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You are on page 1of 35

1 Integration by parts

d

dv

du

uv u v

Product Rule:

dx

dx

dx

d

dv

du

dx uv dx u dxdx v dx dx

uv udv vdu

udv

uv

vdu

Integration by parts

udv

uv

vdu

original integrand that fits a basic integration

Rule (including dx). Then u will be the remaining

OR

Let u be a portion of the integrand whose

derivative is a function simpler than u. Then

dv will be the remaining factors (including dx).

Integration by parts

udv

uv

vdu

xe

dx

u=x

dv= exdx

du = dx

v = ex

xe

dx

xe

e

dx

xe

dx

xe

Integration by parts

udv

uv

vdu

x

ln

xdx

u = lnx

dv= x2dx

du = 1/x dx

v = x3 /3

2

x

x 1

x

x

x ln xdx 3 ln x 3 x dx 3 ln x 3 dx

2

x

x

x ln xdx 3 ln x 9 C

2

Integration by parts

udv

uv

vdu

arcsin

xdx

u = arcsin x

du

1

1 x

v=x

dx

x

1 x2

dv= dx

dx

2

1 x C

Integration by parts

x

sin

xdx

udv uv vdu

u = x2 dv = sin x dx

du = 2x dx v = -cos x

2

u = 2x

dv = cos x dx

du = 2dx

v = sin x

2

2

x

sin

xdx

x

cos x 2 x sin x 2sin xdx

sin

u cos udu

sin

u cos udu

cos

u sin udu

sin 2 u 1 cos 2 u for all other factors of sin.

cos 2 u 1 sin 2 u

1

1

2

2

sin u (1 cos 2u ) or cos u (1 cos 2u )

2

2

sin (2 )d

3

2

3

sin

(

)

cos

( )d

2

2

sin

(

)

cos

( )d

3

2

2

sin

(2

)

d

sin

2

sin

2

(1

cos

2 ) sin 2 d

1

1

3

(sin

2

cos

2

sin

2

)

d

cos

2

cos

2 C

2

6

2

2

3

2

2

2

2

sin

cos

sin

cos

cos

sin

(1

sin

) cos d

2

3

2

3

(sin

sin

)

cos

(sin

cos

sin

cos ) d

1 3

1 4

sin sin C

3

4

1

1

sin ( ) cos ( )d 2 (1 cos 2 ) 2 (1 cos 2 )d

2

1

1

1

2

(1 cos 2 )d (1 (1 cos 4 ) d

4

4

2

1

1

1 1

(1 cos 4 )d ( cos 4 ) d

4

2

4 2

1

1

sin 4 C

8

16

n

2

tan

u

sec

udu

sec

n

sec

u sec u tan udu

u tan udu

tan 2 sec 2 1

sec

tan

or

tan 2 1 sec 2

substitution.

2

2

2

2

2

2

u a

a u

a u

Pythagorean identities:

2

cos 1 sin

2

sec 1 tan

tan 2 sec 2 1

2

a u

2

Let u = a sin

2

Trig Substitutions

a2 u2

a2 u 2

u a

Ex:

x2

dx

x2 9 x2

dx = 3 cos d

dx

3cos d

9 x

9sin 9 9sin

3cos d

9sin 2 3cos

1 d

1

1

2

csc d cot C

2

9 sin 9

9

3

x

2

9 x2

1 9 x

C

9

x

Ex:

dx

4x 1

dx = sec2 d

1 sec 2 d 1

sec d

sec

2

4 x2 1 2

dx

1

ln sec tan C

2

2

4x 1

2x

1

2

ln 4 x 1 2 x C

2

dx

x2 5x 6

1

A

B

2

x 5x 6 x 3 x 2

A( x 2) B( x 3)

2

x3

x2

x 5x 6

1

1 A( x 2) B ( x 3)

If x = 2:

If x =3:

dx

x2 5x 6

1=-B so B = -1

1=A

1

1

dx

x 3 x 2

ln | x 3 | ln | x 2 | C

or

x3

ln

C

x2

5 x 2 20 x 6

3

x 2x x

dx

5 x 2 20 x 6

A

B

C

3

2

x x 1 x 1 2

x 2x x

5 x 20 x 6 A( x 1) Bx( x 1) Cx

If x =0:

6= A

If x = -1: -9 = -C, so C = 9

If x = 1: 31=6(4)+2B+9, B = - 1

6

1

9

dx

dx

3

2

2

x 2x x

x x 1 ( x 1)

5 x 2 20 x 6

6ln | x | ln | x 1| 9( x 1) 1 C

x6

9

ln

C

x 1 x 1

Quadratic Factors

3

2x 4x 8

x( x 1)( x 2 4)dx

2 x3 4 x 8

A

B

Cx D

2

2

x( x 1)( x 4) x x 1 x 4

If x = 0 then A = 2

If x = 1 then B = -2

If x = -1

If x = 2

2 = -C +D

8 = 2C+D

C = 2 and D = 4.

2 x3 4 x 8

2

2x

4

2

x( x 1)( x 2 4)dx x x 1 x 2 4 x 2 4 dx

x

2ln | x | 2ln | x 1| ln( x 4) 2arctan C

2

2

8 x3 13 x

8 x 13 x

( x 2 2)

dx

2

( x 2)

Ax B

2

x 2

Cx D

( x 2 2) 2

8 x3 13 x ( Ax B)( x 2 2) Cx D

3

8 x 13 x Ax 2 Ax Bx 2 B Cx D

8 x3 0 x 2 13x 0 Ax3 Bx 2 2 Ax Cx D 2 B

For third degree: A=8

13=2A+C

For constant:

D+2B=0

A=8

8 x3 13x

( x 2 2)2 dx

B=0

13=2A+C

D+2B=0

8 x3 13x

( x 2 2)2 dx

8 x3 13x

8x

2

x 2

( x2 2)2 dx 4ln( x

2)

3 x

( x 2)

3

2

2( x 2)

dx

range

ln x

x

dx

1

dx

x

Upper limit

infinite

Lower limit

infinite

Both limit

infinite

Infinite limits

ln x

x

dx limb

1

ln x

x

Evaluation

ln x

x

dx limb

1

ln x

ln x

x

dx

dx

x

dx

1

dv 2 v

x

x

1

u ln x du

ln x

dx

ln x

dx

2

2

x

x

x

x

x

b

ln x 1

limb 2 dx limb

x

x 1

1 x

ln b 1

limb

(0 1) 0 0 0 1

b

b

ln x

The value of 1. (The area is finite.)

dx

dx

dx

1 x2 1 x2 1 x2

dx

dx

1 x2 lima 1 x

dx

dx

1 x2 limb 1 x

0

2 2

lim

arctan

x

a

2

a

b

limb arctan x 0

2

0

2

2

0

2

2

upper

endpoint

lower

endpoint

interior

point

1

dx lim a 0

x

lim a 0 2 x

1

a

1

dx

x

lim a 0 2 2 a 2

The integral converges to 2.

3

dx

2

3

x 1

dx

x 1

2

3

b

dx

2

3

x 1

limb 1

dx

x 1

dx

2

3

x 1

2

3

limb1 3 x 1

1

3

b0

1

3

limb 1 3(b 1) 3 3

3

dx

x 1

2

3

lim c 1

1

lim c 1 3(3 1)

3

dx

x 1

2

3

1

3(c 1) 3

lim c 1 3 x 1

33 2

1 3

3

Area is finite

t

1

1 x 2 dx

Integral converges to 1

Area is infinite

t

1

1 xdx

Integral diverges

xp

Integrals

of

the

form

a)

1

dx

x

dx

b)

x

1

1

a ) limb 2 limb

x

x

1

dx

dx

c)

b

1

dx

1

1 2

x

1

limb ( 1) 1

b

dx

b

b) limb limb ln x 1 limb ln b ln1

x

1

b

c) limb

dx

1

1 2

x

limb

1 b

x 2

limb

1

b2

(1)

Convergence or divergence

dx

1

Which of the following converge and which diverge?

dx

2

1 3

x

dx

3

1 2

x

3dx

x

1

4dx

x5

If f and g are continuous functions with f(x) g(x)

For all x a. Then..

f ( x)dx

Converges if

g ( x)dx

Converges

than another function known to converge.

g ( x)dx

a

Diverges if

f ( x)dx

Diverges

another function known to diverge.

And if

f ( x)

lim x

L,

0L

g ( x)

Then the integrals

If

f ( x)

g

(

x

)

dx

If

then

f ( x)dx

a

g ( x)

also diverges.

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