You are on page 1of 51

2.4 Base Excitation

Important class of vibration analysis

Preventing excitations from passing from a vibrating base through its mount into a structure

Vibration isolation Vibrations in your car Satellite operation Disk drives, etc.

© D. J. Inman

Mechanical Engineering at

FBD of SDOF Base Excitation

System Sketch System FBD x(t) m m k c k(x  y) c(x   y)
System Sketch
System FBD
x(t)
m
m
k
c
k(x  y)
c(x
y)
y(t)
base
F
=-
k x y
(
-
)-
c x y
(
&& &&
-
)=
mx
mx
&& &
+
cx
+
kx
=
cy
&
+
ky
(2.61)

© D. J. Inman

Mechanical Engineering at

SDOF Base Excitation (cont)

Assume:

( )

y t

Y

sin(

t

) and plug into Equation(2.61)

&& &

+

cx

mx

+

kx

=

Y

cos(

t

) +

kY

sin(

c

t

1 4 4 442 4 4 4 43

)

(2.63)

harmonic forcing functions

For a car,

2

2

V

The steady-state solution is just the superposition of the two individual particular solutions (system is linear).

&&

x

+2

 x

n

& +

2

x

n

f

647 48

0 c

=2

 Y

cos(

t

1 4 42 4 43

n

) +

f

}

0 s

2

Y

sin(

t

1 42 43

n

)

© D. J. Inman

Mechanical Engineering at

(2.64)

Particular Solution (sine term)

With a sine for the forcing function,

2 x && +2  x & +  x = f sin  t n
2
x
&&
+2

x
&
+
x
=
f
sin
t
n
n
0
s
x
A
cos
t
B
sin
t
X
sin(
t
)
ps
s
s
s
s
where
Use rectangular form to
make it easier to add
 2
 
f
n
0
s
A
the cos term
s
2
2
2
2
(
)
2
 
n
n
2
2
(
) f
n
0
s
B
s
2
2
2
2
(
)
2
 
n
n

© D. J. Inman

Mechanical Engineering at

Particular Solution (cos term)

With a cosine for the forcing function, we showed

&&

x

+2



x

pc

n

&

x

+

2

n

A

c

cos

t

x

f

=

B

c

0

c

cos

t

sin

t

X

c

cos(

t

c

)

where

 

(

2

n

2

) f

0

 

A

 

c

 

c

B

(

2

n

2

)

2

2

 

n

2

 

n

f

0

c

2

c

(

2

n

2

)

2

2

 

n

2

© D. J. Inman

Mechanical Engineering at

Magnitude X/Y

Now add the sin and cos terms to get the magnitude of the full particular solution

X

2 2  f 0s f 0c  2   n Y ( n 2
2
2
 f 0s
f 0c
 2   n Y
( n 2  2 ) 2  2 n
2 (2) 2  n ( n 2  2 ) 2  2 n 
2
(2) 2  n
( n 2  2 ) 2  2 n
 2

where

f 0c 2 n Y

and

f 0s n 2 Y

if we define r

Magnitude X/Y Now add the sin and cos terms to get the magnitude of the full

n

this becomes

X Y

1 (2r) 2 (1 r 2 ) 2 
1 (2r) 2
(1 r 2 ) 2 

2r2 (2.70)

X

Y

1 (2r) 2 (1 r 2 ) 2  2r 2
1 (2r) 2
(1 r 2 ) 2  2r 2

(2.71)

© D. J. Inman

Mechanical Engineering at

The relative magnitude plot

of X/Y versus frequency ratio: Called the

Displacement Transmissibility 40  =0.01  =0.1 30  =0.3  =0.7 20 10 0 -10
Displacement Transmissibility
40
 =0.01
 =0.1
30
 =0.3
 =0.7
20
10
0
-10
-20
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
X/Y (dB)

Frequency ratio r

Figure 2.13 © D. J. Inman Mechanical Engineering at

From the plot of relative Displacement Transmissibility observe that:

X/Y is called Displacement Transmissibility Ratio Potentially severe amplification at resonance Attenuation for r > sqrt(2) Isolation Zone If r< sqrt(2) transmissibility decreases with damping ratio Amplification Zone

If r >> 1 then transmissibility increases with damping ratio X p ~2Y/r

© D. J. Inman

Mechanical Engineering at

Next examine the Force Transmitted to the mass as a function of the frequency ratio

F

T

 

k

(

x

y

)

c

(

& &

x

y

)

&&

mx

At steady state,

x t

( )

X

cos(

t

  ),
),

From FBD

so

&& x

=-

2

X

cos(

t

)

F

T

2

  • m

X

2

kr X

Next examine the Force Transmitted to the mass as a function of the frequency ratio F
m
m

k

Next examine the Force Transmitted to the mass as a function of the frequency ratio F
Next examine the Force Transmitted to the mass as a function of the frequency ratio F

c

F T

x(t)

base
base

y(t)

© D. J. Inman

Mechanical Engineering at

Plot of Force Transmissibility (in dB) versus frequency ratio

40  =0.01  =0.1 30  =0.3  =0.7 20 10 0 -10 -20 0
40
 =0.01
 =0.1
30
 =0.3
 =0.7
20
10
0
-10
-20
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
F/kY (dB)

Frequency ratio r

Figure 2.14

© D. J. Inman

Mechanical Engineering at

Figure 2.15 Comparison between force and displacement transmissibility

Figure 2.15 Comparison between force and displacement transmissibility Force Transmissibility Displacement Transmissibility Mechanical Engineering at
Figure 2.15 Comparison between force and displacement transmissibility Force Transmissibility Displacement Transmissibility Mechanical Engineering at
Figure 2.15 Comparison between force and displacement transmissibility Force Transmissibility Displacement Transmissibility Mechanical Engineering at

Force

Transmissibility

Displacement

Transmissibility

© D. J. Inman

Mechanical Engineering at

Example 2.4.1: Effect of speed

on the amplitude of car vibration

Example 2.4.1: Effect of speed on the amplitude of car vibration Mechanical Engineering at

© D. J. Inman

Mechanical Engineering at

Model the road as a sinusoidal input to base motion of the car model

Approximation of road surface:

y(t) (0.01 m)sinb t

b v(km/hr)

 

  • 1 hour

     
 
   

0.006 km

3600 s

2rad

 

cycle

0.2909v rad/s

b (20km/hr) = 5.818 rad/s

From the data give, determine the frequency and damping ratio of the car suspension:

n

=

k  m c 2 km
k
m
c
2
km

© D. J. Inman

4  10 4 N/m   6.303 rad/s 1007 kg 2000 Ns/m  2 
4
 10 4 N/m
 6.303 rad/s
1007 kg
2000 Ns/m
2
4  10 4 N/m  1007 kg

( 1 Hz)

0.158

Mechanical Engineering at

From the input frequency, input amplitude, natural frequency and damping ratio use equation (2.70) to compute the amplitude of the response:

r

b

5.818

6.303

X Y

1 (2r) 2 (1 r 2 ) 2  (2r) 2
1 (2r) 2
(1 r 2 ) 2  (2r) 2

0.01 m

 1 2(0.158)(0.923) 2 1 0.923 2  2  20.1580.923 2
1 2(0.158)(0.923) 2
1 0.923 2  2  20.1580.923 2

0.0319 m

What happens as the car goes faster? See Table 2.1. © D. J. Inman Mechanical Engineering at

Example 2.4.2: Compute the force transmitted to a machine through base motion at resonance

From (2.77) at r =1:

F T

kY

1(2) 2

(2) 2

1/2

F T kY

2

Example 2.4.2: Compute the force transmitted to a machine through base motion at resonance From (2.77)
1 4 2
1 4 2

From given m, c, and k:

c 900     0.04 2 km 2 40,000 3000 g
c
900
 
 0.04
2
km
2
40,000 3000
g

From measured excitation Y = 0.001 m:

F

T

kY

2

2 1  4 
2
1
4

(40,000 N/m)(0.001 m)

2(0.04)

2 1  4(0.04)
2
1
4(0.04)

501.6 N

Example 2.4.2: Compute the force transmitted to a machine through base motion at resonance From (2.77)

© D. J. Inman

Mechanical Engineering at

m
m

0

e
e

k

m 0 e k c 2.5 Rotating Unbalance • Gyros • Cryo-coolers • Tires • Washing
m 0 e k c 2.5 Rotating Unbalance • Gyros • Cryo-coolers • Tires • Washing

c

2.5 Rotating Unbalance

Gyros Cryo-coolers Tires Washing machines

Machine of total mass m i.e. m 0 included in m

t

e = eccentricity m o = mass unbalance

= rotation

m 0 e k c 2.5 Rotating Unbalance • Gyros • Cryo-coolers • Tires • Washing

frequency

© D. J. Inman

Mechanical Engineering at

Rotating Unbalance (cont)

R x

Rotating Unbalance (cont) R x m   0 e  What force is imparted on
m   0 e 
m
 
0
e

What force is imparted on the

structure? Note it rotates

with x component:

R y

x

r

e

sin

r

t

a

x



x

r

 

e

2

r

sin

r

t

From sophomore dynamics,

R

  • x m e

m a

0

x

 

o

2

r

sin

 

m e

o

2

r

sin

r

t

R

y

m a

0

y

 

m e

o

2

r

cos

 

m e

o

2

r

cos

r

t

© D. J. Inman

Mechanical Engineering at

Rotating Unbalance (cont)

The problem is now just like any other SDOF system with a harmonic excitation

m 0 e  2 sin(  t) 2 mx && &  cx  kx
m
0 e  2 sin(  t)
2
mx
&& &
cx
kx
m e
sin
t
(2.82)
o
r
r
x(t)
m
2
2
or
x
&&
o
2

x
&
x
e
sin
t
n
n
r
r
m
m
k
c
Note the influences on the
forcing function (we are assuming that

the mass m is held in place in the y direction as indicated in Figure 2.18)

© D. J. Inman

Mechanical Engineering at

Rotating Unbalance (cont)

Just another SDOF oscillator with a harmonic forcing function Expressed in terms of frequency ratio r

x

p

( )

t

X

sin(

r

t

)

X

m e

o

r

2

m

(1

r

2

)

2

2

r

2

(2.83)

(2.84)

tan

1

2

r

1 r

2

(2.85)

© D. J. Inman

Mechanical Engineering at

Figure 2.20: Displacement magnitude vs frequency caused by rotating unbalance

Figure 2.20: Displacement magnitude vs frequency caused by rotating unbalance Mechanical Engineering at

© D. J. Inman

Mechanical Engineering at

Example 2.5.1:Given the deflection at resonance (0.1m),

= 0.05 and a 10% out of balance, compute e and the amount of added mass needed to reduce the maximum amplitude to 0.01 m.

At resonance r = 1 and

mX

m e

0

1

2

1

2(0.05)

10

0.1 m

e

1

10

e

0.1 m

 

2

 

Now to compute the added mass, again at resonance;

 

m

X

m

0

0.1 m

10

Use this to find m so that X is 0.01:

 

0.01 m

m

m

m

0

0.1 m

© D. J. Inman

10

m

 

m

(0.1)

m

100

 

m

9

m

Here m 0 is 10%m or 0.1m

Mechanical Engineering at

Example 2.5.2 Helicopter rotor unbalance

Example 2.5.2 Helicopter rotor unbalance Given Fig 2.21 k  1  10 N/m m 

Given

Fig 2.21

k 110 5 N/m m tail 60 kg m rot 20 kg m 0 0.5 kg = 0.01

Fig 2.22

Example 2.5.2 Helicopter rotor unbalance Given Fig 2.21 k  1  10 N/m m 

Compute the deflection at 1500 rpm and find the rotor speed at which the deflection is maximum

© D. J. Inman

Mechanical Engineering at

Example 2.5.2 Solution

The rotating mass is 20 + 0.5 or 20.5. The stiffness is provided by the Tail section and the corresponding mass is that determined in Example

  • 1.4.4. So the system natural frequency is

n

k m m  tail 3
k
m
m 
tail
3

The frequency of rotation is

5 10 N/m 60 kg 20.5 + 3
5
10
N/m
60 kg
20.5 +
3

46.69 rad/s

r

min 2

rad

rev

1500 rpm = 1500 157 rad/s

r

min 60 s

rev

3.16

49.49 rad/s

157 rad/s

© D. J. Inman

Mechanical Engineering at

Now compute the deflection at r = 3.16 and =0.01 using eq (2.84)

X

m e

0

r

2

m

(1

r

2

)

2

(2

r

)

2

0.5 kg



0.15 m

3.16

2

20.5 kg

1

(3.16)

2

2

2(0.01)(3.16)

2

0.004 m

At around r = 1, the max deflection occurs:

At r = 1:

r 1r 49.69 rad/s = 49.69 rad s

rev

60 s

2rad min

X

0.5 kg0.15 m

20.5 kg

  • 1 0.183 m

2(0.01)

474.5 rpm

or 18.3 cm

© D. J. Inman

Mechanical Engineering at

2.6 Measurement Devices

• A basic transducer used in vibration measurement is the accelerometer.  F =- k x
• A basic transducer
used in vibration
measurement is the
accelerometer.
F
=-
k x y
(
-
)-
c x y
(
&& &&
-
)=
mx
• This device can be
modeled using the
base equations
developed in the
previous section
 mx
&&
= -
c
(
x  y
& &
) -
k
(
x  y
)
(2.86) and (2.61)
Here, y(t) is the measured
response of the structure

© D. J. Inman

Mechanical Engineering at

Base motion applied to measurement devices

Accelerometer
Accelerometer

Let

( )

z t

&&

mz

& ( )

cz t

Z

Y

and

 

tan

( )

x t

( )

y t

kz t

( )

m

2

r

(1

1

r

2

)

2

(2

2

r

1 r

2

(2.87) :

 

2

b

Y

cos

b

r

)

2

(2.91)

 

t

(2.88)

(2.90)

Strain Gauge
Strain Gauge

These equations should be familiar from base motion. Here they describe measurement!

© D. J. Inman

Mechanical Engineering at

Magnitude and sensitivity plots for accelerometers.

Effect of damping on proportionality constant Fig 2.27 Fig 2.26 Magnitude plot showing Regions of measurement
Effect of damping on
proportionality constant
Fig 2.27
Fig 2.26
Magnitude plot showing
Regions of measurement
In the accel region, output voltage is
nearly proportional to displacement

© D. J. Inman

Mechanical Engineering at

2.7 Other forms of damping

2.7 Other forms of damping These various other forms of damping are all nonlinear. They can

These various other forms of damping are all nonlinear. They can be compared to linear damping by the method of “equivalent viscous damping” discussed next. A numerical treatment of the exact response is given in section 2.9.

© D. J. Inman

Mechanical Engineering at

The method of equivalent viscous

damping: consists of comparing the energy dissipated during one cycle of forced response

Assume a stead state resulting from a harmonic input and compute the energy dissipated per one cycle

x ss X sint

The energy per cycle for a viscously damped system is

E

Ñ

F dx

d

2

/

0

dx

&

cx

dt

dt

2

/

2

&

cx dt

0

(2.99)

x

ss

X

sin

t

&

x

X

cos

t

E

2

/

c

0

X

cos

t

 2  2 dt   c  X
2
2
dt
c
X

© D. J. Inman

Mechanical Engineering at

(2.101)

Next compute the energy dissipated per cycle for Coulomb damping:

E

2

/

mg

0

mgX (

sgn(

x xdt && ) udu
x xdt
&&
)
udu

/ 2

cos

mg

3

/ 2

cos

0

/ 2

udu

2

3

/ 2

cos

udu

)

4

mgX

Here we let u = t and du =dt and split up the integral according to the sign changes in velocity. Next compare this energy to that of a viscous system:

c

eq

X

2

4

mgX

c

eq

4

mg



X

(2.105)

This yields a linear viscous system dissipating the same amount of energy per cycle.

Mechanical Engineering at

© D. J. Inman

Using the equivalent viscous damping calculations, each of the systems in Table 2.2

can be approximated by a linear viscous system

In particular, c eq can be used to derive amplitude expressions. However, as indicated in Section 2.8 and 2.9 the response can be simulated numerically to provide more accurate magnitude and response information.

© D. J. Inman

Mechanical Engineering at

Hysteresis: an important concept characterizing damping

Hysteresis: an important concept characterizing damping • A plot of displacement versus spring/damping force for viscous

A plot of displacement

versus spring/damping

force for viscous

damping yields a loop

At the bottom is a stress

strain plot for a system

with material damping

of the hysteretic type

The enclosed area is

equal to the energy lost

per cycle

© D. J. Inman

Mechanical Engineering at

The measured area yields the energy dissipated. For some materials, called

hysteretic this is

E kX

  • 2 (2.120)

Here the constant , a measured quantity is called the hysteretic damping constant, k is the stiffness and X is the amplitude.

Comparing this to the viscous energy yields:

© D. J. Inman

  • c eq

k

Mechanical Engineering at

Hysteresis gives rise to the concept of complex stiffness

Substitution of the equivalent damping coefficient and using the complex exponential to describe a harmonic input yields:

&&

mx

k

x &

2

n

x

F e

0

j

t

Assuming

( )

x t

Xe

j

t

yields

and

&

( )

x t

Xj

e

j

t

&&

mx t

( )

k

(1

)

j

142 43

( )

x t

F e

0

j

t

complex stiffness

© D. J. Inman

Mechanical Engineering at

2.8 Numerical Simulation and Design

• Four things we can do computationally to help solve, understand and design vibration problems subject to harmonic excitation

• Symbolic manipulation • Plotting of the time response • Solution and plotting of the time response • Plotting magnitude and phase

© D. J. Inman

Mechanical Engineering at

Symbolic Manipulation

Let

A

n 2 2

2 n

2 n

n 2 2

and

What is

A n A 1 x

x

f 0

0

This can be solved using Matlab, Mathcad or Mathematica

© D. J. Inman

Mechanical Engineering at

Symbolic Manipulation

Solve equations (2.34) using Mathcad symbolics :

Enter this

1 2 2 . . . n  2  n  f0 . 2 2
1
2
2
.
.
.
n
2  n 
f0
.
2
2
0
.
.
.
2  n 
n
2
2
n
.
f0
4
2
2
4
2
2
.
.
.
.
n
2
n
4 .  2
n
.
.
.
.
2  n
4
2
2
4
2
2
2
.
.
.
.
.
n
2
n
4
n

Choose evaluate

under symbolics to

Symbolic Manipulation Solve equations (2.34) using Mathcad symbolics : Enter this 1 2 2 . .

get this

© D. J. Inman

Mechanical Engineering at

In MATLAB Command Window

>> syms z wn w f0 >> A=[wn^2-w^2 2*z*wn*w;-2*z*wn*w wn^2-w^2]; >> x=[f0 ;0]; >> An=inv(A)*x An = [ (wn^2-w^2)/(wn^4-2*wn^2*w^2+w^4+4*z^2*wn^2*w^2)*f0]

[

2*z*wn*w/(wn^4-2*wn^2*w^2+w^4+4*z^2*wn^2*w^2)*f0]

>> pretty(An)

[

2

2

]

[

(wn

- w ) f0

]

[ --------------------------------- ]

 

[

4

2

2

4

2

2

2 ]

[ wn

- 2 wn

+ w

w

+ 4 z

wn

w

]

[

]

 

z wn w f0 [2 ---------------------------------]

]

[

[

4

2

2

4

2

2

2]

[

wn

- 2 wn

+ w

w

+ 4 z

wn

w ]

© D. J. Inman

Mechanical Engineering at

Magnitude plots: Base Excitation

%m-file to plot base excitation to mass vibration

r=linspace(0,3,500);

ze=[0.01;0.05;0.1;0.20;0.50];

X=sqrt( ((2*ze*r).^2+1) ./ ( (ones(size(ze))*(1-r.*r).^2) + (2*ze*r).^2) );

figure(1)

plot(r,20*log10(X))

The values of can then be chosen directly off of the plot.

For Example:

If the T.R. needs to be less than 2 (or 6dB)

and r is

close to 1 then

must be more than

0.2 (probably about

0.3).

© D. J. Inman

40  =0.01 30 Design  =0.05 value  =0.1 20  =0.2 10  =0.5
40
 =0.01
30
Design
 =0.05
value
 =0.1
20
 =0.2
10
 =0.5
0
-10
-20
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
X/Y (dB)

Frequency ratio r

Mechanical Engineering at

Force Magnitude plots: Base Excitation

%m-file to plot base excitation to mass vibration

r=linspace(0,3,500);

ze=[0.01;0.05;0.1;0.20;0.50];

X=sqrt( ((2*ze*r).^2+1) ./ ( (ones(size(ze))*(1-r.*r).^2) + (2*ze*r).^2) );

F=X.*(ones(length(ze),1)*r).^2;

figure(1)

plot(r,20*log10(F))

40  =0.01 30  =0.05  =0.1 20  =0.2  =0.5 10 0 -10
40
 =0.01
30
 =0.05
 =0.1
20
 =0.2
 =0.5
10
0
-10
-20
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
F T /kY (dB)

© D. J. Inman

Frequency ratio r

Mechanical Engineering at

Numerical Simulation

We can put the forced case:

mx t && ( ) x t && ( ) 
mx t
&&
( )
x t
&&
( ) 

& ( )

cx t

kx t

( )

F

0

cos

t

2



n

&

x t

( )

2

n

x t

( )

f

0

cos

t

Into a state space form

&

x

1

x

2

&  

x

2

2



n

x

2

2

n

x

1

f

0

cos

t

& ( )

x

t

A

x

( )

t

f

( ),

t

f

( )

t

f

0

0

cos

t

© D. J. Inman

Mechanical Engineering at

Numerical Integration

Euler: x(t i1 ) x(t i ) Ax(t i )t f(t i )t

Using the ODE45 function

Numerical Integration Euler: x ( t )  x ( t )  A x (

>>TSPAN=[0 10];

>>Y0=[0;0];

>>[t,y] =ode45('num_for',TSPAN,Y0);

>>plot(t,y(:,1))

Including forcing

function Xdot=num_for(t,X)

m=100;k=1000;c=25;

ze=c/(2*sqrt(k*m));

wn=sqrt(k/m);

w=2.5;F=1000;f=F/m;

f=[0 ;f*cos(w*t)]; A=[0 1;-wn*wn -2*ze*wn]; Xdot=A*X+f;

Zero initial conditions

5 4 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 0 2 4 6 8
5
4
3
2
1
0
-1
-2
-3
-4
-5
0
2
4
6
8
10
Time (sec)
Displacement (m)

© D. J. Inman

Mechanical Engineering at

Example 2.8.2: Design damping for an electronics model

100 kg mass, subject to 150cos(5t) N Stiffness k=500 N/m, c = 10kg/s Usually x 0 =0.01 m, v 0 = 0.5 m/s Find a new c such that the max transient value is 0.2 m.

© D. J. Inman

Mechanical Engineering at

Response of the board is;

transient exceeds design specification value 0.4 0.2 0 -0.2 -0.4 0 10 20 30 40 Displacement
transient exceeds design specification value
0.4
0.2
0
-0.2
-0.4
0
10
20
30
40
Displacement (m)

© D. J. Inman

Time (sec)

Mechanical Engineering at

To run this use the following file:

Create function to model forcing

function Xdot=num_for(t,X)

m=100;k=500;c=10;

ze=c/(2*sqrt(k*m));

wn=sqrt(k/m);

w=5;F=150;f=F/m;

f=[0 ;f*cos(w*t)]; A=[0 1;-wn*wn -2*ze*wn]; Xdot=A*X+f;

Matlab

command

window

>>TSPAN=[0 40]; >> Y0=[0.01;0.5]; >>[t,y] = ode45('num_for',TSPAN,Y0); >> plot(t,y(:,1)) >> xlabel('Time (sec)') >> ylabel('Displacement (m)') >> grid

Rerun this code, increasing c each time until a

response that satisfies the design limits results.

© D. J. Inman

Mechanical Engineering at

Displacement (m)

Solution: code it, plot it and change c until the desired response bound is obtained.

0.3

0.2

0.1

0

-0.1

Meets amplitude limit when c=195kg/s 0 10 20 30 40
Meets amplitude limit when c=195kg/s
0
10
20
30
40

© D. J. Inman

Time (sec)

Mechanical Engineering at

2.9 Nonlinear Response Properties

• More than one equilibrium • Steady state depends on initial conditions • Period depends on I.C. and amplitude • Sub and super harmonic resonance • No superposition • Harmonic input resulting in nonperiodic motion • Jumps appear in response amplitude

© D. J. Inman

Mechanical Engineering at

Computing the forced response of a non-linear system

A non-linear system has a equation of motion given

by:

x t && ( ) 
x t
&&
( ) 

f

(

x

,

&

x

)

f

0

cos

t

Put this expression into state-space form:

 x & ( ) t 1  x & ( ) t  2 x
 x
& ( )
t
1
x
& ( )
t
2
x
t

& ( )

( )

t

f

(

x

2

 

x

1

In vector form:

(

)

F x f

,

x

2

( )

t

)

f

0

cos

t

© D. J. Inman

Mechanical Engineering at

Numerical form

Vector of nonlinear dynamics

F(x)

x 2 (t)

f (x 1 , x 2 )

Euler equation is

,

Input force vector

f(t)

0

f 0 cost

x(t i1 ) x(t i ) F(x(t i ))t f(t i )t

© D. J. Inman

Mechanical Engineering at

Cubic nonlinear spring (2.9.1)

x   2 3  2  x   x   x 
x

2
3
 2

x
x
x
f
cos
t
n
n
0
2
1
0
-1
Non-linearity included
Linear system
-2
0
2
4
6
8
10
Displacement (m)

Time (sec)

n

Superharmonic resonance

2.964

© D. J. Inman

Mechanical Engineering at

Cubic nonlinear spring near

resonance 2 3 x   2  x    x   x
resonance
2
3
x
  2

x  
x
x
f
cos
t
n
n
0
3
2
1
0
-1
-2
Non-linearity included
Linear system
-3
0
2
4
6
8
10
Time (sec)
 n
Response near linear resonance
 
Displacement (m)

© D. J. Inman

1.09

Mechanical Engineering at