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System Sketch
System FBD
x(t)
m
m
k
c
k(x  y)
c(x
y)
y(t)
base
F
=-
k x y
(
-
)-
c x y
(
&& &&
-
)=
mx
mx
&& &
+
cx
+
kx
=
cy
&
+
ky
(2.61)

0 c

0 s

# With a sine for the forcing function,

2
x
&&
+2

x
&
+
x
=
f
sin
t
n
n
0
s
x
A
cos
t
B
sin
t
X
sin(
t
)
ps
s
s
s
s
where
Use rectangular form to
 2
 
f
n
0
s
A
the cos term
s
2
2
2
2
(
)
2
 
n
n
2
2
(
) f
n
0
s
B
s
2
2
2
2
(
)
2
 
n
n

# 

2
2
 f 0s
f 0c
 2   n Y
( n 2  2 ) 2  2 n
2
(2) 2  n
( n 2  2 ) 2  2 n
 2

f 0s n 2 Y

1 (2r) 2
(1 r 2 ) 2 

# Y

1 (2r) 2
(1 r 2 ) 2  2r 2

# of X/Y versus frequency ratio: Called the

Displacement Transmissibility
40
 =0.01
 =0.1
30
 =0.3
 =0.7
20
10
0
-10
-20
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
X/Y (dB)

),

m

base

40
 =0.01
 =0.1
30
 =0.3
 =0.7
20
10
0
-10
-20
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
F/kY (dB)

 
   

# =

k
m
c
2
km

4
 10 4 N/m
1007 kg
2000 Ns/m
2
4  10 4 N/m  1007 kg

# From the input frequency, input amplitude, natural frequency and damping ratio use equation (2.70) to compute the amplitude of the response:

## X  Y

1 (2r) 2
(1 r 2 ) 2  (2r) 2

##  0.01 m

1 2(0.158)(0.923) 2
1 0.923 2  2  20.1580.923 2

1/2

1 4 2

c
900
 
 0.04
2
km
2
40,000 3000
g

T

2
1
4

2
1
4(0.04)

m

0

e

m
 
0
e

0

x

o

2

r

o

2

r

r

y

0

y

o

2

r

o

2

r

r

# The problem is now just like any other SDOF system with a harmonic excitation

m
0 e  2 sin(  t)
2
mx
&& &
cx
kx
m e
sin
t
(2.82)
o
r
r
x(t)
m
2
2
or
x
&&
o
2

x
&
x
e
sin
t
n
n
r
r
m
m
k
c
Note the influences on the
forcing function (we are assuming that

0

0

0

n

k
m
m 
tail
3

5
10
N/m
60 kg
20.5 +
3

0

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

# 2.6 Measurement Devices

• A basic transducer
used in vibration
measurement is the
accelerometer.
F
=-
k x y
(
-
)-
c x y
(
&& &&
-
)=
mx
• This device can be
modeled using the
base equations
developed in the
previous section
 mx
&&
= -
c
(
x  y
& &
) -
k
(
x  y
)
(2.86) and (2.61)
Here, y(t) is the measured
response of the structure

Accelerometer

2

1

2

2

2

2

b

b

2

Strain Gauge

# Magnitude and sensitivity plots for accelerometers.

Effect of damping on
proportionality constant
Fig 2.27
Fig 2.26
Magnitude plot showing
Regions of measurement
In the accel region, output voltage is
nearly proportional to displacement

d

2

/

0

2

/

2

0

2
2
dt
c
X

2

/

0

x xdt
&&
)
udu

/ 2

3

/ 2

0

/ 2

2

3

/ 2

1
2
2
.
.
.
n
2  n 
f0
.
2
2
0
.
.
.
2  n 
n
2
2
n
.
f0
4
2
2
4
2
2
.
.
.
.
n
2
n
4 .  2
n
.
.
.
.
2  n
4
2
2
4
2
2
2
.
.
.
.
.
n
2
n
4
n

40
 =0.01
30
Design
 =0.05
value
 =0.1
20
 =0.2
10
 =0.5
0
-10
-20
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
X/Y (dB)

40
 =0.01
30
 =0.05
 =0.1
20
 =0.2
 =0.5
10
0
-10
-20
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
F T /kY (dB)

mx t
&&
( )
x t
&&
( ) 

5
4
3
2
1
0
-1
-2
-3
-4
-5
0
2
4
6
8
10
Time (sec)
Displacement (m)

# Response of the board is;

transient exceeds design specification value
0.4
0.2
0
-0.2
-0.4
0
10
20
30
40
Displacement (m)

# Solution: code it, plot it and change c until the desired response bound is obtained.

## -0.1

Meets amplitude limit when c=195kg/s
0
10
20
30
40

x t
&&
( ) 

 x
& ( )
t
1
x
& ( )
t
2
x
t

# Cubic nonlinear spring (2.9.1)

x

2
3
 2

x
x
x
f
cos
t
n
n
0
2
1
0
-1
Non-linearity included
Linear system
-2
0
2
4
6
8
10
Displacement (m)

# Cubic nonlinear spring near

resonance
2
3
x
  2

x  
x
x
f
cos
t
n
n
0
3
2
1
0
-1
-2
Non-linearity included
Linear system
-3
0
2
4
6
8
10
Time (sec)
 n
Response near linear resonance
 
Displacement (m)