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DISK OPERATING

SYSTEM (DOS)

Operating System
Definition:
Sometimes abbreviated as "OS, an
operating system is the program that,
after being initially loaded into the
computer by a boot program, manages all
the other programs in a computer.
The other programs are called
applications or application programs.

Operating System
Definition (continuation):
The application programs make use of
the operating system by making requests
for services through a defined
application program interface (API).
In addition, users can interact directly
with the operating system through a user
interface such as a command language
or a graphical user interface (GUI).

Operating System
Functions:
1. Allocating and assigning system
resources
2. Scheduling operations
3. Monitoring system activities
4. Standard means of communication
between user and computer

Operating System
Examples of Operating Systems:
1. DOS - Disk Operating System
. one of the first operating systems
for the personal computer. When
you turned the computer on all you
saw was the command prompt
which looked like c:\ >. You had to
type all commands at the command
prompt which might look like
c:\>wp\wp.exe. This is called a
command-line interface.

Operating System
Examples of Operating Systems:
2. Windows
. A product of Microsoft, it is a GUI
(graphical user interface)
operating system. This type of "user
friendly" operating system is said to
have WIMP features:
Windows
Icons
Menus
Pointing device (mouse)

Operating System
Examples of Operating Systems:
3. MacOS - Macintosh
. a product of Apple, has its own
operating system with a GUI and
WIMP features.
4. Unix - Linux (the PC version of
Unix)
. Unix and Linux were originally
created with a command-line
interface, but recently have added
GUI enhancements.

Disk Operating System


It was the first widely-installed
operating system for personal
computers.
Earlier, the same name had been used
for an IBM operating system for a line
of business computers.
The first personal computer version of
DOS, called PC-DOS, was developed
for IBM by Bill Gates and his new
Microsoft Corporation.
He retained the rights to market a
Microsoft version, called MS-DOS.

Disk Operating System


PC-DOS and MS-DOS are almost
identical and most users have referred
to either of them as just "DOS.
DOS was (and still is) a non-graphical
line-oriented command- or menudriven operating system, with a
relatively simple interface but not
overly "friendly" user interface.
Its prompt to enter a command looks
like this:
C:>

Disk Operating System


DOS Prompt
The message DOS displays when it is
ready to accept input on the command
line.
The default DOS prompt (C:\>, D:\>,
etc.) displays the current drive and
directory.

Disk Operating System


Types of DOS Commands:
1. Internal Commands
These commands do not require any
special files for being executed and
are brought into the computer's
memory as soon as the computer is
switched on.
Examples:
COPY, DEL, DIR, TYPE, CD, MD,
CLS, DATE, TIME and PATH.

Disk Operating System


Types of DOS Commands:
2. External Commands
These commands require certain
special DOS files to get executed.
Examples:
FORMAT, CHKDSK, XCOPY, PRINT,
ATIRIB, DISKCOPY, etc.

Disk Operating System


Basic DOS Commands:
1. CLS (internal)
. Clears the screen.
2. DATE (internal)
. View or change the systems date.
3. TIME (internal)
. View or modify the system time.
4. VER (internal)
. Displays the version information.

Disk Operating System


Basic DOS Commands:
5. DIR (internal)
. List the contents of one or more
directory.

Disk Operating System


File Name
The name of a file.
Example:
EXER1.DOC
File Name
Base Name Extension
(8 char)
(3 char)

Disk Operating System


Considerations in giving a file a
name:
1. A file name can contain a number but
it cannot start with a number.
2. A file name cannot contain white
spaces; the underscore can be used
instead to separate characters.
3. Give a file a name that would tell you
about the contents of the file.

Disk Operating System


File Manipulation Commands:
1. COPY (internal)
. Copy one or more files to an
alternate location.
Format:
COPY <source> <destination>
2. RENAME/REN (internal)
. Renames a file or directory.
Format:
RENAME <old name> <new name>

Disk Operating System


File Manipulation Commands:
3. DEL (internal)
. Deletes one or more files.
Format:
DEL <file name>
4. TYPE (internal)
. Display the contents of a file.
Format:
TYPE <file name>

Disk Operating System


Directory Commands:
1. MD/MKDIR (internal)
. Command to create a new
directory.
Format:
MD <directory name>
2. CD/CHDIR (internal)
. Changes directories.
Format:
CD <directory name>

Disk Operating System


Directory Commands:
1. RD/RMDIR(internal)
. Removes an empty directory.
Format:
RD <directory name>
Conditions to be satisfied before a
directory can be removed:
1. The directory to be removed must be
empty.
2. The directory to be removed must not
be the current directory.

Directory Tree
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