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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION TO
POWER SYSTEM

MALAYSIA
POWER SYSTEM

OVERVIEW

NATIONAL GRID
HV electric power transmission in Peninsular
Malaysia, operated and owned by TNB.
Malaysias electric utility companies with state
grids:
(a) Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB) National Grid
(b) Sabah Electricity Sdn. Bhd. (SESB)
(c) Sarawak Electricity Sdn. Bhd (SESCO)
Electricity generation stations:
(a) TNB
(b) Independent Power Producer (IPP)
HV=high voltage

The loop was complete with the placement of Kota Bharu within
the grid.

A plan was set to connect the electricity generating plants


that were spread out all over the country.
Perak - Temengor, Kenering, Bersia, Batang Padang
Selangor - Connaught Bridge, Kapar , Serdang
PAKA (Terengganu), Cameron Highlands (Pahang), Perai
(Penang), Port Dickson (Negeri Sembilan), Pergau (Kelantan),
Pasir Gudang (Johor and Malacca)

Bangsar Power Station was connected to the Connaught Bridge


Power Station, with the line subsequently extended to Malacca
Connaught Bridge Power Station in Klang was the precursor
of the energy grid

1980

1965

1964

HISTORY

GENERATION

All figures are in megawatts


Source: Suruhanjaya Tenega (Energy Commission) Annual Report

GENERATION
9.5
20.9

7
62.6

GAS
COAL
HYDRO
OTHERS

TRANSMISSION
132kV, 275kV and 500kV
The 500 kV transmission system is the
single largest transmission system to
be ever developed in Malaysia.
The National Grid is linked via 132 kV
HVAC and 300 kV HVDC
interconnection to Thailand (300MW)
and 230 kV submarine cables to
Singapore (200MW).

DISTRIBUTION
33 kV, 22 kV, 11 kV, 6.6 kV and
415V/240V

ENERGY POLICIES
The energy policy of Malaysia is determined by the
Malaysian Government, which address issues of
energy production, distribution, and consumption.
Government-linked companies PETRONAS and TNB
are major players in Malaysia's energy sector.
Governmental agencies are:
(a) Ministry of Energy, Green Technology and Water
(b) Energy Commission (Suruhanjaya Tenaga)
(c) Malaysia Energy Centre (Pusat Tenaga Malaysia).

GENERATION OF
ELECTRICITY

Flexibility

Cheapnes
s

Easiness
to control

Convenie
nt energy
form

Cleanlines
s

Importa
nce of
Electrici
ty

High
transmissi
on
efficiency

Importance of Electricity
Convenient energy form
-It can be converted from one energy form into any
other form.
-Eg: bulb glows when electricity passes through it
(conversion of electrical energy into light energy)
Easiness to control
-An electric motor can be started or stopped by
turning ON or OFF a switch.
Flexibility
-It can be easily transported from one place to
another by using conductor.

Importance of Electricity
Cheapness
-It is much cheaper than other forms of
energy and economical to use for domestic,
commercial, and industrial purposes.
Cleanliness
-It has no smoke, fumes, and poisonous gases.
High transmission efficiency
-It can be transmitted efficiently from the
centre of generation to the consumers by
using transmission lines.

ENERGY SOURCES
FOR GENERATION

Sun
Renewable
Energy

Wind
Water

ENERGY
SOURCES

Fuel
Nonrenewable
Energy

Coal
Nuclear

SUN (SOLAR)
Solar power is the conversion of sunlight into
electricity, either directly using photovoltaic (PV),
or indirectly using concentrated solar power (CSP).
This heat can be used to produce steam and then
electrical energy with the combination of turbinegenerator.
Limitations:
-It is not economical because it requires a large
area for the generation of small amount of
electrical power.
-It cannot be used in cloudy days or night.

CSP & PV

The PS10 concentrates


sunlight from a field of
heliostats on a central
tower.

The PS10 concentrates sunlight


from a field of heliostats on a

Nellis Solar Power Plant in US,


one of the largest PV power

WIND
The conversion of wind energy into a useful
form of energy.
Eg: wind turbines to make electricity,
windmills for mechanical power,
wind-pumps for water pumping, or sails to
propel ships.
Limitations:
-Unreliable because of uncertainty about
wind pressure.
-Power generated is quite small.

WIND
Aerial view of Lillgrund
Wind Farm, Sweden

Wind power
generators in Spain,
near an Osborne bull.

WATER
The kinetic energy of flowing water can
also be used to spin turbines to
generate electricity.
Limitations:
-It involves high capital cost due to
construction dam.
-There is uncertainty about the
availability of huge amount of water due
to dependence on weather conditions.

WATER
The Gordon Dam in
Tasmania is a large
hydro facility, with an
installed capacity of
430 MW.

Bakun Dam

FUEL
The main sources of energy are fuels, solid
fuel as coal, liquid fuel as oil and gas fuel
as nature gas.
When the fuels are burnt, they release the
heat energy to produce mechanical energy
and later electrical energy.
Limitations:
-Can contribute the air and water pollution.
-High maintenance cost

FUEL
Coal-fired power plants in
Jewett, Texas.

Montana's Natural
Gas & Coal Fired
Generation.

NUCLEAR
Nuclear energy means the part of the
energy released by fusion or fission of
URANIUM generate steam which drives the
steam turbine-generator to produce
electricity.
Limitations:
-High cost of nuclear plant
-Problem of disposal of radioactive waste
-Dearth of trained personnel to handle the
plant.

NUCLEAR

Nuclear power plants often have huge


cooling towers.

COMPARISON OF ENERGY
SOURCES
N Particular
o
1 Initial cost
2
3
4

Running
cost
Reserves

Waterpower
High

Fuels
Low

Nuclear
energy
Highest

Less

High

Least

Permanent

Exhaustible

Inexhaustible

Cleanest

Dirtiest

Clean

Simplest

Complex

Most complex

Less reliable

More reliable

Cleanlines
s
Simplicity
(Cooling
system)

Reliability Most reliable

TYPES OF POWER PLANT

HYDRO POWER PLANT


Outflow during a test at
the hydropower plant
at the Hoover Dam,
located on the NevadaArizona border.

Russian SayanoShushenskoe (yep its hard


to read name) hydro electric
power plant is the biggest
hydro power plant in Russia

TYPICAL LAYOUT

OPERATION

FUNCTION OF THE MAIN


COMPONENTS

HYDRO ELECTRIC
GENERATOR
A turbine converts the energy
of flowing water into
mechanical energy.
A generator converts this
mechanical energy into
electricity according to
Faradays Law.
When the rotor turns, it
causes the field poles to move
past the conductors mounted
in the stator.
This, in turn, causes electricity
to flow and a voltage to
develop at the generator
output terminals."

PUMPED STORAGE

THERMAL / STEAM POWER PLANT

TYPICAL LAYOUT

SCHEMATIC LAYOUT

The heat is used


to generate
steam which
drives a steam
turbine
connected to a
generator which
produces

OPERATION
The coal in the COAL STORAGE is delivered to the
coal handling plant to crushed it into small pieces.
The coal is fed to the BOILER by belt
conveyors.
The coal is burnt in the boiler and the ash
produced after the combustion is delivered to the
ash pond for disposal.
The heat of combustion convert water into
steam at high temperature and pressure.

OPERATION (CONT.)
The dry and superheated steam from the super
heater is fed to the steam turbine through the
valve.
The heat energy of steam when passing
over the blades of turbine is converted into
mechanical energy.
The turbine is coupled to a generator
which converts mechanical energy into
electrical energy.
After it passes through the turbine, the steam is
condensed in the condenser and recycled to where
it was heated (Rankine Cycle).

NUCLEAR POWER PLANT

SCHEMATIC LAYOUT

OPERATION

Nuclear
power
station
use a
fuel
called
URANIU
M

It is
formed
into
LONG
RODS
and
submerg
e in
water to
kept
them
cool.

When
they are
removed
from
water,
the
uranium
atom is
split into
two and
released
RADIATIO
N and
HEAT.

STEAM
is
produce
d and
then fed
to a
steam
turbine.

The
generat
or
converts
kinetic
energy
supplied
by the
turbine
into
electrica
l energy.

After it
passes
through
the
turbine,
the
steam is
condens
ed in
the
condens
er

The
water is
then
pumped
again
into
nuclear
reactor
and the
cycle
begins
again.

ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES


OF VARIOUS POWER PLANT
N Item
o
1 Site/
location

2
3
4

Steam power station

Hydro-electric
power plant
Located where
large reservoirs
can e obtained
by constructing
a dam such as
in hilly areas
high

Located at a place
where ample supply of
water
and
coal
is
available,
transportation facilities
are adequate
Initial
Lower
than
cost
hydroelectric
and
nuclear power plant
Running Higher than
low
cost
hydroelectric and
nuclear power plant
Limit of Limited reserves
Not dependable
source
because of wide
of
variations in the
power
rainfall
every
year
Cooling Need more water to
system cooling the system and
need a big system to
cooling the system
Environ

Air pollution because of

Diesel
power
plant
Located
at
any
place because they
require less space
and small quantity
of water

Nuclear power
plant
Located
away
from
thickly
populated areas
to avoid radio
active pollution

Less as compared highest


to other plant
Highest among all Minimum cost
plants
Limited reserves

Available
sufficient
quantity

in

Need less water to Use


the
gas
cooling the system reactor cooler
because
just
cooling for the oil
only
Water and noise Pollution cause

THREE PHASE SYSTEM


CONFIGURATION

GENERATION OF 3-PHASE
EMF

GENERATION OF 3-PHASE
EMF
3 coils RR1, YY1 and BB1 are fixed 1200 apart.
Ends of each coil are connected to the slip rings.
The coils rotated anti-clockwise in a uniform
magnetic field between the poles N and S.
EMF generation depends upon the position of the
coil with respect to the magnetic field.
For the position in the above figure, EMFRR1=0V.
When moved by 900, EMFRR1= max . EMFYY1 and
EMFBB1 have same magnitude as EMFRR1 but lag
by 1200 and 2400 respectively.

VECTOR DIAGRAM OF 3
SYSTEM

SINGLE-LINE DIAGRAM
(SLD)
SLD is a graphical representation of
electrical circuit drawn using single
line instead of drawing 3 separate
lines for 3 phases.
Elements on the diagram do not
represent the physical size or
location of the electrical equipment.

SLD SYMBOLS

SLD DIAGRAM
SLD
DIAGRAM
Step down transformer

Load
Step up transformer

Transmission line
Figure 1.7 : Single line diagram of simple electrical power system

IMPEDANCE DIAGRAM FOR 3


GENERATOR

ELECTRICAL ENERGY
DEMAND
Energy Demand is the maximum amount
of electrical energy that is being consumed
at a given time.
It is measured in kilowatts (kW) and kilovolt
ampere (kVA).
Energy Consumption is the total
electricity used for a period of time.
It is measured in kilowatts hour (kWh).
Eg: A 1000W loads used for one hour
consumes one kilowatts hour.

ENERGY DEMAND vs ENERGY


CONSUMPTION

ENERGY DEMAND vs ENERGY


CONSUMPTION
LIGHTING EXAMPLE :
-One 100W light bulb burning for 10
hours consumes 1,000 Wh @ 1 kWh.
-The entire time it is on, it requires or
"demands" 100W @ 0.1 kW from the
utility.
-That means the utility must have that
0.1 kW ready whenever the customer
turns the lamp on.

ENERGY DEMAND vs ENERGY


CONSUMPTION
- Similarly, ten 100W light bulbs burning for
1 hour consume 1,000 Wh @ 1 kWh.
-In both examples, the consumption is 1
kWh, however, look how differently the
second situation impacts the utility from a
demand perspective.
-The serving utility must now be prepared
to provide ten times as much 'capacity'
in response to the "demand" of the 10 light
bulbs operating all at once.

VARIABLE LOAD ON POWER


STATION
A device which taps electrical energy
from electric power system is called
a LOAD on the system.
The load may be resistive,
inductive, capacitive or some
combination of them.

VARIABLE LOAD ON POWER


STATION
Domestic Load
Commercial Load

Types of
Loads

Industrial Load
Municipal Load
Irrigation Load
Traction Load

LOAD CURVE

TERMS
Connected Load
- It is the sum of continuous ratings of all the
equipments connected to supply system.
Maximum Demand
- It is the greatest demand of load on the power
station during a given period.
Demand Factor
- It is the ratio of maximum demand on the power
station to its connected load.

Max. Demand
Demand Factor
Connected Load

TERMS
Average Load / Average Demand
- The average of loads occurring on the power
station in a given period (day or month or year).

TERMS
Load Factor
- The ratio of average load to the maximum
demand during a given period.

TERMS
Diversity Factor
- The ratio of the sum of individual maximum
demands to the maximum demand on power
station.

POWER QUALITY
DEFINITION
- A term that used to discuss the events in
electric power grids that can damage or disrupt
sensitive electronic devices.
Occur due to the increased use of power
electronic devices in industrial and commercial
sector which are more sensitive to voltage
variations.

FACTORS AFFECTING POWER


QUALITY
Variations in the peak or RMS voltage.
- When the rms voltage exceeds the nominal voltage, the
event is called VOLTAGE SWELL.
- when the rms voltage is below the nominal voltage, the
event is called VOLTAGE SAG.
Undervoltage
- occurs when the nominal voltage drops below 90% for
more than 1 minute.
Overvoltage
- occurs when the nominal voltage rises above 110% for
more than 1 minute.
Random or repetitive variations in the RMS voltage
between 90% and 110% of nominal can produce a
phenomenon known as "flicker" in lighting equipment.

FACTORS AFFECTING POWER


QUALITY
Variations in the frequency
Variations in the wave shape usually
described as harmonics.
Nonzero low-frequency impedance
- when a load draws more power, the voltage
drops.
Nonzero high-frequency impedance
- when a load demands a large amount of current,
then stops demanding it suddenly, there will be a
dip or spike in the voltage due to the inductances
in the power supply line.

VOLTAGE WAVEFORMS

METHODS TO ENHANCE PQ

METHODS TO ENHANCE PQ