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HIV AIDS

Ika Norcahyanti
Farmasi Klinik & Komunitas
Fakultas Farmasi UNEJ

Definisi
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
kumpulan gejala atau penyakit yg disebabkan oleh
me kekebalan tubuh akibat infeksi oleh virus HIV
(Human Immunodeficiency Virus)
mrp tahap akhir dari infeksi HIV

HIV AIDS di Indonesia

Etiologi
virus HIV termasuk Retrovirus dgn diameter 80120 nm.
infeksi dari Lentivirus scr khas ditandai dari sifat
laten yg lama, masa inkubasi yg lama, replikasi
virus yg persisten.
virus ini mudah mengalami mutasi sehingga sulit
utk menemukan obat yang dpt membunuh virus
tsb.
HIV ada 2 tipe yaitu tipe 1 (HIV-1) dan tipe 2 (HIV2) dgn patogenisitas HIV-2 lebih rendah dibanding
HIV-1.

HIV Life Cycl


e

Transmisi Infeksi HIV


Having sex with someone who has HIV
Anal sex is the highest-risk sexual behavior.
Receptive anal sex (bottoming) is riskier than
insertive anal sex (topping).
Vaginal sex is the second highest-risk sexual
behavior.
Having multiple sex partners or having other
sexually transmitted infections can increase the risk
of infection through sex.
Sharing needles, syringes, rinse water, or
other equipment (works) used to prepare
injection drugs with someone who has HIV

Transmisi Infeksi HIV


Being born to an infected mother. HIV can be passed
from mother to child during pregnancy, birth, or
breastfeeding.
Being stuck with an HIV-contaminated needle or other
sharp object. This is a risk mainly for health care
workers.
Receiving blood transfusions, blood products, or
organ/tissue transplants that are contaminated with HIV.
This risk is extremely small because of rigorous testing
of the US blood supply and donated organs and tissues.
Eating food that has been pre-chewed by an HIVinfected person. The contamination occurs when
infected blood from a caregivers mouth mixes with
food while chewing, and is very rare.

Transmisi Infeksi HIV


Oral sexusing the mouth to stimulate the penis,
vagina, or anus (fellatio, cunnilingus, and rimming).
Giving fellatio (mouth to penis oral sex) and having the
person ejaculate (cum) in your mouth is riskier than
other types of oral sex.
Contact between broken skin, wounds, or mucous
membranes and HIV-infected blood or bloodcontaminated body fluids. These reports have also
been extremely rare.

Stages of HIV Infection


Acute HIV Infection
acute HIV infection is the earliest stage of HIV.
acute HIV infection generally developswithin 2 to 4 weeks
after a person is infected with HIV.
during acute HIV infection, many people have flu-like
symptoms, such as fever, headache, and rash.
in this acute stage of infection, HIV multiplies rapidly and
spreads throughout the body.
the virus attacks and destroys the infection-fightingCD4
cells of the immune system.
HIV can be transmitted during any stage of infection, but
the risk is greatest during acute HIV infection.

Stages of HIV Infection


Chronic HIV Infection
the second stage of HIV infection is chronic HIV
infection (also called asymptomatic HIV infection or
clinical latency).
during this stage of the disease, HIV continues to
multiply in the body but at very low levels.
people with chronic HIV infectionmay not have
any HIV-related symptoms, but they can still spread
HIV to others.
without treatment with HIV medicines, chronic HIV
infection usually advances to AIDS in 10 to 12 years.

Stages of HIV Infection


AIDS
AIDS is the final stage of HIV infection.
HIV has destroyed the immune system, the body
cant fight offopportunistic infectionsand cancer.
(Examples of opportunistic infections include
pneumonia and tuberculosis.)
AIDS is diagnosed when a person with HIV has
aCD4 count of less than 200 cells/mm3and/or one
or more opportunistic infections.
without treatment, people with AIDS typically
survive about 3 years.

Diagnosa
ELISA Test
Rapid Test
Western BlotTest
Viral Load Test

Tujuan Terapi
reduce HIV-associated morbidity and prolong the
duration and quality of survival
restore and preserve immunologic function
maximally and durably suppress plasma HIV viral
load prevent HIV transmission

ART Initiation

First Line Regimen

Second Line Regimen

Second Line Regimen

Dosage Regimen of ART

Dosage Regimen of ART

Dosage Regimen of ART

Dosage Regimen of ART

Recommended Test

Monitoring ART

Drug Substitutions

Drug Substitutions

Drug Substitutions

Drug Substitutions

Clinical Stage

Clinical Stages

ART for infants & children

First Line Regimen

First Line Regimen

Second Line Regimen

Second Line Regimen

Terima Kasih

HIV AIDS