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CONCRETE CHEMICALS

Report for Repair and Rehabilitation of Structure

(HRWR & VMA)


Report by:
JAYDIP JADIA (080284106101)
RAMESH MORI

(090283106001]

WONJANBENI ODYUO(080280106306)

Applied Mechanics department,


L.D. COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING,
Ahmedabad.

1. HIGH RANGE WATER REDUCER


ADMIXTURES:
Admixtures are chemicals, added to mortar at time of mixing
to modify properties either in the wet state or after mix has
hardened.
Main Admixtures are available in market like plasticizers ,
super plasticizers and hyper plasticizers.
It can be single chemical or blend.
Usually it is in solution with typically 35-40% active
chemicals.
Amount added generally less than 5% of cement content.
Other types of admixtures are accelerators and retarders.

History:

Plasticizers - 1932
Air entraining admixtures - 1941
Super Plasticizers -1953
Hyper Plasticizers -1995

Mechanism of action:
1) Chemical integration in hydration: (accelerators and
retarders)
2) Surface acting type on cement surface causing better
particle dispersion(all plasticizers)
3) Increases viscosity of water (viscosity modifier used)

Dispersing plasticizers:
60% of admixtures used are dispersing admixtures like
plasticizers , super plasticizers , hyper plasticizers.
Causes reduction in viscosity and fluidity of the concrete
paste improved, therefore workability increases
Types of Admixtures:

1) Plasticizers:
) Reduces water content up to 5% to 12%
) Dosage: Requirement of admixture 0.2% to 0.6% of cement
) Materials: Ligno sulphonate , natural polymer from wood
after
removals of sugar
) Use: For low to medium slump concrete

2) Super plasticizers:
Reduces water content up to 12% to 30%
Dosage: Requirement of admixture 0.6% to 2% of cement.
Materials: sulphonate polymer of naphthalene or melamine
formaldehyde condensates and poly carboxylate

3) Hyper plasticizers:
Mainly based on poly carboxylic ether
All this are long chain poly carbonic molecules and they get
absorbed surfaces causes surface charges.

Mechanism of direction:
1)Plasticizers , Super plasticizers and Hyper plasticizers are water
reducers.
[They are surface acting agents and absorbed on the cement and
giving them negative charges leading to repulsion. In earlier by
adding water we do dispersion but now adding less water we get
dispersion because they are negative charges with less water
content.]
2) Negative charges also creates development of sheath of oriented
water molecules around cement particles.
3) Now , water is free from restraining mechanism and available
for lubrication. Earlier not available without plasticizers.

Water reducing agents:


With plasticizers

Without plasticizers
WRA

Super plasticizers (HRWR) chemicals:


Ligno sulphonate
Sulphonate melamine formaldehyde
Sulphonate naphthalene formaldehyde

How to use dispersing admixtures:


Without plasticizers
ADD C+
Strength >
workability same
w\c ratio reduces

Concrete

ADD C+ W+
Strength same
workability increases
w/c ratio same

With plasticizers
ADD WRA-W
Strength >
workability
same
w\c ratio
reduces
ADD WRA-W-C
Strength same
workability
same
w/c ratio same
ADD WRA ONLY
Strength same
workability
increases
w/c ratio same

Potential advantages of HRWR:


Significant water reduction;
Reduced cement contents;
Increased workability;
Reduced effort required for placement;
More effective use of cement;
More rapid rate of early strength development;
Increased long-term strength.

Potential disadvantages of HRWR:


Additional admixture cost (the concrete in-place cost may be
reduced);
Slump loss greater than conventional concrete;
Modification of air-entraining admixture dosage;
Less responsive with some cement;
Mild discoloration of light-coloured concrete.

EFFECTS OF OVERDOSE OF WRA


ON THE COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF CONCRETE:

If percentage of admixtures is increases 5% of cement content


than compressive strength decreases after 28 day

CONCRETE ADMIXTURES MANUFACTURED, INDIA


NAME AND
ADDRESS

BRAND NAME

DISCRIPTION

FUNCTION

Fosroc Chemicals
Drive in road,
Ahmedabad

a) cobplast 211
b) conplast 337
c) conplast NC

Water reducer
Super plasticizer
Plasticizer

Increase workability
Gives high
workability
Retards setting time

Mc-Bauchemie
Pvt. Ltd.
Sector 17, Vashi
Mumbai

a) Emce plast BV
b) Zentrameny F BV
c) Centriplact T5 BV

Water reducer
Super plasticizer
Plasticizer

Increase workability
High early strength
Excellent
compatibility

Sika Oualcrete
Pvt. Ltd.
Park street,
Calcutta

a) platiment BV 40
b) sikamant FF

Plasticizer
Super plasticizer

Water reducer
HRWR

Roffe Chemicals
Pvt.
S.V. Road,
Santacruz
Mumbai

a) roff plast 330


b) roff super plast 321
c) roff super plast 840

Plasticizer
Super plasticizer
Super plasticizer

Water reducer
High early strength
High performance
retarder

2. VISCOSITY MODIFYING AGENT


One of the latest innovation, also referred to as Stabilizers.
To produce concrete with better robustness against the impact of
variations in the concrete constituents and in site conditions
VMA's build up a three dimensional structure in the liquid phase
of the mix to increase the viscosity and yield point of the paste.
Improves the uniform distribution and suspension of the
aggregate particles & reducing tendency to bleeding, segregation
and settlement.
Supplied as a powder blend or are dispersed in a liquid.
Ranges from 0.1% to 1.5% by weight of cement

Function of a VMA:
To modify the rheological properties of the cement paste.
1) yield point : force needed to start the concrete moving.
2) plastic viscosity : resistance of a concrete to flow under
external stress.

APPLICATIONS OF VMA:
reduce segregation in highly flow able self compacting concrete
reduce washout in underwater concrete
reduce friction and pressure in pumped concrete
compensating for poor aggregate grading, especially a lack of
fines in the sand
reducing powder content in self compacting concrete
reduce bleeding in concrete
improve green strength in semi-dry concrete

1) In Self Compacting Concrete


Self-compacting concrete is a concrete that is able to flow and
consolidate under its own weight, completely fill the formwork
even in the presence of dense reinforcement, whilst maintaining
homogeneity and without the need for any additional
compaction.
When VMA is added, it
makes the concrete more
tolerant to variations in the
water content of the mix so
that plastic viscosity is
maintained and segregation
prevented.

2) For Under Water Concrete:


The major effect of a VMA for underwater concrete is to
increase the cohesiveness of the fresh concrete to such a
level that during and after placing the fresh concrete is not
washed out.
In this way it gives the concrete structure the required
strength and durability.
With VMA admixture

Without VMA admixture

3) For pumping concrete:


The most common problem with pumping concrete occurs
when the coarse aggregate particles start to lock at a pipe
bend & constrictions.
When VMA is added, it prevents this segregating effect by
making the concrete more cohesive without the need to
change the mix design.

Other VMA applications:

1) Sprayed concrete and repair mortar


) In sprayed concrete rebound occurs while spraying, to
reduce rebound VMA is added.
) Thick layers of sprayed repair mortar may suffer from
sagging on vertical surfaces, to avoid this VMA is added.
2) Lightweight concrete
) The low density of lightweight aggregates causes
floatation problems in high workability concretes, VMA
will increase the paste viscosity helping to prevent
floatation and keeping the mix homogeneous.

Products of viscosity modifying agent.


Rheomac UW 450 - anti-washout admixture , ready-to-use,
liquid cellulose-based admixture developed for underwater
concrete applications.
Functions:
Reduction in washout of cement and fines.
Reduction in segregation.
Rheomac VMA 362
Functions:
Controls bleeding.
Provides flexibility in mixture proportioning and batching.
Provides concrete stability during transport and placement.

Conclusion
The purpose of the addition of a VMA is to replace or limit the
addition of fines, thus making a fresh concrete more cohesive.
Different types of fines (cement types, fillers, fly ash, micro
silica etc. etc.) have different effects on the rheology of the fresh
mix, for this reason there are several types of VMA that
influence the rheology of the mix in a different ways.
Depending on the application or required effect, the addition of
a VMA might need an adjustment of the mix composition to
obtain the optimum effect.
The choice for a certain type of VMA therefore depends on both
the application that it is used for and the concrete mix
constituents.

References:

Guidelines for Viscosity Modifying Admixtures For


Concrete ,European Federation of Concrete
Admixture Associations, September 2006 .
Concrete technology by M.S. SHETTY
CONCRETE Microstructure, Properties, and
Materials
by P. Kumar Mehta & Paulo J.M. Monteiro
CHEMICAL ADMIXTURES FOR CONCRETE
by ACI Education Bulletin E4-03.

THANK YOU