = I*RT/R2 = 18*1/3 = 6A
3-20

I3 = I*RT/R2 = 18*1/2 = 9A

12. Vab E

3-20

12. Vab E
Vab=I16= I23= I32=36=18 V
E=1812+36=234 V

3-20

3- 21

Rab I I1 I2

3-21

3- 21

Rab I I1 I2
(1)
Rab 2 (20 //( 8 10 12)) 4
2 12 4 18
(2) I =
(3)

I1 5

E
90
=
= 5A
Rab
18

20
2A
20 30

(4) I 2 5 2 3A

3-21

13. Vcd Vef I3

3-21

13. Vcd Vef I3


Vcd=I220=320=60 V Vef= I110=210=20 V
I3= I1+ I2=2+3=5 A

3-21

3-5.1

1.
2. E r

(a)
r=0
r

(b)
r
r
3-15

(c)

IL

E
r RL

3- 22

3-22

3- 22

3-22

rab 2 1 3 6
Vab 6 3 9 12V
?

3- 23

3-23

3- 23

3-23

E E E E 9V
r r // r // r 3 // 3 // 3 1
E
9
I

3A

r R 1 2
E
I
r R
ab

ab

ab

ab

9
1.8A
3 2

( 1.8A
3A) ( 3 1)

3-5.2
1.
2. r

3-16

(a)

(b)
r
r
3-16

(c)
IL=I-Ir

3- 24

3-24

3- 24

3-24

Iab=I1 I2+I3=6 3+9=12A


rab= r1// r2// r3=60 // 30 // 20 =20 // 20 =10

3- 25

3-25

3- 25

3-25

Iab = I1 = I2 = 6A
rab = r1 + r2 = 10 + 10 = 20

3-7.1
1.
2. RS

RX R1 = RS R2

(a)

(b)
3-19

3-7.1
2.
IG=0 Vab= Va- Vb = 0
Rs
R1 Rs

Vb E

Va E

Va=Vb

Rs
Rx

R1 R s R2 Rx

Rx
R2 Rx

3-7.1
2.
RS(R2+Rx)= Rx(R1+RS)

1.
2.

3- 28

RS 9
Rx

3-28

3- 28

RS 9
Rx

4 9 12 Rx Rx 3

3-28

3- 29

Rab

3-29

3- 29

Rab
adbc
30

Rab ( 3 + 12 ) // ( 2 + 8 ) // 3 6 // 3
2

3-29

3-8.1
1. RV
2.
3.
4.
Rm

3-8.1
3-20 VT VV
Vm VT=VV+Vm

(a)

(b)

3-20

3-8.1
VT VV m

3- 30

10V 1K
100V

3- 30

10V 1K
100V
m = VT = 100 = 10
Vv
10
Rm RV (m 1) 1 k(10 1) 9
k
9 K

3-8.2
1. RA
2.
3.
4.
RS

3-8.2

(a)

(b)

3-21

3-21 IT IA
IS IT=IA+IS

3-8.2
IT IA n

3- 31

10mA 50
1A

3- 31

10mA 50
1A
n =

IT
1
=
= 100
IA
0.01

RS = RA /(n-1) = 50/(100-1)

0.5

0.5
3-32 3-33

15. 1 100
0.01
RS = RA /(n-1) = 50/(100-1) = 0.01

3- 32

100V/100W
(1) 100V

(2) 100V

3- 32

100V/100W
(1) 100V

(2) 100V

(1) (55V)

V
P= 2
R

25W
(2)
100W

16. 110V/100W

16. 110V/100W

110V 1102=220V

17. 110V/25W 110V/100W


220V

17. 100V/25W 100V/100W


200V

R1 = V12/P1 = 1002/25 = 400 R2 = V22/P2 = 1002/100 = 100

V1 = 200*400/(400+100) = 160V, V2 = 200*100/(400+100) = 40V

P 1=

( V1 )
R1

( V2 )

160
40 2
=
= 64WP2 =
=
= 16W
400
R2
100

(25W )

3- 33

3V/6W 12V

3- 33

3V/6W 12V

3V/6W 12V

18. 3V/6W 12V

18. 3V/6W 12V

R
12V
R VR=12-3=9V
R

I =

6
= 2A
3

R = 9/2 = 4.5

3- 34

(1)
(2)
(3)

3-34

3- 34

(1)
(2)
(3)

(1) 3-34

(2)

(3)

4-1
4-2
4-3
4-4
4-5
4-6
4-7

4-1.1
(KCL)

1. (node)
( 4-1)
2.

3.
V1 V2 V3
4. (branch)
I1 I2
I3

4-1

4-1.2

1.
2. 4-1 V2

4-1 V1 V3 V1=E1 V3=-E2


3.
I1 I2 I3

4-1.2
4.
N N-1

5. KCL
6.
4.
3.

4-1

(a)

(a)

4-1

(b)

4-1

(a)
(1) (b)
(2) V1
(3) I1 I2 I3

(a)

(4)
V1 - ( - 12)
V1 - 6
V1
I1 =

I 2 =

I 3 =

(5) KCL I1+I2+I3=0


V1 - 6 V1 - ( - 12) V1
3

=0

4-1

(b)

4-1

(6)
2V1 12 3V1 36 V1 0 V1
4V
V - 6 (4)
- 4
- 6
10
(7)
I1 = 1
=
=A
( )
3
3
3
V1 - ( - 12)
- 4 +12
=
= 4A
2
2
V
- 4
2
= 1=
=A
6
6
3

I2 =

( )

I 23

( )

10

(8) (V1 ) I1+I2+I-3=3 + 4 - 3 = 0

KCL

1. 6V

1. 6V
(1) (b)
(2) V1
(3)
I1 I2 I3
(4)
V1 - ( - 6)
V1 - ( - 12)
V1
I1 =

I 2 =

I 3 =

(5) KCL I1+I2+I3=0


V1 + 6 V1 +12 V1
+
+ =0
3
2
6

1. 6V
(6)
2V1+12 3V1 36 V1 0 V1 8
V
V1 + 6(4) -
8- 6
2
(7)

=
=- A
( )
3
3
3
V - ( - 12)
- 8 +12
I2 = 1
=
= 2A ( )
2
2
V
- 8
4
I3 = 1 =
=A
( )
6
6
3
2
4
+
2
=0
(V1 ) I1+I2+I3=3
KCL
3
I1 =

(8)

4-2

(a)

(b)

(a)
4-2 (1)

4-2

(1) (b)
(2) V1 V2 V3
V1=12V V3=6V
(3) V2 I1 I2 I3
V2
6 - V2
V
(4) 12
-KCL
I1+I2=I324-2V +6-V =3V
+
= 2
6

12

4-2

(5) V2 =5V
(6) (4)
I1 =

12 - V2
12 - 5
7
=
= A
6
6
6

I3 =

V2
5
= A
4
4

( )

( )

I2 =

6 - V2
6- 5
1
=
=
A( )
12
12
12

I4 =

V1 - V3
12 - 6
=
= 1.2A( )
5
5

7 1 5
(7) ( V2 ) I1+I2= I 3
6 12 4

KCL

2. (2) 12 12V
4-2 (2)

2. (2) 12 12V
(1)

4-2 (2)

(2) V1 V2 V3
V1=12V V3=20V
(3) V2 I1 I2 I3
12 - V2 - 20 - V2
V
(4)
KCL
I1+I2=I324-2V2-60-3V2=V2
+
= 2
6

12

2. (2) 12 12V
(5) V2 =6V

4-2 (2)

(6) (4)
I1 =

12 - V2
= 3A ( )
6

12 =I 3 =
I4 =

I2 =

- 20 - V2
= 3.5A
4

V2
= 0.5A
12

12 - ( - 20)
V1 - V3
=
= 4A
8
8

( )

( )

12V = I4+ I1=4+3=7A( )

( )

4-3

(a)

(a)

(b)
4-3

4-3

(1) V0 (b)
(2) I1 I2 I3 I4
(3) KCL I1+I2+I3+I4=0
V0 ( 3) V0 12 V0 ( 5) V0 8

0
4
4
4
4

(4) V0 =3V

4-3

(5) (4)
V0 ( 3) 3 3

1.5A
4
4
V 12 3 12
I2 0

2.25A
4
4
V (5) 3 5
I3 0

2A
4
4
I1

I4

V0 8 3 8

1.25A
4
4

( )
( )
( )
( )

(6) I1+I2+I3+I4=1.5 2.25+2 1.25=0 KCL

4-4

(a) V1 V2

(a)

(b)
4-4

4-4

(1) (b)
(2) V1 V2
(3) I1 I2 I3 I4 I5
(4) V1 KCL I1=I2+I3
V V V2
4 1 1
5V1 2V2 48
4
6
(5) V2 KCL I3=I4+I5
V1 V2 V2

2 V1 2V2 12
6
6

(5) V1 =9V V2 = 1.5V


(KVL)

1. 4-2(a)
2
2.
I1 I2 I3

4-2(b) I2 I
-I

(a)

(b)
4-2

3. KVL

4-2 R2


(R1+R2) I1+ R2I2=E R2I1 +(R2+R3)I2+=0
4.
2.

4-5

(a)

(a)

(b)
4-5 (1)

4-5

(a)
(1) (b)
(2) Ia Ib
(3) KVL
(2+3+1) -1Ib=13-2 6Ia-1Ib=11

(a)

-1Ia+(1+2+1) Ib=2 -1Ia+4Ib=2


(4)
Ib=1A
Ia=2A
(5)
I1= Ia=2A I2= Ib=1A I3= Ia - Ib=2-1=1A

(b)
4-5 (1)

3.
(a)

4-5 (1)

(b)

3.
(1)

(a)

4-5 (1)

(b)

(2) V1
(3) I1 I2 I3

(4)
I1 =

13 - V1
V
V - 2
I 2 = 1 I 3 = 1
2 +3
2 +1
1

3.
(a)

(5) KCL I1=I2 + I3

4-5 (1)

(b)

13 - V1
V
V - 2
= 1 + 1
2 +3
2 +1
1

(6)
39 3V1=5 V1 15V1 30 V1 3 V
(7) (4)
I1 =

13 - V1
= 2A
2 +3

( )

V1 - 2
= 1A
1

( )

I3 =

I2 =

V1
= 1A ( )
2 +1

4. (2) VA VB

4-5 (2)

4. (2) VA VB

KVL
VA+4=3+6+1 VA =6 V
20+1=5+6+ VB VB =10 V

4-5 (2)

4-6

(a) I1 I2 I3

(a)

(b)
4-5 (1)

4-6

(1) (b)
(2) Ia Ib
(3) KVL
a (3+5+2)Ia+2Ib=22+12

10Ia+2Ib=34

b Ib=2A
(4) Ia=3A
(5) I1= Ia=3A I2= Ia+Ib =3+2=5A I3= Ib=2A

(superposition theorem)

1.

2.

3.
(1)


(2)

(3) (1) (2)


(4)


4.

6
4-7

4-7 (1)

6
4-7

(1) 15V 5A

4-7 (1)

(2) 6
IV

15
1A
96

( )

6
4-7

(3) 5A 15V

(4) 6
IA 5

9
3A
96

4-7 (1)

( )

(5)
I IV I A 1 3 4A

( )

5. 9
15V
5A

IV

15
1A
96

IA 5

6
2A
96

I=Iv+Ia=1A

4-7 (1)

6. (2) 5

4-7 (2)

6. (2) 5

4-7 (2)

20V 10A IV=4 A 10A 20V IA=0 A


I= IV + IA =4 A P= I2 R= 42 5=80 W

4-8

Ix Vx

4-8

4-8

Ix Vx
(1) 3A
Ix Vx

4-8

Ix1 = 3*2/(1+1+2) = 1.5A


Vx1 = - (3- Ix1 )* 2 = -3V

4-8

Ix Vx
(2) 2A
4-8

Ix2 = 2*2/(1+1+2) = 1A
Vx2 = - (2- Ix2 )* 2 = -2V
(3) 2A
Ix3 = 2*1/(1+1+2) = 0.5A
Vx3 = Ix3 * 2 = 1V

4-8

Ix Vx
(4)
I x I x1 I x 2 I x 3 1.5 1 0.5 3A

Vx Vx1 Vx 2 Vx 3 (3) (2) 1 4V

4-8

4-9

4-9

4-9

6
(1) 5A
4-9

I A 5

4
2A
46

4-9

6
(2) 10V
4-9

IV

10
1A
46

(3)

I I A IV 2 1 3A

7. 1
5A
IA=5A
10V
Iv=0
I1 =IA+IV=5+0=5A

(Thevenin's theorem)
1. 4-3
RL

ETh

RTh
2.

(a)

(b)

4-3

3.
(1) 4-3 RL a b

(2) ETh ETh=Eab

(3) RTh RTh=Rab

(4) ETh RTh RL


ab
4-3(b)

4 - 10

(a) a b

(a
)
4-10 (1)

(b
)

4 - 10

(1) ETh Vab a b 10


Vab 3

3
ETh Vab V3 12

63

4V

(2) RTh a b

RTh (6 // 3 ) 10 2 10 12
(3) ETh RTh (1)(b)

8. ab 8 0.2

IL = ETH/(RTH+RL) = 4/(12+8) = 0.2A

9. (2) 5
ETh= V RTh=
IL= A

4-10 (2)

9. (2) 5
ETh= V RTh=
IL= A

4-10 (2)

(1)5 ETh=53=15 V
(2) 5A 5 RTh=2+3=5
(3)

5 I L =

ETH
15
=
= 1.5A
RTH + RL
5 +5

4 - 11
()
(a) a b

(a
)

4-11

(b
)

4 - 11
()
(1) ETh

Vab1 V6 9 6 54V

Vab 2 Vcb 9V

ETH=Vab1+Vab2=54+9=63V

4 - 11
()
(2) RTh a b

RTh= Rab=3+6=9

(3) ETH RTh (b)

4 - 12
()
(a) RL

(a
)

(b
)
4-12

4 - 12
()
(1) ETh

Vab1 Vcb 25V

Vab 2 Vcb 5 3 15V

ETH=Vab1+Vab2=25+15=40V

4 - 12
()
(2) RTh

RTh= Rab=5+3=8

11. RTh= 6

ETh= 30 V RL=4 RL
3
A
(1) ETh

Vab1 Vcb 25V

Vab2=51=5 V

ETH=Vab1+Vab2=25+5=30V

11. RTh= 6

ETh= 30 V RL=4 RL
3
A
(2) RTh

RTh= Rab=5+1=6
ETH
30
=
= 3A
RTH + RL
6 +4

(3) IL =

4 - 13
(a) (1)9 (2) 9

(b
)

(a
)
4-13

4 - 13
(1) ETh 9
ETh Vab Va Vb
(18

6
2
) (18
)
63
22

12 9 3V

(2) RTh a b
RTh Rab

63 2 2

63 22

(3) ETh RTh

ETh
3

0.25A
RTh RL 3 9

4-5.1
3-5
0

4-4(a)
100%

(a)

(b)

4-4

4-5.1
4-4(b)

4-5.2
4-4(b) RL
( RL=0 RL=
)
E
R0

IL

1. RL=0
I

PL I L2 RL 0

E
R

PL I L2 RL 0

E
R RL

2. RL=

E
IL

PL I RL
R RL
2
L

E2
RL
2
2
R 2 RRL RL

3. RL

E2

R2
2 R RL
RL

E2

R2
2 R RL 4 R
RL

RL

E2

R
RL ) 2 4 R
RL

4-5.2
PL
RL=R RL Pmax
Pmax

4-5.2

RTh R
RL
RTh

P0
Pl

P0 )
P0

0.5

50%
Pi
P0 Pi

4 - 14
(1) RL
(2)

4-14

4 - 14
(1) RL
(2)
(1)RL=R=2
(2) Pmax

E 2 162

32W
4R 4 2
4-14

4 - 15
(1) RL
(2)

4-15

4 - 15
(1) RL
4-15
(2)

(1) RL a b
RTh a b
RTh = Rab=6 // 3=2
RL 2
ETh ETh 3
ETH = 24*3/(3+6) = 8V
(2)

Pmax

2
ETh
82
=
=
= 8W
4 RTh
4 2


1.
4-5

IN RN
2.

(a)

(b)
4-5

3.
(1) ( 4-6 RL) a b
(2) RN RTh

(3) IN a b a b

(4) IN RN RL
ab
4-5(b)


()
4
4 - 16

4-16


()
4
4 - 16

(1) (4) a b
(2) RN
RN=3//6=2

4-16


()
4
4 - 16

(3) IN a b

4-16

I N1

15
5A
3

IN=IN1+IN2=5+3=8A

IN2

18
3A
6


()
4
4 - 16

(4)

I = 8 *2/(2+4) = 2.67A
4-16

13. ETh=
V RTh= 2 I= 2.67 A

16


()
(a) 2

4 - 17

(a)

(b)
4-17

4 - 17

()

(1) (2) a b
(2) RN (b) RN=6//12=4
(3) IN a b

IN1=3A
IN=IN1+IN2=3+6=9A

IN2=6A

4 - 17

()

(4)

I = 9 * 4/(4+2) = 6A

14. 6 12

(1)

2 12
I 6 9 2 12 2A
2 12
6
2 12

(2)

12
I12 9 8 1A
12
12
8

4-6

4-6

4-6

1.

2.

RL
ETh RTh IN RN
4 - 18

4-18

RL
ETh RTh IN RN

(1) ETh
3
ETh Vab V3 60
20V
63
(2) RTh a b

RTh = (6//3) +8 = 2 +8 =10


(3) I N

ETh 20

2A
RTh 10

(4) RN = RTh = 10
(5)

4-18

4 - 19

(1)

(2)

4 - 19

(1)

RTh = RN = 5
ETh = INRN
=35=15V
( )

(2)

RTh = RN = 6
ETh = INRN
=56=30V
( )

5
5-1
5-2
5-3

5-1.1
1. (capacitor condenser)

2.

5-1

5-1.1
3.

(a) (b)
5-2

(c)

5-1.1
1.
5-3

1.

2.

5-1.1
1.
3. ceramic

4. mica

5.

5-1.1
1.

5-3

5-1.1
2.

5-4

5-4

5-1.2

1. (capacitance) (Farad F)

(F)
12 (pF)
6
1 F 106 F 1 pF 10 F 10 F

2. (Working Voltage, WV)

(SV) (PV)

3.
4. M

5-1.2

5-5

(a)

(b)

5-5

(c)

5-1.2
1.
47F/100WV 47F 100V
2.

10
pF 5-1
5-1
475J
47 105pF 4.7F
5%

5-2.1
1.
5-6(a)

2.

3.
5-6(b)

5-2.1

(a)

(b)

5-6

5-2.1
4. Q V
C

5-1

100 0.006

5-1

100 0.006

(5-1)
Q 0.006
C
(6 103 ) (102 ) 60 F
V
100

5-2.2
1.

2.
3.
A m2(
)
5-7
d m ( )

(dielectric constant)
epsilon)
F/m

5-7

5-2.2
0 r
0
4.
r

5-2

5-2

5-2

0.1mm 100m2
F

5-2

0.1mm 100m2
F
d 0.1mm 1104 m A=100m2 5-2

A
A
100
C 0 r (8.85 1012 ) 1
8.85 F
4
d
d
110

1. ( r=5) F

C C=8.855=44.25F

F
5-3

d2
C2

1
d1 A2=2A1
2
A2
2 A1

4C1 4 8.85 35.4 F


1
d2
d1
2

5-2.3

5-8

5-2.3
1.

2.

5-2.3
3.

QT= Q1 + Q2+ Q3 = C1 E + C2 E + C3 E = (C1 + C2+ C3)


QT= CTE

5-4

(1) CT
(2) Q1 Q2 Q3
(3) QT

5-4 (1)

5-4

(1) CT
(2) Q1 Q2 Q3
(3) QT
(1) CT = C1 + C2+ C3 = 1+2+3 = 6F
(2) Q1=C1V1=1F100V=100C
Q2=C2V2=2F100V=200C
Q3=C3V3=3F100V=300C
(3) QT =100+200+300 =600C

5-4 (1)

2. QT =900C C1= 6F Q2 = 300C


Q1 = 600 C C2 = 3 F CT = 9
F
Q1 Qr Q2 900 300 600 C

C2

Q2 300

3 F
V 100

CT C1 C2 6 3 9 F
5-4 (2)

5-5

30F/100V 60F/200V

5-5

30F/100V 60F/200V

CT = C1 + C2+ C3 = 30 + 60 = 90F

100V

5-2.4
5-10

1.
Q=It

5-10

5-2.4
2. (KVL)

3. (
)

5-2.4

Q
C

T
(5-11)
C
T

Q1 Q2 Q3

C1 C2 C3

QT Q1 Q2 Q3 QT
C1C2

C1 C2

CT

5-2.4
(4)
5-11
C1C2
E
C 1 C 2
Q Q
1 C1C2
V1 1 T
E
C1 C1 C1 C 1C2

QT CT E

V2

Q2 QT
1 C1C2

E
C 2 C 2 C 2 C 1 C 2

5-11

5-2.4
(4)

5-6

5-13
(1) (2) QT
(3) Q1 Q2 Q3
(4) V1 V2 V3

5-6

5-6

5-13
(1) (2) QT
(3) Q1 Q2 Q3
(4) V1 V2 V3

1
= 10mF
(1) CT =
1
1
1
+ +
20 30 60
(2) QT CTE 10 F60V 600C

5-6

(3) Q1 Q2 Q3 QT 600C
(4)

V1 =

Q1 600mC
Q
600mC
Q
600mC
=
= 30V, V2 = 2 =
= 20V, V3 = 3 =
= 10V
C1
20mF
C2
30mF
C3
60mF

3. (C)
4. 10F CT= 5 F
QT= 300 C V1 30 V V2= 15
V V3= 10 V V4= 5 V
(1) CT = 1

1
1
1
+ + +
10 20 30 60

= 5mF

(2) QT CTE 5 F60V 300C


(3) Q1 Q2 Q3 QT 300C
Q 300mC
V1 = 1 =
= 30V
(4)
C1
10mF

V4 =

Q 300mC
=
= 5V
C4
60mF

V2 =

Q2 300mC
Q
300mC
=
=15V V3 = 3 =
=10V
C2
20mF
C3
30mF

30F/100V 60F/200V

5-8

30F/100V 60F/200V

5-8

CT =

C1C2
30 60
=
= 20mF
C1 + C2 30 + 60

Q1 C1V1 30 F100V 3000C


Q2 C2V2 60 F200V 12000C
QT Q1 Q2 QT 3000C

QT 3000
=
= 150V
CT
20

4F
ab
5-9

5-9

4F
ab
5-9

(b)
CT=(C C C) C
=

5-9

3C C 3
3
= C = 4mF = 3mF
3C + C 4
4

5-9 (b)

(1) (2)
(3)
5 - 10

5-10

(1) (2)
(3)
5 - 10

(1) 1F 2F 3F
3F 6F
CT =

3 6
= 2mF
3+6

(2) QT CTV 290 180C


(3) 6F Q6 QT 180C

C1
1
= 180mC
= 60mC
C1 + C2
1+ 2
1F
C2
2
Q2 = QT
= 180mC
= 120mC
2F
C1 + C2
1+ 2
Q1 = QT

5-10

5.
6F V6 = Q 1 = 180mC = 3V
C1

6mF

1F 2F V1 V2 90-V6 60 V

5-2.5
1. (V)

(Q)
Q

m
V

1
1
Vav 0 V c Vc
2. 5-12
2
2 C

1-3 W=QV 5-1 Q=CV

5-2.5
3.

5-7

5 - 11

200 4
F

5 - 11

200 4
F

(1) (5-16)
C = 2W/VC2 = 2*4/2002 = 2*10-4F = 200mF
(2) Q=CV=200100-6200=0.04

6. 50F 100V