2.4 Base Excitation
• Important class of vibration analysis
– Preventing excitations from passing from a vibrating base through its mount into a structure
• Vibration isolation – Vibrations in your car – Satellite operation – Disk drives, etc.
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FBD of SDOF Base Excitation
System Sketch
System FBD
x(t)
m
m
k
c
k(x y)
c(x
y)
y(t)
base
F
=
k x y
(

)
c x y
(
&& &&

)=
mx
mx
&& &
+
cx
+
kx
=
cy
&
+
ky
(2.61)
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SDOF Base Excitation (cont)
Assume:
( )
y t
Y
sin(
t
) and plug into Equation(2.61)
&& &
+
cx
mx
+
kx
=
Y
cos(
t
) +
kY
sin(
c
t
1 4 4 442 4 4 4 43
)
(2.63)
harmonic forcing functions
For a car,
2
2
V
The steadystate solution is just the superposition of the two individual particular solutions (system is linear).
&&
x
+2
x
n
& +
2
x
n
f
647 48
=2
Y
cos(
t
1 4 42 4 43
n
) +
f
}
2
Y
sin(
t
1 42 43
n
)
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(2.64)
Particular Solution (sine term)
With a sine for the forcing function,
2
x
&&
+2
x
&
+
x
=
f
sin
t
n
n
0
s
x
A
cos
t
B
sin
t
X
sin(
t
)
ps
s
s
s
s
where
Use rectangular form to
make it easier to add
2
f
n
0
s
A
the cos term
s
2
2
2
2
(
)
2
n
n
2
2
(
) f
n
0
s
B
s
2
2
2
2
(
)
2
n
n
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Particular Solution (cos term)
With a cosine for the forcing function, we showed
&&
x
+2
x
pc

n
&
x
+
2
n
A
c
cos
t

x
f
=
B
c

0
c
cos
t
sin
t

X
c

cos(

t


c

)

where


(
2
n


2

) f
0


A


c


c
B

(

2
n
2
)
2
2
n

2
n
f
0
c


2

c

(

2
n
2
)

2


2
n


2

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Magnitude X/Y
Now add the sin and cos terms to get the magnitude of the full particular solution
X
2
2
f 0s
f 0c
2 n Y
( n 2 2 ) 2 2 n
2
(2) 2 n
( n 2 2 ) 2 2 n
2
where
f _{0}_{c} 2 _{n} Y
and
f _{0}_{s} _{n} ^{2} Y
if we define r ^{}
n
this becomes
X Y
2r _{2} (2.70)
X
Y
1 (2r) 2
(1 r 2 ) 2 2r 2
(2.71)
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The relative magnitude plot
of X/Y versus frequency ratio: Called the
Displacement Transmissibility
40
=0.01
=0.1
30
=0.3
=0.7
20
10
0
10
20
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
X/Y (dB)
Frequency ratio r
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From the plot of relative Displacement Transmissibility observe that:
• X/Y is called Displacement Transmissibility Ratio • Potentially severe amplification at resonance • Attenuation for r > sqrt(2) Isolation Zone • If r< sqrt(2) transmissibility decreases with damping ratio Amplification Zone
• If r >> 1 then transmissibility increases with damping ratio X _{p} ~2Y/r
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Next examine the Force Transmitted to the mass as a function of the frequency ratio
F
T
k
(
x
y
)
c
(
& &
x
y
)
&&
mx
At steady state,
x t
( )
X
cos(
t
From FBD
so
&& x
=
2
X
cos(
t
)
F
T
2
X
2
kr X
k
c
F T
x(t)
y(t)
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Plot of Force Transmissibility (in dB) versus frequency ratio
40
=0.01
=0.1
30
=0.3
=0.7
20
10
0
10
20
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
F/kY (dB)
Frequency ratio r
Figure 2.14
© D. J. Inman
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Figure 2.15 Comparison between force and displacement transmissibility
Force
Transmissibility
Displacement
Transmissibility
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Example 2.4.1: Effect of speed
on the amplitude of car vibration
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Model the road as a sinusoidal input to base motion of the car model
Approximation of road surface:
y(t) (0.01 m)sin _{b} t
_{b} v(km/hr)
0.006 km
3600 s
2 rad
cycle
_{}
0.2909v rad/s
_{b} (20km/hr) = 5.818 rad/s
From the data give, determine the frequency and damping ratio of the car suspension:
n
=
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4
10 4 N/m
6.303 rad/s
1007 kg
2000 Ns/m
2
4 10 4 N/m 1007 kg
( 1 Hz)
0.158
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From the input frequency, input amplitude, natural frequency and damping ratio use equation (2.70) to compute the amplitude of the response:
r
b
5.818
6.303
X Y
1 (2r) 2
(1 r 2 ) 2 (2r) 2
0.01 m
1 2(0.158)(0.923) 2
1 0.923 2 2 20.1580.923 2
0.0319 m
What happens as the car goes faster? See Table 2.1. ^{©} ^{D}^{.} ^{J}^{.} ^{I}^{n}^{m}^{a}^{n} Mechanical Engineering at
Example 2.4.2: Compute the force transmitted to a machine through base motion at resonance
From (2.77) at r =1:
^{F} T
kY
1 (2) ^{2}
(2) ^{2}
F _{T} ^{k}^{Y}
2
From given m, c, and k:
c
900
0.04
2
km
2
40,000 3000
g
From measured excitation Y = 0.001 m:
F
kY
2
(40,000 N/m)(0.001 m)
2(0.04)
501.6 N
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k
c
2.5 Rotating Unbalance
• Gyros • Cryocoolers • Tires • Washing machines
Machine of total mass m i.e. m _{0} included in m
_{} t
e = eccentricity m _{o} = mass unbalance
_{} = rotation
frequency
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Rotating Unbalance (cont)
R x
What force is imparted on the
structure? Note it rotates
with x component:
R y
x
r
e
sin
r
t
a
x
x
r
e
2
r
sin
r
t
From sophomore dynamics,
R
m a
sin
m e
sin
t
R
m a
m e
cos
m e
cos
t
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Rotating Unbalance (cont)
The problem is now just like any other SDOF system with a harmonic excitation
m
0 e 2 sin( t)
2
mx
&& &
cx
kx
m e
sin
t
(2.82)
o
r
r
x(t)
m
2
2
or
x
&&
o
2
x
&
x
e
sin
t
n
n
r
r
m
m
k
c
Note the influences on the
forcing function (we are assuming that
the mass m is held in place in the y direction as indicated in Figure 2.18)
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Rotating Unbalance (cont)
• Just another SDOF oscillator with a harmonic forcing function • Expressed in terms of frequency ratio r
x
p
( )
t
X
sin(
r
t
)
X
m e
o
r
2
m
(1
r
2
)
2
2
r
2
(2.83)
(2.84)
tan
1
2
r
1 r
2
(2.85)
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Figure 2.20: Displacement magnitude vs frequency caused by rotating unbalance
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Example 2.5.1:Given the deflection at resonance (0.1m),
= 0.05 and a 10% out of balance, compute e and the amount of added mass needed to reduce the maximum amplitude to 0.01 m.
At resonance r = 1 and
mX
m e
1
2
1
2(0.05)
10
0.1 m
e
Now to compute the added mass, again at resonance;
m
X
m
0.1 m
_{}
10
Use this to find m so that X is 0.01:
0.01 m
m
m
m
0.1 m
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10
m
m
(0.1)
m
100
m
9
m
Here m _{0} is 10%m or 0.1m
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Example 2.5.2 Helicopter rotor unbalance
Given
Fig 2.21
k 1 10 ^{5} N/m m _{t}_{a}_{i}_{l} 60 kg m _{r}_{o}_{t} 20 kg m _{0} 0.5 kg = 0.01
Fig 2.22
Compute the deflection at 1500 rpm and find the rotor speed at which the deflection is maximum
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Example 2.5.2 Solution
The rotating mass is 20 + 0.5 or 20.5. The stiffness is provided by the Tail section and the corresponding mass is that determined in Example
The frequency of rotation is
46.69 rad/s
r
min 2
rad
rev
1500 rpm = 1500 157 rad/s
r
min 60 s
rev
3.16
49.49 rad/s
157 rad/s
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Now compute the deflection at r = 3.16 and =0.01 using eq (2.84)
X
m e
r
m
(1
r
)
(2
r
)
0.5 kg
0.15 m
3.16
20.5 kg
1
(3.16)
2(0.01)(3.16)
0.004 m
At around r = 1, the max deflection occurs:
At r = 1:
r 1 _{r} 49.69 rad/s = 49.69 ^{r}^{a}^{d} s
rev
60 s
2 rad min
X
0.5 kg0.15 m
20.5 kg
2(0.01)
474.5 rpm
or 18.3 cm
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2.6 Measurement Devices
• A basic transducer
used in vibration
measurement is the
accelerometer.
F
=
k x y
(

)
c x y
(
&& &&

)=
mx
• This device can be
modeled using the
base equations
developed in the
previous section
mx
&&
= 
c
(
x y
& &
) 
k
(
x y
)
(2.86) and (2.61)
Here, y(t) is the measured
response of the structure
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Base motion applied to measurement devices
Let

( )
z t


&&
mz

& ( )
cz t
Z



Y

and


tan


( )
x t
( )
y t
kz t
( )
m


r

(1

r
)
(2
2
r
1 r

(2.87) :


Y

cos


r

)


(2.91)


t
(2.88)
(2.90)
These equations should be familiar from base motion. Here they describe measurement!
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Magnitude and sensitivity plots for accelerometers.
Effect of damping on
proportionality constant
Fig 2.27
Fig 2.26
Magnitude plot showing
Regions of measurement
In the accel region, output voltage is
nearly proportional to displacement
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2.7 Other forms of damping
These various other forms of damping are all nonlinear. They can be compared to linear damping by the method of “equivalent viscous damping” discussed next. A numerical treatment of the exact response is given in section 2.9.
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The method of equivalent viscous
damping: consists of comparing the energy dissipated during one cycle of forced response
Assume a stead state resulting from a harmonic input and compute the energy dissipated per one cycle
x _{s}_{s} X sint
The energy per cycle for a viscously damped system is
E
Ñ
F dx
dx
&
cx
dt
dt
&
cx dt
(2.99)
x
ss
X
sin
t
&
x
X
cos
t
E
2
/
c
0
X
cos
t
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(2.101)
Next compute the energy dissipated per cycle for Coulomb damping:
E
mg
mgX (
sgn(
cos
mg
cos
udu
cos
udu
)
4
mgX
Here we let u = t and du =dt and split up the integral according to the sign changes in velocity. Next compare this energy to that of a viscous system:
c
eq
X
2
4
mgX
c
eq
4
mg
X
(2.105)
This yields a linear viscous system dissipating the same amount of energy per cycle.
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Using the equivalent viscous damping calculations, each of the systems in Table 2.2
can be approximated by a linear viscous system
In particular, c _{e}_{q} can be used to derive amplitude expressions. However, as indicated in Section 2.8 and 2.9 the response can be simulated numerically to provide more accurate magnitude and response information.
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Hysteresis: an important concept characterizing damping
•

A plot of displacement

versus spring/damping

force for viscous

damping yields a loop

•

At the bottom is a stress

strain plot for a system

with material damping

of the hysteretic type

•

The enclosed area is

equal to the energy lost
per cycle
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The measured area yields the energy dissipated. For some materials, called
hysteretic this is
E k X
Here the constant , a measured quantity is called the hysteretic damping constant, k is the stiffness and X is the amplitude.
Comparing this to the viscous energy yields:
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k
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Hysteresis gives rise to the concept of complex stiffness
Substitution of the equivalent damping coefficient and using the complex exponential to describe a harmonic input yields:
&&
mx
k
x &
2
n
x
F e
0
j
t
Assuming
( )
x t
Xe
j
t
yields
and
&
( )
x t
Xj
e
j
t
&&
mx t
( )
k
(1
)
j
142 43
( )
x t
F e
0
j
t
complex stiffness
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2.8 Numerical Simulation and Design
• Four things we can do computationally to help solve, understand and design vibration problems subject to harmonic excitation
• Symbolic manipulation • Plotting of the time response • Solution and plotting of the time response • Plotting magnitude and phase
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Symbolic Manipulation
Let
A
_{n} ^{2} ^{2}
2 _{n}
2 _{n}
_{n} ^{2} ^{2}
and
What is
A _{n} A ^{}^{1} x
x
f 0
0
This can be solved using Matlab, Mathcad or Mathematica
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Symbolic Manipulation
Solve equations (2.34) using Mathcad symbolics :
Enter this
1
2
2
.
.
.
n
2 n
f0
.
2
2
0
.
.
.
2 n
n
2
2
n
.
f0
4
2
2
4
2
2
.
.
.
.
n
2
n
4 . 2
n
.
.
.
.
2 n
4
2
2
4
2
2
2
.
.
.
.
.
n
2
n
4
n
Choose evaluate
under symbolics to
get this
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In MATLAB Command Window
>> syms z wn w f0 >> A=[wn^2w^2 2*z*wn*w;2*z*wn*w wn^2w^2]; >> x=[f0 ;0]; >> An=inv(A)*x An = [ (wn^2w^2)/(wn^42*wn^2*w^2+w^4+4*z^2*wn^2*w^2)*f0]
[
2*z*wn*w/(wn^42*wn^2*w^2+w^4+4*z^2*wn^2*w^2)*f0]
>> pretty(An)
[

2

2

]

[

(wn

 w ) f0

]

[  ]


[

4

2

2

4
2

2

2 ]

[ wn

 2 wn

+ w
w

+ 4 z

wn

w

]

[

]


z wn w f0 [2 ]
]
[

[

4

2

2

4
2

2

2]

[

wn

 2 wn

+ w
w

+ 4 z

wn

w ]

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Magnitude plots: Base Excitation
%mfile to plot base excitation to mass vibration
r=linspace(0,3,500);
ze=[0.01;0.05;0.1;0.20;0.50];
X=sqrt( ((2*ze*r).^2+1) ./ ( (ones(size(ze))*(1r.*r).^2) + (2*ze*r).^2) );
figure(1)
plot(r,20*log10(X))
The values of can then be chosen directly off of the plot.
For Example:
If the T.R. needs to be less than 2 (or 6dB)
and r is

close to 1 then

must be more than

0.2 (probably about

0.3).

^{©} ^{D}^{.} ^{J}^{.} ^{I}^{n}^{m}^{a}^{n}
40
=0.01
30
Design
=0.05
value
=0.1
20
=0.2
10
=0.5
0
10
20
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
X/Y (dB)
Frequency ratio r
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Force Magnitude plots: Base Excitation
%mfile to plot base excitation to mass vibration
r=linspace(0,3,500);
ze=[0.01;0.05;0.1;0.20;0.50];
X=sqrt( ((2*ze*r).^2+1) ./ ( (ones(size(ze))*(1r.*r).^2) + (2*ze*r).^2) );
F=X.*(ones(length(ze),1)*r).^2;
figure(1)
plot(r,20*log10(F))
40
=0.01
30
=0.05
=0.1
20
=0.2
=0.5
10
0
10
20
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
F T /kY (dB)
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Frequency ratio r
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Numerical Simulation
We can put the forced case:
& ( )
cx t
kx t
( )
F
0
cos
t
2
n
&
x t
( )
2
n
x t
( )
f
0
cos
t
Into a state space form
&
x
1
x
2
&
x
2
2
n
x
2
2
n
x
1
f
0
cos
t
& ( )
x
t
A
x
( )
t
f
( ),
t
f
( )
t
^{}
f
0
0
cos
t
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Numerical Integration
Euler: x(t _{i}_{}_{1} ) x(t _{i} ) Ax(t _{i} )t f(t _{i} )t
Using the ODE45 function
>>TSPAN=[0 10];
>>Y0=[0;0];
>>[t,y] =ode45('num_for',TSPAN,Y0);
>>plot(t,y(:,1))
Including forcing
function Xdot=num_for(t,X)
m=100;k=1000;c=25;
ze=c/(2*sqrt(k*m));
wn=sqrt(k/m);
w=2.5;F=1000;f=F/m;
f=[0 ;f*cos(w*t)]; A=[0 1;wn*wn 2*ze*wn]; Xdot=A*X+f;
Zero initial conditions
5
4
3
2
1
0
1
2
3
4
5
0
2
4
6
8
10
Time (sec)
Displacement (m)
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Example 2.8.2: Design damping for an electronics model
• 100 kg mass, subject to 150cos(5t) N • Stiffness k=500 N/m, c = 10kg/s • Usually x _{0} =0.01 m, v _{0} = 0.5 m/s • Find a new c such that the max transient value is 0.2 m.
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Response of the board is;
transient exceeds design specification value
0.4
0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0
10
20
30
40
Displacement (m)
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Time (sec)
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To run this use the following file:
Create function to model forcing
function Xdot=num_for(t,X)
m=100;k=500;c=10;
ze=c/(2*sqrt(k*m));
wn=sqrt(k/m);
w=5;F=150;f=F/m;
f=[0 ;f*cos(w*t)]; A=[0 1;wn*wn 2*ze*wn]; Xdot=A*X+f;
Matlab
command
window
>>TSPAN=[0 40]; >> Y0=[0.01;0.5]; >>[t,y] = ode45('num_for',TSPAN,Y0); >> plot(t,y(:,1)) >> xlabel('Time (sec)') >> ylabel('Displacement (m)') >> grid
Rerun this code, increasing c each time until a
response that satisfies the design limits results.
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Displacement (m)
Solution: code it, plot it and change c until the desired response bound is obtained.
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0.1
Meets amplitude limit when c=195kg/s
0
10
20
30
40
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Time (sec)
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2.9 Nonlinear Response Properties
• More than one equilibrium • Steady state depends on initial conditions • Period depends on I.C. and amplitude • Sub and super harmonic resonance • No superposition • Harmonic input resulting in nonperiodic motion • Jumps appear in response amplitude
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Computing the forced response of a nonlinear system
A nonlinear system has a equation of motion given
by:
f
(
x
,
&
x
)
f
0
cos
t
Put this expression into statespace form:
x
& ( )
t
1
x
& ( )
t
2
x
t
& ( )
( )
t
f
(
x
2
x
1
In vector form:
(
)
F x f
,
x
2
( )
t
)
f
0
cos
t
^{©} ^{D}^{.} ^{J}^{.} ^{I}^{n}^{m}^{a}^{n}
Mechanical Engineering at
Numerical form
Vector of nonlinear dynamics
F(x)
x _{2} (t)
f (x _{1} , x _{2} )
Euler equation is
,
_{I}_{n}_{p}_{u}_{t} _{f}_{o}_{r}_{c}_{e} _{v}_{e}_{c}_{t}_{o}_{r}
f(t)
0
f _{0} cost
x(t _{i}_{}_{1} ) x(t _{i} ) F(x(t _{i} ))t f(t _{i} )t
^{©} ^{D}^{.} ^{J}^{.} ^{I}^{n}^{m}^{a}^{n}
Mechanical Engineering at
Cubic nonlinear spring (2.9.1)
x
2
3
2
x
x
x
f
cos
t
n
n
0
2
1
0
1
Nonlinearity included
Linear system
2
0
2
4
6
8
10
Displacement (m)
Time (sec)
n
Superharmonic resonance
2.964
^{©} ^{D}^{.} ^{J}^{.} ^{I}^{n}^{m}^{a}^{n}
Mechanical Engineering at
Cubic nonlinear spring near
resonance
2
3
x
2
x
x
x
f
cos
t
n
n
0
3
2
1
0
1
2
Nonlinearity included
Linear system
3
0
2
4
6
8
10
Time (sec)
n
Response near linear resonance
Displacement (m)
^{©} ^{D}^{.} ^{J}^{.} ^{I}^{n}^{m}^{a}^{n}
1.09
Mechanical Engineering at