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AGGREGATES

Aggregates
- the materials basically used as filler
with binding material in the
production of mortar and concrete

CLASSIFICATION OF
AGGREGATES
Based on Geological Origin
1. Natural Aggregates
-Obtained by crushing from quarries of
igneous, sedimentary or metamorphic
rock
-Most widely used aggregate are from
igneous origin.

2. Artificial Aggregates
-Broken bricks, blast furnace slag and
synthetic aggregates are example of
artificial aggregates
-Broken bricks known as brick bats are
suitable for mass concreting, like in
foundation bases.
-Blast furnace slag aggregate is
obtained from slow cooling of the slag
followed by crushing
-Synthetic Aggregates are produced by
thermally processed materials such as
expanded clay and shale used for making
light weight concrete

Based on Size
1. Coarse Aggregate
-Retained on 4.75mm sieve
-Obtained by natural disintegration or
by artificial crushing of rocks.
-Maximum of aggregate is 80mm
2. Fill-in Aggregate
-Naturally available aggregates of
different fractions of fine and coarse
sizes

3. Graded Aggregate
-Passes through a particle size of
sieve are known as graded aggregate
4. Fine Aggregate
-Passing through 4.75mm sieve
-Maybe natural sand deposited
by rivers, crushed stone sand
obtained by crushing stones and
crushed gravel sand.

Based on shape
1. Rounded Aggregate
-Generally obtained from river or
sea shore and produce minimum
voids (32%) in the concrete
2. Irregular Aggregate
-They have voids about 36% and
require more cement paste as
compared to rounded aggregate

3. Angular Aggregate
-They have sharp, angular and
rough particles having maximum
voids (about 40%)
4. Flaky Aggregate
-Wrongly called as elongated
aggregate
-The least lateral dimension of
flaky aggregate (thickness) should be
less than 0.6 times the mean
dimension

Based on Unit Weight


AGGREGAT
E

SPECIFIC
GRAVITY

UNIT
WEIGHT

BULK
DENSITY
(kN/m)

EXAMPLES

NORMAL
WEIGHT

2.5 2.7

23 26

1520 -1680

Sand,
gravel,
granite,
sandstone,
limestone

HEAVY
WEIGHT

2.8 -2.9

25- 29

>2080

Magnetite,
baryte

< 1120

Dolomite,
pumice,
cinder, clay

LIGHT WEIGHT

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CHARACTERISTICS OF
1. Strength AGGREGATES
-should be at least equal to that of the
concrete. Rocks commonly used as
aggregates have a compressive strength
much higher than the usual range of
concrete strength
2. Stiffness
-modulus of elasticity of concrete is
approximately equal to the weighted
average of the moduli of the cement
paste and aggregate, as such the
modulus of the coarse aggregate has an

3. Bond Strength
-due to difference between the coefficients
of thermal expansion of paste and aggregate
and to the shrinkage of amount paste during
hardening, concrete is in a state of internal
stress even if no external forces are present
4. Shape and Texture
-the shape influences the properties of fresh
concrete more than when it has hardened
-rounded aggregate are highly workable but
yield low strength concrete

-Flaky aggregate require more cement paste,


produce maximum voids are not desirable
-Crushed and uncrushed aggregates
generally give essentially the same strength
for the cement content
5. Specific Gravity
-specific gravity of most of the natural
aggregates lies between 2.6 2.7
-it is an indicative of its gravity
-low specific gravity may indicate high
porosity and therefore poor durability and
low strength

6. Bulk Density
-depends upon their packing, the
particles shape and size, the grading
and the moisture content
7. Voids

-if the voids in the concrete are


more the strength will be low

8. Porosity
-the entrapped air bubbles in the rocks
during their formation lead to minute holes
or cavities known as pores
9. Moisture Content
-surface moisture is exposed as percentage
of the weight of the saturated surface dry
aggregate known as moisture content
-huge moisture content increases the
effective water/cement ratio to an
appreciable extent and may render the
concrete weak

10. Bulking
-increase in volume of a given mass
of fine aggregate caused by the
pressure of water
-water forms a film over the fine
aggregate particles, exerts force of
surface tension and pushes them
apart increasing the volume
-Bulking of sand can be determined
by filling a container of known
volume (A) with damp sand in the
manner in which hopper will be filled

-The sand is then taken out of


container carefully, ensuring no sand
is lost during this transaction. The
sand is then either dried or filed back
into the gauge bow or the container
is filled with water and the damp
sand is poured in to displace the
water. Whichever method is adopted,
the new depth of aggregate in the
container gives the unbulked volume
(B)
% bulking expressed as

11. Fineness Modulus


-numerical index of fineness
-FM varies between 2.0 and 3.5 for
fire, between 5.5 and 8 for coarse
and from 3.5 to 6.5 for all in
aggregate

DELETERIOUS MATERIALS AND


ORGANIC IMPURITIES
Substance such as organic
matters, clay, shale, coal, iron pyrites
etc. which are weak, soft fine or may
have harmful physical and chemical
effects on the aggregates are
considered to be deleterious.

SOUNDNESS
Soundness is defined as the ability
of aggregate to resist changes in
volume as a result of changes in
physical conditions. The conditions
affecting this property are freezing
and thawing, temperature changes,
and alternate wetting and drying

ALKALI AGGREGATE REACTION


-also known as concrete cancer
-phenomenon is accompanied by
extensive expansion and may lead in
bad cases to complete disruption and
disintegration of the concrete

FACTORS AFFECTING ALKAI AGGREGATE REACTION


Reactive Type of Aggregates
-reactive materials have been found to have
serious effects if present in small quantities but
not if it constitutes the whole of the aggregate
High Alkali Content Cement
-If the cement contains less than 0.4 per cent
alkalis (computed as Na2O) no expansion or
disruptive effect is likely even with a quite
highly reactive aggregate, but due to
difficulties of manufacture it is not usual to
specify an alkali content of less than 0.6%

Availability of Moisture
-progress of the alkali-aggregate
reaction takes place only in the
presence of water. That is why this
destructive effect is not observed in
the interior of mass concrete.
Temperature Condition
-the favourable temperature for the
reaction is 10-38C.

CONTROL OF ALKAI AGGREGATE


REACTION
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

By
By
By
By
By

selecting Non-reactive Aggregate


using Low Alkali Cement
Controlling Moisture
Puzzolanas
Entraining Agents

THERMAL PROPERTIES OF AGGREGATE


. Specific heat
. Thermal conductivity
. Coefficient of expansion

FINE AGGREGATE
-sand (0.07mm) used in mortar and
concrete
CLASSIFICATION
-basis of source
-mineralogical composition
-size of the particles
-particle size distribution

Function
-to achieve economy by its use as
adulterant in mortar, prevent
shrinkage and development of cracks
in mortar, furnish strength to mortar
against crushing and allow carbon
dioxide from the atmosphere to
penetrate the fat lime mortars
necessary for its air hardening.

Effect of Gradation
-workability
Effects of Impurities
-harmful for mortar and concrete
Effect by Entraining Air in Concrete
-the quantity of the fire aggregate
required for making concrete mix can
be reduced by entraining air

COARSE AGGREGATE
-uncrushed, crushed or partially
crushed gravel or stone most of
which is retained on 4.75mm IS sieve
-function: same as fire aggregate
CINDER AGGREGATES
-well burnt furnace residue
obtained from furnaces using coal as
fuel and are used for making lime
concrete

BROKEN BRICK COARSE AGGREGATE


-they are prepared from well burnt
or over burnt broken bricks free
from under burnt particles, soil and
salt and are used in lime concrete