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FBD of SDOF Base Excitation System Sketch
System FBD
x(t)
m
m
k
c
k(x  y)
c(x
y)
y(t)
base
F
=-
k x y
(
-
)-
c x y
(
&& &&
-
)=
mx
mx
&& &
+
cx
+
kx
=
cy
&
+
ky
(2.61)

0 c

0 s

With a sine for the forcing function, 2
x
&&
+2

x
&
+
x
=
f
sin
t
n
n
0
s
x
A
cos
t
B
sin
t
X
sin(
t
)
ps
s
s
s
s
where
Use rectangular form to
 2
 
f
n
0
s
A
the cos term
s
2
2
2
2
(
)
2
 
n
n
2
2
(
) f
n
0
s
B
s
2
2
2
2
(
)
2
 
n
n

 2
2
 f 0s
f 0c
 2   n Y
( n 2  2 ) 2  2 n 2
(2) 2  n
( n 2  2 ) 2  2 n
 2

f 0s n 2 Y

if we define r   X  Y 1 (2r) 2
(1 r 2 ) 2 

Y 1 (2r) 2
(1 r 2 ) 2  2r 2

of X/Y versus frequency ratio: Called the Displacement Transmissibility
40
 =0.01
 =0.1
30
 =0.3
 =0.7
20
10
0
-10
-20
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
X/Y (dB)

 ),

kr X  m

k  x(t) base

Plot of Force Transmissibility (in dB) versus frequency ratio 40
 =0.01
 =0.1
30
 =0.3
 =0.7
20
10
0
-10
-20
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
F/kY (dB)

Figure 2.15 Comparison between force and displacement transmissibility   on the amplitude of car vibration • 1 hour  
   

= k
m
c
2
km 4
 10 4 N/m
1007 kg
2000 Ns/m
2
4  10 4 N/m  1007 kg

From the input frequency, input amplitude, natural frequency and damping ratio use equation (2.70) to compute the amplitude of the response:

X  Y 1 (2r) 2
(1 r 2 ) 2  (2r) 2

 0.01 m 1 2(0.158)(0.923) 2
1 0.923 2  2  20.1580.923 2

From (2.77) at r =1:

1/2

2  1 4 2

From given m, c, and k: c
900
 
 0.04
2
km
2
40,000 3000
g

T



2 2
1
4

2(0.04) 2
1
4(0.04)

501.6 N Mechanical Engineering at m

0 e

k   = rotation Rotating Unbalance (cont)

R x  m
 
0
e

0

x

o

2

r

o

2

r

r

y

0

y

o

2

r

o

2

r

r

The problem is now just like any other SDOF system with a harmonic excitation m
0 e  2 sin(  t)
2
mx
&& &
cx
kx
m e
sin
t
(2.82)
o
r
r
x(t)
m
2
2
or
x
&&
o
2

x
&
x
e
sin
t
n
n
r
r
m
m
k
c
Note the influences on the
forcing function (we are assuming that

Figure 2.20: Displacement magnitude vs frequency caused by rotating unbalance 0

0

0

Example 2.5.2 Helicopter rotor unbalance Fig 2.22 Example 2.5.2 Solution

n

 k
m
m 
tail
3

The frequency of rotation is 5
10
N/m
60 kg
20.5 +
3

0

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2.6 Measurement Devices • A basic transducer
used in vibration
measurement is the
accelerometer.
F
=-
k x y
(
-
)-
c x y
(
&& &&
-
)=
mx
• This device can be
modeled using the
base equations
developed in the
previous section
 mx
&&
= -
c
(
x  y
& &
) -
k
(
x  y
)
(2.86) and (2.61)
Here, y(t) is the measured
response of the structure

Base motion applied to measurement devices Accelerometer

2

1

2

2

2

2

b

b



2

(2.90) Strain Gauge

Magnitude and sensitivity plots for accelerometers. Effect of damping on
proportionality constant
Fig 2.27
Fig 2.26
Magnitude plot showing
Regions of measurement
In the accel region, output voltage is
nearly proportional to displacement

2.7 Other forms of damping d

2

/

0

2

/

2

0

 2
2
dt
c
X

2

/

0

sgn( x xdt
&&
)
udu

/ 2

3

/ 2

0

/ 2

2

3

/ 2

Hysteresis: an important concept characterizing damping Enter this 1
2
2
.
.
.
n
2  n 
f0
.
2
2
0
.
.
.
2  n 
n
2
2
n
.
f0
4
2
2
4
2
2
.
.
.
.
n
2
n
4 .  2
n
.
.
.
.
2  n
4
2
2
4
2
2
2
.
.
.
.
.
n
2
n
4
n

under symbolics to Magnitude plots: Base Excitation

0.3). 40
 =0.01
30
Design
 =0.05
value
 =0.1
20
 =0.2
10
 =0.5
0
-10
-20
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
X/Y (dB)

Force Magnitude plots: Base Excitation

plot(r,20*log10(F)) 40
 =0.01
30
 =0.05
 =0.1
20
 =0.2
 =0.5
10
0
-10
-20
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
F T /kY (dB)

Numerical Simulation

We can put the forced case: mx t
&&
( )
x t
&&
( ) 

Euler: x(t i1)  x(t i)  Ax(t i)t  f(t i)t

Using the ODE45 function Zero initial conditions 5
4
3
2
1
0
-1
-2
-3
-4
-5
0
2
4
6
8
10
Time (sec)
Displacement (m)

Response of the board is; transient exceeds design specification value
0.4
0.2
0
-0.2
-0.4
0
10
20
30
40
Displacement (m)

Solution: code it, plot it and change c until the desired response bound is obtained.

-0.1 Meets amplitude limit when c=195kg/s
0
10
20
30
40

by: x t
&&
( ) 

Put this expression into state-space form:  x
& ( )
t
1
x
& ( )
t
2
x
t

Cubic nonlinear spring (2.9.1) x

2
3
 2

x
x
x
f
cos
t
n
n
0
2
1
0
-1
Non-linearity included
Linear system
-2
0
2
4
6
8
10
Displacement (m)

Cubic nonlinear spring near resonance
2
3
x
  2

x  
x
x
f
cos
t
n
n
0
3
2
1
0
-1
-2
Non-linearity included
Linear system
-3
0
2
4
6
8
10
Time (sec)
 n
Response near linear resonance
 
Displacement (m)