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8.

1 Integration by parts
d
dv
du
uv u v
Product Rule:
dx
dx
dx
d
dv
du
dx uv dx u dxdx v dx dx

uv udv vdu

udv

uv

vdu

Integration by parts

udv

uv

vdu

Let dv be the most complicated part of the


original integrand that fits a basic integration
Rule (including dx). Then u will be the remaining
OR
Let u be a portion of the integrand whose
derivative is a function simpler than u. Then
dv will be the remaining factors (including dx).

Integration by parts

udv

uv

vdu

xe
dx

u=x

dv= exdx

du = dx

v = ex

xe
dx

xe

e
dx

xe
dx

xe

Integration by parts

udv

uv

vdu

x
ln
xdx

u = lnx

dv= x2dx

du = 1/x dx

v = x3 /3
2

x
x 1
x
x
x ln xdx 3 ln x 3 x dx 3 ln x 3 dx
2

x
x
x ln xdx 3 ln x 9 C
2

Integration by parts

udv

uv

vdu

arcsin
xdx

u = arcsin x
du

1
1 x

arcsin xdx x arcsin x

v=x

dx

x
1 x2

arcsin xdx x arcsin x

dv= dx

dx
2

1 x C

Integration by parts

x
sin
xdx

udv uv vdu

u = x2 dv = sin x dx
du = 2x dx v = -cos x

sin xdx x cos 2 x cos xdx


2

u = 2x

dv = cos x dx

du = 2dx

v = sin x

2
2
x
sin
xdx

x
cos x 2 x sin x 2sin xdx

sin xdx x cos x 2 x sin x 2cos x C

8.2 Trigonometric Integrals Powers of Sine and Cosine

sin

u cos udu

sin

u cos udu

cos

u sin udu

1. If n is odd, leave one sin u factor and use


sin 2 u 1 cos 2 u for all other factors of sin.

2. If m is odd, leave one cos u factor and use


cos 2 u 1 sin 2 u

for all other factors of cos.

3. If neither power is odd, use power reducing formulas:


1
1
2
2
sin u (1 cos 2u ) or cos u (1 cos 2u )
2
2

Powers of sin and cos

sin (2 )d
3

2
3
sin
(

)
cos
( )d

2
2
sin
(

)
cos
( )d

Powers of sin and cos


3
2
2
sin
(2

)
d

sin
2

sin
2

(1

cos
2 ) sin 2 d

1
1
3
(sin
2

cos
2

sin
2

)
d

cos
2

cos
2 C

2
6
2

2
3
2
2
2
2
sin

cos

sin

cos

cos

sin

(1

sin
) cos d

2
3
2
3
(sin

sin

)
cos

(sin

cos

sin
cos ) d

1 3
1 4
sin sin C
3
4

Powers of sin and cos


1
1
sin ( ) cos ( )d 2 (1 cos 2 ) 2 (1 cos 2 )d
2

1
1
1
2
(1 cos 2 )d (1 (1 cos 4 ) d

4
4
2
1
1
1 1
(1 cos 4 )d ( cos 4 ) d

4
2
4 2
1
1
sin 4 C
8
16

Tangents and secants


n
2
tan
u
sec
udu

sec

n
sec
u sec u tan udu

u tan udu

Create an integral that is shown above.


tan 2 sec 2 1

sec

tan

or

tan 2 1 sec 2

8.3 Eliminating radicals by trig


substitution.
2
2
2
2
2
2
u a
a u
a u

Pythagorean identities:
2

cos 1 sin
2

sec 1 tan
tan 2 sec 2 1
2

a u
2

Let u = a sin
2

a u a a sin a 1 sin a cos

Trig Substitutions
a2 u2
a2 u 2

u a

Ex:

x2

dx
x2 9 x2

Let x = a sin = 3 sin


dx = 3 cos d

dx

3cos d

9 x

9sin 9 9sin

3cos d
9sin 2 3cos

1 d
1
1
2
csc d cot C

2
9 sin 9
9
3

x
2

9 x2

1 9 x

C
9
x

Ex:

dx

4x 1

Let u=2x, a=1 so 2x = tan


dx = sec2 d

1 sec 2 d 1

sec d
sec
2
4 x2 1 2
dx

1
ln sec tan C
2
2

4x 1

2x

1
2
ln 4 x 1 2 x C
2

dx

x2 5x 6

8.4 Partial Fractions


1

A
B

2
x 5x 6 x 3 x 2
A( x 2) B( x 3)

2
x3
x2
x 5x 6
1

1 A( x 2) B ( x 3)
If x = 2:
If x =3:
dx

x2 5x 6

1=-B so B = -1
1=A

1
1

dx
x 3 x 2

ln | x 3 | ln | x 2 | C

or

x3
ln
C
x2

Partial Fractions-Repeated linear factors

5 x 2 20 x 6
3

x 2x x

dx

5 x 2 20 x 6

A
B
C

3
2
x x 1 x 1 2
x 2x x

5 x 20 x 6 A( x 1) Bx( x 1) Cx
If x =0:
6= A
If x = -1: -9 = -C, so C = 9
If x = 1: 31=6(4)+2B+9, B = - 1

6
1
9
dx

dx
3
2
2
x 2x x
x x 1 ( x 1)

5 x 2 20 x 6

6ln | x | ln | x 1| 9( x 1) 1 C

x6
9
ln

C
x 1 x 1

Quadratic Factors
3

2x 4x 8

x( x 1)( x 2 4)dx

2 x3 4 x 8

A
B
Cx D

2
2
x( x 1)( x 4) x x 1 x 4

2 x3 4 x 8 A( x 1)( x 2 4) Bx( x 2 4) (Cx D) x( x 1)

If x = 0 then A = 2
If x = 1 then B = -2

If x = -1
If x = 2

2 = -C +D
8 = 2C+D

Solving the system of equations you find


C = 2 and D = 4.

2 x3 4 x 8

2
2x
4
2
x( x 1)( x 2 4)dx x x 1 x 2 4 x 2 4 dx

x
2ln | x | 2ln | x 1| ln( x 4) 2arctan C
2
2

Repeated quadratic Factors


8 x3 13 x

8 x 13 x

( x 2 2)

dx
2

( x 2)

Ax B
2

x 2

Cx D
( x 2 2) 2

8 x3 13 x ( Ax B)( x 2 2) Cx D
3

8 x 13 x Ax 2 Ax Bx 2 B Cx D
8 x3 0 x 2 13x 0 Ax3 Bx 2 2 Ax Cx D 2 B
For third degree: A=8

For second degree: B=0

For first degree:

13=2A+C

For constant:

D+2B=0

Repeated quadratic Factors


A=8

8 x3 13x

( x 2 2)2 dx

B=0

13=2A+C
D+2B=0

So, D=0 and C = -3


8 x3 13x

( x 2 2)2 dx

8 x3 13x

8x
2

x 2

( x2 2)2 dx 4ln( x

2)

3 x

( x 2)
3
2

2( x 2)

dx

8.8 Areas under curves with infinite domain or


range

ln x
x

dx

1
dx
x

Improper Integrals with infinite limits

Upper limit
infinite

Lower limit
infinite

Both limit
infinite

Infinite limits

ln x
x

dx limb
1

ln x
x

Evaluation

ln x
x

dx limb
1

ln x

ln x
x

dx

dx
x
dx
1
dv 2 v
x
x
1
u ln x du

ln x
dx
ln x
dx
2

2
x
x
x
x
x
b

ln x 1
limb 2 dx limb

x
x 1
1 x
ln b 1
limb
(0 1) 0 0 0 1
b
b
ln x

Use LHpitals rule

We say the improper integral CONVERGES to


The value of 1. (The area is finite.)

When both limits are infinite

dx

dx

dx

1 x2 1 x2 1 x2

dx

dx

1 x2 lima 1 x

dx

dx

1 x2 limb 1 x
0



2 2

lim
arctan
x
a
2
a

b
limb arctan x 0
2


0
2
2

0
2
2

Improper Integrals-integrand becomes infinite

upper
endpoint

lower
endpoint

interior
point

Integrals with Infinite discontinuities.

1
dx lim a 0
x

lim a 0 2 x

1
a

1
dx
x

lim a 0 2 2 a 2
The integral converges to 2.

Calculation with infinite discontinuity


3

dx
2
3

x 1

dx

x 1

2
3
b

dx
2
3

x 1

limb 1

dx

x 1

dx
2
3

x 1

2
3

limb1 3 x 1

1
3

b0

1
3

limb 1 3(b 1) 3 3
3

dx

x 1

2
3

lim c 1

1
lim c 1 3(3 1)
3

dx

x 1

2
3

1
3(c 1) 3

The total integral is 3 3 3 2

lim c 1 3 x 1

33 2

1 3
3

Area is finite
t

1
1 x 2 dx

Integral converges to 1

Area is infinite
t

1
1 xdx

Integral diverges

xp

Integrals
of
the
form

a)
1

dx
x

dx
b)
x
1

1
a ) limb 2 limb
x
x

1
dx

dx

c)
b
1

dx

1
1 2
x

1
limb ( 1) 1
b

dx
b
b) limb limb ln x 1 limb ln b ln1
x
1
b

c) limb

dx

1
1 2
x

limb

1 b
x 2

limb

1
b2

(1)

Convergence or divergence

dx

Integrals of the form x p


1

Converge if p > 1 and diverge if p = 1 or p < 1.


Which of the following converge and which diverge?

dx

2
1 3
x

dx

3
1 2
x

3dx
x
1

4dx
x5

Direct comparison test


If f and g are continuous functions with f(x) g(x)
For all x a. Then..

f ( x)dx

Converges if

g ( x)dx

Converges

A function converges if its values are smaller


than another function known to converge.

g ( x)dx
a

Diverges if

f ( x)dx

Diverges

A function diverges if its values are larger than


another function known to diverge.

Limit Comparison test for convergence

If f and g are positive and continuous on [a, )


And if
f ( x)
lim x
L,
0L
g ( x)

f ( x )dx and g ( x )dx


Then the integrals

both converge or both diverge:

If

f ( x)
g
(
x
)
dx

diverges and lim x

If
then

f ( x)dx
a

g ( x)

also diverges.