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ADAPTIVE

MODULATION AND
CODING

Communication Systems (SS2015)


PRESENTED BY:
ANAMIKA YADAV
MANASA ANN THOMAS
10.Juli.2015

CONTENTS
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INTRODUCTION
WHY DO WE NEED AMC?
CONSTRAINTS
DEFINITIONS USED
SYSTEM MODEL
ADAPTIVE TECHNIQUES
VARIABLE RATE AND VARIABLE POWER MQAM
ADAPTIVE CODED MODULATION
CURRENT SYSTEMS USING AMC

INTRODUCTION
Adaptive
modulation
and
coding
enables robust and spectrally efficient
transmission
over
time-varying
channels. AMC was introduced in the
late sixties and early seventies.
The basic premise is to estimate the
channel at the receiver and feed this
estimate back to the transmitter, so
that the transmission scheme can be
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adapted relative to the channel
characteristics.

WHY DO WE NEED AMC?


Without AMC, there is inefficient
utilization of channel and wastage of
power.
With AMC, data rate and signal power
are varied as per the channel conditions
for efficient utilization of resources.
AMC guarantees 99% of data transfer
even at worst channel conditions4
without any wastage of resources.

CONSTRAINTS
Adaptive
modulation
requires
a
feedback path between the transmitter
and the receiver, which may not be
feasible for some systems.
If the channel changes faster than it
can be estimated and fed back to the
transmitter, adaptive modulation will
perform very poorly.
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How often the transmitter can change


its rate and power.

Rs
B

DEFINITIONS USED
Symbol Rate

:
:

Ergodic Time-varying Gain

n[i]
:
:

Bandwidth

AWGN
Instantaneous Rx SNR
Power Gain Estimate

SYSTEM MODEL

Adaptive Transmission System


Assume linear modulation.
Modulation

uses

ideal

Nyquist

data

pulses.
Flat fading channel as a discrete time
channel.
Estimate the power gain or Rx SNR at
time i and adapt the modulation and
coding parameters.

Most common parameters to adapt are

ADAPTIVE TECHNIQUES

Variable-Rate Techniques
Variable-Power Techniques
Variable Error Probability
Variable-Coding Techniques
Hybrid Techniques

Variable-Rate Techniques
The data rate is varied relative to the
channel gain
while maintaining BER
below target.
We can vary modulation at fixed symbol
rate or vary symbol rate at fixed
modulation.
Variable-Power Techniques
To maintain a fixed bit error probability
or a constant received SNR.
Power adaptation inverts the channel
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fading so that the channel appears as
an AWGN channel to the modulator and

Variable Error Probability


Adapting the instantaneous BER
subject to an average BER constraint
Pb .
Variable-Coding Techniques
Use of different channel codes to
provide different amounts of coding
gain to the transmitted bits.
Implemented by multiplexing together
codes with different error correction
capabilities.
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We can also use rate-compatible
Punctured convolution codes (RCPC).

Hybrid Techniques
These can adapt multiple parameters
of
the
transmission
scheme,
including rate, power, coding and
instantaneous error probability.
Joint optimization of the different
techniques is used to meet a given
performance requirement.
Rate adaptation is often combined
with power adaptation to maximize
spectral efficiency.

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VARIABLE-RATE VARIABLE-POWER MQAM

To maximize spectral efficiency while


meeting a given instantaneous Pb
target.
The
spectral
efficiency
is
parameterized
by
the
average
transmit power and BER of the
modulation technique.
Error Probability Bounds
BER for AWGN channel with MQAM
modulation, ideal coherent phase
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detection, and SNR is bounded by
Pb<=2e-1.5/(M-1)

For tighter bounds within 1 dB for M>=


4 and 0<=<=30 dB is
Pb<=0.2e-1.5/(M-1)

These bounds are easy to invert, so we


can obtain M as a function of the target
Pb and the power adaptation policy.
Now, the average spectral efficiency is
given by
=.
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Average Spectral Efficiency in Log-Normal


Shadowing

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Average Spectral Efficiency in Rayleigh Fading

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Channel Inversion with Fixed Rate


We transmit fixed rate MQAM to attain
a target Pb and fixed SNR at receiver.
Power adaptations at Tx cause
channel inversion.
Truncated channel inversion will block
the transmission over channel if
received SNR is below some threshold
value.
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Discrete Rate Adaptation


Restrict the adaptive MQAM to a limited
set of constellations.
Assume a set of square constellations
of size M0=0, M1=2 and Mj=22(j-1), j=2,
.,N-1 for some N.

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Figure : Discrete-Rate Efficiency in Rayleigh Fading

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Discrete-rate Discrete-power Adaptation

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Average Fade Region Duration


Choice of the number of regions
depends upon how fast channel
changes, number of constellations
available in channel and how fast
channel can adapt.
Average time Rx SNR remains in a
fading region determines tradeoff
between number of regions and
power-constellation adaptation.
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Channel Estimation Error and Delay

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ADAPTIVE CODED MODULATION


Additional coding gain can be
achieved with adaptive modulation by
superimposing trellis code or more
general coset codes on top of the
adaptive modulation.
To exploit the separability of code and
constellation design inherent to coset
codes.
It is a natural coding scheme to use
with variable-rate variable-power
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MQAM, since the channel coding gain
is essentially independent of the

Adaptive Coded Modulation Scheme:

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CURRENT SYSTEMS USING AMC


EGPRS for data transmission in GSM
cellular system uses 8PSK with 5
different code rates and GMSK with 4
different code rates. Total 9 different
coding and modulation schemes.
GPRS for data transmission in IS-136
TDMA cellular systems can use 4, 8,
and 16 level PSK modulation.
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Reference
Wireless Communications by Andrea
Goldsmith (Edition 2005)

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THANK YOU

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