You are on page 1of 13

THE PHILIPPINE NAIONAL RED CROSS First Aid Visual Aids

SAFETY SERVICES Common Emergencies

HYPOTHERMIA
Exposure to extreme cold for a short time or moderate
cold for a long time can cause hypothermia.

1. Mild Hypothermia
The patient will present with cold skin and shivering and will still
be alert and oriented.
First Aid
• Check responsiveness.
• Cover the patient with a warm blanket.
• Apply hot compress.
• Check vital signs.
• Refer to a physician.

TR 10-2
THE PHILIPPINE NAIONAL RED CROSS First Aid Visual Aids
SAFETY SERVICES Common Emergencies

2. Severe Hypothermia
Patients may become unresponsive. This is a true
medical emergency that can lead to death.

First Aid
• Check responsiveness.
• Check ABC, perform CPR if needed.
• Care for shock.
• Refer to a physician.

Mechanism of Heat Loss


1. Convection
2. Respiration
3. Radiation
4. Conduction
5. Evaporation

TR 10-3
THE PHILIPPINE NAIONAL RED CROSS First Aid Visual Aids
SAFETY SERVICES Common Emergencies

HEAT CRAMPS
esponse to heat characterized by fatigue, weakness, and collapse due to inadequ
ake of water to compensate for loss of fluids through sweating.

First Aid
• Have the victim rest with his or her feet
elevated.
• Cool the victim.
• Give the victim electrolyte beverages to
sip or make a salted drink.
• Monitor the victim for signs of shock.
• If the victim starts having seizures, protect
him/her from injury and give first aid for
convulsions.
• If the victim loses consciousness, give
first aid for unconsciousness.

TR 10-4
THE PHILIPPINE NAIONAL RED CROSS First Aid Visual Aids
SAFETY SERVICES Common Emergencies

HEAT EXHAUSTION
esponse to heat characterized by fatigue, weakness, and collapse due to inadequ
ake of water to compensate for loss of fluids through sweating.

First Aid
• Have the victim rest with his or her feet elevated.
• Cool the victim.
• Give the victim electrolyte beverages to sip or
make a salted drink.
• Monitor the victim for signs of shock.
• If the victim starts having seizures, protect
him/her from injury and give first aid for
convulsions.
• If the victim loses consciousness, give first
aid for unconsciousness.

TR 10-5
THE PHILIPPINE NAIONAL RED CROSS First Aid Visual Aids
SAFETY SERVICES Common Emergencies

HEAT STROKE or SUNSTROKE


response to heat characterized by extremely high body temperature
nd disturbance of sweating mechanism.

First Aid
• Cool the victim.
• Give First Aid for Shock.
• If the victim starts having seizures, give
first aid for seizures.
• Keep the victim cool as you await medical help.

STROKE
condition that occurs when the blood flow to the brain is interrupted long enoug
ause damage.
cause

TR 10-6
THE PHILIPPINE NAIONAL RED CROSS First Aid Visual Aids
SAFETY SERVICES Common Emergencies

Causes
1. Thrombus or embolism.
2. Ruptured artery in the brain.
3. Compression of an artery in the brain.

First Aid
• Check the victim’s ABC.
• Have the victim rest in a comfortable position.
• Seek immediately medical help.
• Do not give the victim anything by mouth.
f the victim loses consciousness, place him or her in the recovery position and
administer first aid for unconsciousness.
• Continue to monitor ABC’s.
• Stay with the victim until you have medical help.

TR 10-7
THE PHILIPPINE NAIONAL RED CROSS First Aid Visual Aids
SAFETY SERVICES Common Emergencies

DIABETES
Is a condition that affects the way the body uses food.
It causes the sugar level in the blood to be too high.

Types of Emergency Diabetes

1. Insulin Shock
Occurs when too much insulin is in the body.

2. Diabetic Coma
Happens when there is too much sugar and too little insulin in
the blood, and body cells do not get enough nourishment.

TR 10-8
THE PHILIPPINE NAIONAL RED CROSS First Aid Visual Aids
SAFETY SERVICES Common Emergencies

SEIZURES
Is a sudden involuntary muscle contraction, usually
due to uncontrolled electrical activity in the brain.

First Aid
ou know the person has epilepsy, it is usually not necessary to call physician un
you
• The seizure lasts longer than a few minutes.
• Another seizure begins soon after the first.
• He or she does not regain consciousness after the jerking movement has stopp

However, you should call physician when someone having a seizure also-
• Is pregnant.
• Carries identification as a diabetic.
• Is in the water and has swallowed large amounts of water.

TR 10-9
THE PHILIPPINE NAIONAL RED CROSS First Aid Visual Aids
SAFETY SERVICES Common Emergencies

FEBRILE SEIZURES
igh temperature does not necessarily mean the victim is seriously ill. Some child
wever, have febrile seizure when a high fever is rising or falling.

When to get help for Fever


ver is not always cause for alarm, but sometimes it is a sign of a serious problem
ek immediately medical attention if:
• Difficulty in breathing.
• Unusual skin colors (blue, gray, purple).
• A rash of tiny red or purple dots under the skin.
• Shock
• Stiff neck.
• Bulging fontanel (soft spots of the baby skull).
• Sign of dehydration.
• If the victim appears to be very ill, take steps to reduce
the fever while you seek medical assistance.

TR 10-10
THE PHILIPPINE NAIONAL RED CROSS First Aid Visual Aids
SAFETY SERVICES Common Emergencies

EMERGENCY CHILDBIRTH
Signs and Symptoms
1. If labor contractions are approximately 2 minutes apart.
2. If the woman is straining or pushing down with contractions.
3.If the woman is crying out constantly.
4. Warning from the woman that the baby is coming.

Delivery Procedures
1. Position the Patient.
2. Inspection of the Presenting Part.
3. Delivery of the Head.
4. Cutting the Cord.
5. Expulsion of the Afterbirth.
6. Care after delivery.

TR 10-11
THE PHILIPPINE NAIONAL RED CROSS First Aid Visual Aids
SAFETY SERVICES Common Emergencies

FEVER
Is a sustained body temperature above the normal level of 37C.

First Aid
ake the patient comfortable in cool surroundings, preferably in bed with a light c
ow her to rest.
• Give the casualty plenty of cool, bland drinks to replace lost fluids.
An adult may take two paracetamols tablets. Give a child the recommended dose
aracetamol syrup (not aspirin).
• If you are worried about the casualty’s condition, call a doctor.

HEADACHE
y accompany any illness, particularly a feverish ailment such as flu, but it may be
b
st prominent symptom of a serious condition, such as meningitis or stroke.

TR 10-12
THE PHILIPPINE NAIONAL RED CROSS First Aid Visual Aids
SAFETY SERVICES Common Emergencies

First Aid
• Help the patient to sit or lie down comfortably in a quite place.
An adult may take two paracetamol tablets or her own painkillers. Give a child
ecommended dose of paracetamol syrup (not aspirin).
• If in doubt or if the pain does not ease within two hours, call a doctor.

ABDOMINAL PAIN
a pain in the abdomen often has a relatively trivial cause, but can indicate seriou
ease, such as perforation or obstruction of the intestine.

First Aid
ake the patient comfortable, and prop him/her up if breathing is difficult. Giving
container to use if vomiting.
• Do not give the patient any medicines or anything to eat or drink.
• Give patient a covered hot-water bottle place against the abdomen.
• If the pain is severe, or does not ease within 30 minutes, call a doctor.

TR 10-13
THE PHILIPPINE NAIONAL RED CROSS First Aid Visual Aids
SAFETY SERVICES Common Emergencies

VOMITING & DIARRHEA


e most likely to be caused by food poisoning, contaminated water, allergy, or
usual or exotic foods.

First Aid
Reassure the patient while he or she is being sick. Afterwards, give the patient a
warm damp cloth with which to wash him- or herself.
Give the patient lots of bland fluids to sip slowly and often. If the appetite returns
give him only bland, starchy or sugar food for the first 24 hours.
you are worried about the patient’s condition, particularly if it is persistent, call a

TR 10-14