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GPS BASICS

v.1.6

LCdr. Ronaldo C. Gatchalian


Chief GGD-MGD, NAMRIA
OUTLINE

 WHAT IS GPS
 METHODS OF OBTAINING POSITION
 COORDINATE SYSTEMS
 PRS 92
 SURVEYING WITH GPS
WHAT IS GPS?
WHAT DOES IT DO?
GPS --Shortened form of NAVSTAR GPS.
NAVigation System with Time And Ranging Global
Positioning System.
--It is a solution for one of man’s oldest and
most troublesome problem
--Provides an answer to the question “where
on earth am I?”

Where on earth am i?
 After WWII it became apparent to U.S. DoD that a
solution had to be found to the problem of accurate,
absolute positioning.

 Several projects and experiments ran during the next 25


years, including:
-- Transit, Loran, Decca etc.
-- All of these projects allowed positions to be
determined but were limited in accuracy or functionality.

 During the 70s, GPS project was proposed


-- This concept promised to fulfill all the requirements of
the U.S. Govt. i.e. to be able to:
-- Determine ones position accurately
-- at any point on the earth’s surface
-- at any time
-- in any weather.
GPS
 GPS is a satellite-based system that uses a constellation of
24 satellites to give a user an accurate position.
 Accuracy is: hiker or soldier—15m; A ship in coastal
waters– 5m; land surveyor– 1cm or less.
 GPS can be used to achieve these accuracies in all of
these applications, the difference being:
-- type of GPS receiver used
-- technique employed
 GPS was originally designed for military use . Soon after
the original proposals were made, it became clear that
civilians could also use GPS, not only for personal
positioning but for marine and surveying as well.
Applications range from in-car navigation to scientific
research.
Can be this: an instrumented sheep...

Specimen used for scientific applications: collection of grass samples in remote


access areas.

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…… or a handy parking locator.

you can park


here

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Already an important reality
GPS on Cell Phone
- 5 millions already in Japan -

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The World of Applications
(GJU source)

Safety
• Aviation
Integrity
(error-free),
Standards,
Low costs,
Low power cons.,
Small size,

• Rail
Regulation, Friendly use,
Continuity, Best perf.
Availability, accordingly
Accuracy
High precision,
High accuracy,
OOSA Training Course High reliability
Types Of GPS Receiver
 Handheld- small light weight (like cell phones), single
frequency, used by a hiker or a soldier. Good for searching
people and places. Accuracy =+/-15m with S.A. off

 Marine – bigger than handhelds, usually single frequency,


can be on natural or differential mode, used by ships in
high seas and coastal waters. Good for positioning depths
in hydrographic surveys. Accuracy = +/- 15m (Natural) or
+/- 0.50m (Diff’l)

 Geodetic – can be as small as handhelds, single, dual or


multi- frequency (GNSS), used by land surveyors. Good for
positioning geodetic control points.
Accuracy = +/- 5 to 15m(autonomous)
= +/-5 to50cm (PPK,RTK)
= millimeter (Post processed)
Epoch 35
GNSS EPOCH

Epoch 25 –
DUAL GPS

Epoch 10
L1 only GPS
DUAL
GPS
SOKKIA

GNSS

L1 GPS
ASHTECH

DUAL GPS

L1 only GPS
Magellan

DUAL GPS L1 only GPS


GNSS
LEICA system 1200
GNSS receivers

GX1210- L1
GX1230-GNSS
S
O
U
T
L1 9600 L1 9200
H

G
P
S

L1 S60 L1 S66
DUAL S86S

L1 S68 with Kinematic

DUAL S82
System Overview
Space Segment

User Segment
Monitor Stations
Diego Garcia
Ascension Is.
Kwajalein
Hawaii

Colorado Springs
Colorado Springs

Control Segment
Space Segment- satellites
orbiting the earth
Designed for 24 Satellites
• Minimum 4 sats visible
above 15deg cut-off angle
at any point of the earth’s
surface at any one time
• Orbits at 20,200 km
(12,600 mi) every 12 hours
• Equipped with four(4)very
accurate atomic clocks– 2
cesium & 2 rubidium
• Life span- 7.5 to 12 yrs
Satellites
Broadcasts 2 carrier waves (L-band) constantly
at the speed of light.

 L1 carrier – 2 codes (C/A & P) + Nav msg


about sats orbit & clock corrections & sat
health
 L2 carrier – 1 code (P)

 Single frequency receiver– L1 only

 Dual frequency receiver– L1&L2

 C/A – course acquisition for civilian use

(1st civil signal)


 P – precise (military use)
Control Segment

The Ground Control Segment is comprised of six dedicated


monitor stations and four ground antennas with uplink
capabilities. Monitor stations track all satellites in view

Information from the monitor stations is processed at the


Master Control Station (MCS) to determine satellite clock and
orbit states and to update the navigation message of each
satellite. This updated information is transmitted to the
satellites via ground antennas
USER SEGMENT—anybody that
receives and uses the GPS signal
GPS MODERNIZATION (2005)
Goals:
 System-wide improvement in accuracy, availability,
integrity & reliability
 Robustness against interference
 Improved indoor, mobile & urban use
 Interoperability with other GNSS constellations
 Backward compatibility

Block IIA IIR IIR-M,F Block III


C/A, L1/L2 L2C, L5 L1C
Modernized GPS – Civil Signals
Second civil signal (L2C)
 --designed to meet commercial needs for higher accuracy
through ionospheric correction, higher effective power &
improved data structure, reduced interference, speed up signal
acquisition, enable miniaturization of receivers, may enable
indoor use (Began with GPS Block IIR-M in Sept. 2005) 24sats in
2014
Third civil signal (L5)
 --designed to meet demanding requirements for transportation
safety (safety-of-life); uses highly protected Aeronautical Radio
Navigation Service (ARNS) band; Begins with GPS Block IIF, first
launch=2007 ; 24 sats= 2016
Fourth civil signal (L1C)
 --designed with international partners to enable GNSS
interoperability ; Begins with GPS block III ; first launch=2013 ;
24 sats= 2021
How GPS Works– Position Computation

 All GPS positions are based on


measuring the distance from the
satellites to the GPS receiver.
 The basic idea is that of resection, if
you know the distance to three
known points relative to your own
position, you can determine your
own position relative to those three
points.
Calculating Distance
 By the formula D = VT
 V= VELOCITY of radio
signal=299,792km/sec
 T= TIME taken for the radio signal to
travel from the satellite to receiver.
Calculating Time

5s
eco
nds ds
o n
4 sec

This is a little harder to you need to know when


Calculate since …. the signal left the satellite
How Do We Know When the Signal
Left the Satellite?
• The receiver and satellites use the same code
• They are synchronized to generate the code
at the same exact time
• Then, the receiver looks at the incoming code
from the satellite and determines how long
ago the receiver generated that code
measure time
difference between
same part of code

from satellite

from ground receiver


Methods Of Obtaining
Position
Methods Of Obtaining Position
1. Autonomous, absolute
or simple navigation
--- This is the most simple
technique employed by
GPS receivers to
instantaneously give a
position, height and
accurate time. Used by
hikers, ships that are far
out at sea & military.
Accuracy can only be
better than 20m. This
method is subject to all
error sources that
degrades a GPS position.
Sources Of Error That Degrade A GPS
Position
 Ionospheric & atmospheric delays– slows down satellite signal
while passing thru the ionosphere: solution=dual frequency
receivers
 Satellite & receiver clock errors—slight drift of satellite clocks:
solution= double differencing in post processing
 Multipath– occurs when GPS antenna is positioned close to a large
reflecting surface such as building or lake. Signal does not travel
directly to antenna but hits nearby object then reflected into the
antenna creating a false range: solution= stay away from
obstructions & use ground plane or choke ring antenna and plan
longer occupation times.
 Dilution of precision– measure of strength of satellite geometry
related to spacing & position of satellites in the sky: solution=
observe as many satellites as possible, lower values of DOP gives
the most accurate position.
 Selective availability– The control segment slightly alters the time
of satellite clocks & broadcasts slightly different ephemeris:
solution= use differential method
 Anti spoofing– encrypts the P-code into a signal called Y-code:
solution= use decrypting device or differential method
Methods Of Obtaining Position

2. Differentially corrected position (DGPS).


-- Errors affecting the measurement of satellite range
can be completely eliminated or at least minimized
--Principles –> a reference receiver is set up on a known
point and acts as base station. It calculates an
autonomous position and estimates very precisely the
ranges to various satellites. It then works out the
difference between the computed (from the input
coordinates) and estimated range values. This differences
are known as corrections. These corrections were
broadcast through a radio data link to the rover receiver.
The rover receiver also calculates ranges to satellites
then applies the range corrections received from the base
station. This lets it calculate a much more accurate
position. This method is used for inshore hydrographic
surveys, navigation & GIS data acquisition. Accuracy
ranges from 1-2m 0r less.
Methods Of Obtaining Position
3. Differential Phase GPS -- used mainly in control
survey and related industries to achieve positioning
accuracies of 5-50mm.
--- it is a differential technique which means that a
minimum of two GPS receivers are always used
simultaneously.
Post-Processing involves:
--- determining baseline vectors between pairs of
receivers.
--- computing the components of the baseline vectors
between observing stations (dX,dY,dZ).
---once the coordinates for one or more stations are
known, new points can be determined with an accuracy
relative to the known coordinates.
GPS Coordinate System
 GPS uses WGS 84 ellipsoid
 a= 6,378,137m; b=6,356,752.314m
 f= 1/298.25722
 Geocentric Datum
 Cartesian coordinate system is the
system used by GPS in defining the
location of a point in space. It use
distances in the X,Y and Z axes from
the origin (center of ellipsoid)
Cartesian coordinates

The system of Cartesian coordinates is the most commonly used


coordinate system. In two dimensions, this system consists of a
pair of lines on a flat surface, or plane, that intersect at right
angles. Each of the lines is called an axis and the point at which
they intersect is called the origin. The axes are usually drawn
horizontally and vertically and are usually referred to as the x and
y axes, respectively. In Cartesian coordinates, a point on the plane
whose coordinates are (2,3) is 2 units to the right of the y axis
and 3 units up from the x axis. In three-dimensional Cartesian
coordinates, the z axis is added so that there are three axes all
perpendicular to each other.

© 1993-2003 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.


Earth-Centered, Earth
Fixed System (ECEF)
Z axis = Mean rotation axis (polar
axis) fixed in time

center of mass of earth (0,0,0)


Origin of datum

e ato r
u d Y axis = 90 E longitude
g i t equ
lo n of Y axis in plane of equator
0 n e
= a
x is n pl
a i
X xis
a
X
Cartesian & Geodetic Coordinates
Z P

 Cartesian
coordinates (X, Y,
Z)
 Geodetic
Z
coordinates
Y (Lat, Long, Ht)

Y
X
Local coordinate system-LUZON DATUM 1911
All maps in Phil. were made using this datum
• Reference Ellipsoid is Clarke 1866
•a= 6,378,206.4m; b= 6,356,583.8m
•f= 1/294.978
• Datum Origin at Balanacan marked on the ground
 Latitude N 13° 33’ 41.00”
 Longitude E 121° 52’ 3.00”
 Geiod/Spheroid separation is zero
 Geodetic Surveys carried out by
• Astronomical observation
• Triangulation and Traverse
The assumption GEOID/SPHEROID = zero

 This assumption has generated a systematic error


as the survey was extended away from the origin

 The two surfaces may intersect at the origin but


these surfaces will never coincide because the ellipsoid
is a regular surface while the geoid is not
OLD LUZON uses the MSL heights
to compute Geographic Positions
instead of Ellipsoidal hts.
The old luzon position is being
computed at a point equal to the
deflection of the vertical. These
deflections are not equal in all parts
of the Geoid
OLD LUZON vs. PRS 92 GP
computations

 OLD LUZON uses the MSL heights to compute


Geographic Positions instead of Ellipsoidal hts.

 PRS 92 uses the actual ellipsoidal height


transformed from GPS to compute the
Geographic Position of a point
Triangulation of the Philippines
 USC&GS commenced fieldwork in January 1901
until end of 1926. Triangulation survey was done
simultaneously. Each party started survey by
astronomic observations – each on its own datum
 Insurrection was still in progress and this resulted
in bits of second and third order triangulation
widely scattered throughout the islands
 This accounts for the poor figures and connections
Triangulation of the Philippines

 So much datum had been established, to unify Luzon


, 13 datum’s were brought together into Vigan
Datum---this does not account for all the other
islands in Visayas and Mindanao

 To unite all datum’s, the Philippine datum was


established in 1911 to cover the whole country—
which was later called Luzon datum
Principal
Triangulation
stations of
The Philippine
Islands ---The These are 2nd
starting points of order trig
all types of survey stations
in the country established
(Topographic, from 1901 to
Hydrographic and 1926
Cadastral)
NRMDP-- 1989
 Natural Resources Management and
Development Project
 Australian assisted project of the DENR.
 Geodetic survey component was
undertaken by SAGRIC, Int’l (with Certeza
as sub-contractor) in coordination with
NAMRIA through CGSD
GEODETIC COMPONENT

 Designed to provide support to other components by


establishing first order control points.
 It also provided limited densification of the network
with second and third order stations.
 It aims to determine the transformation parameters
relating WGS84 to LUZON Datum.
Analysis of the Triangulation and
Birth of PRS 92
 Analysis of the old data set reveals large errors (includes punching
and typographical) - up to 56m in lat and 80m in long.

 Old second order trig. Stations were recomputed and readjusted–


thus giving a modified G.P. and a new name– Philippine Reference
System 1992(PRS’92)

 PRS’92 datum quantities are the same as LUZON 1911 except for
the Geoid-Ellipsoid separation (N=0.34m).

 PRS’92 is actually modified Luzon datum that has a more accurate


and homogeneous set of coordinates

 A new network was established using GPS-- then called it the


Geodetic Network of the Philippines
Error ellipses of
triangulation
stations
PRS’92
A new network established using
GPS under the Geodetic Survey
Component of the Natural Resources
Management and Development Project
(NRMDP).
This new network has a more
accurate and homogeneous set of
coordinates, referred to the Clark 1866
spheroid and the modified Luzon Datum
which is named Philippine Reference
System 1992.
Seven parameters
 PRS to WGS WGS to PRS
Trans X = -127.622 +127.621531
Trans Y = -67.245 + 67.243395
Trans Z = -47.0433 + 47.047384
Rot X = 3.068 - 3.06803751
Rot Y = -4.903 + 4.90297653
Rot Z = -1.578 + 1.57807293
Scale factor = -1.06002 + 1.06002112
Heights & GEOIDS
 GPS heights are given in relation to the surface of
the WGS84 Ellipsoid (Ellipsoidal Ht).
 Existing heights are orthometric heights
measured relative to mean sea level.
 Mean sea level corresponds to a surface known as
GEOID.
 The geoid can be defined as an equipotential
surface, i.e. the force of gravity is constant at any
point on the geoid.
 The geoid is of irregular shape and does not
correspond to any ellipsoid.
 The density of the earth have an effect on the
geoid-- causing it to rise in the more dense
regions and fall in less dense regions.
Surveying with GPS
GPS measuring techniques
for relative positioning
 Static – used for long lines, geodetic
networks, tectonic plate studies etc. Offers
high accuracy over long distances but is
comparatively slow. Minimum one(1) hour
observation for a 20km line with 5 satellites &
GDOP of 8 or lower. Longer lines require
longer observation times.
 Fast Static or Rapid Static – used for
establishing local control networks, Network
densification etc. Good for baselines up to
20km and is much faster than Static
technique. Minimum eight(8)mins occupation
time using Dual freq. receivers & good
satellite constellation.
GPS measuring techniques
for relative positioning
Kinematic – used for topographic surveys,
(measuring many points in quick succession).
Requires an initialization step to solve for
the unknown integer ambiguity in the GPS
signal. Needs reinitialization when passing on
obstructed areas. Minimum 15sec occupation
time using Dual freq. receivers & good
satellite constellation. Longer lines require
longer observation time.
RTK – uses a radio data link to transmit
satellite data from reference to rover.
Calculate & displays G.P. in real time. Subject
to interference & line of sight blockage.
GPS Precision and Accuracy
Precision
 GPS is a very precise measurement method.
 GPS gives consistent repeatability or precision– if
the same equipment and careful measurement
techniques are used.

Accuracy
 GPS accuracy comes from:
--Application of surveying methods such as
network design.
--Stability and accuracy of the reference controls.
--Redundant measurements.
--Application of precise set-up measurements.
Distances computed by GPS processing
GPS Field Procedures
PLANNING:
Project Area, Reference Station
Descriptions & Coordinates,
Network Scheme with Proposed
New Stations, Receivers &
Accessories, Personnel, Field GPS SURVEY WORKFLOW
sheets, Description Forms

Mobilization &
Courtesy Call

RECONNAISSANCE &
MONUMENTATION DBASE

TRANSFORM
OBSERVATION & TO PRS ‘92
DOWNLOADING OF DATA
TO COMPUTER
Sufficient Observation Time for the
Project
PERFORM NETWORK
ADJUSTMENT
Using WGS84 as Datum &
Coordinate System

IMPORT-CHECK & EDIT


OBSERVATION INFO VIEW RAW DATA
Such As Antenna Heights, PROCESS GPS USING TIMELINE
Where Measured, Station BASELINES TO EDIT/REMOVE
Names, Antenna Type, CYCLE SLIPS
Receiver Serial No.
Planning a GPS survey
1. The project purpose = Control survey or Topographic.

2. Availability of Geodetic controls-- minimum =2 Ref. Stations

3. No. of GPS receivers to be used-- minimum= 2 Receivers


Optimal = 4 receivers
4. Appropriate number and length of observations –minimum =
2 sessions per station & minimum 1 hr per session (control)
15 sec to 1 minute per point (kinematic)

5. Schedule of observations and station assignments—(date &


time– use planning utilities)

6. No. of personnel and transport – Depending on number of


Receivers
Network Sketch
 Make a sketch of the stations
- Old controls
- New points to be observed (approx.
locations)

 Use sufficient existing controls in your network

- Three or four control stations


distributed on the project area.
Network Design
 Design your network so that all stations have at least
three(3) independent baselines attached to them.
More baselines give more ways to compute
coordinates.

 Good network design– a GPS network design consist of


a set of baselines between network points. The
baselines connecting these points should create closed
figures with a minimum number of sides such as
triangles. Triangles will create a rigid network by
adding more baselines, thus helping generate
redundancy and multiple, evenly distributed baselines
to each point.
NETWORK DESIGN

 Each Station has at least three


(3) Baselines attached
 Triangle figures were formed in
each session/observation
Connection to Existing Controls
The recommendation for connecting to existing controls are:

To Achieve First Order Second Third Order


Order
Minimum 3 2 2
Recommend 4 or more 3 or more 2
ed

Connections must be made to control of the same order or higher,


because the coordinates of your new stations can only be as accurate
as your reference stations.
Reconnaissance
Ideally, all GPS stations should be free from
any obstructions above 15 degrees of the
horizon, accessible and permanent. Away
from radio station towers & transmission
lines. But if there are no ideal sites, the
following can be accepted :

 Maximum obstruction of one(1) quadrant of


the GPS station visibility plot with minimum
distance of 10m.
Reconnaissance

 Uniform maximum obstruction of


20 degrees above the horizon
 Variable scattered horizon
obstruction of 25% of the GPS
station visibility plot
Monuments
Dimensions – 0.30m x 0.30m cement putty.

-- Concrete monument in the form of a


square base frustum with the following dimensions:
STATION TOP BOTTOM DEPTH HEIGHT
First Order 0.30 m 0.40 m 1.00 m 0.20 m
Second Order 0.30 m 0.40 m 1.00 m 0.20 m
Third Order 0.25 m 0.35 m 1.00 m 0.20 m
Fourth Order 0.20 m 0.30 m 0.80 m 0.20 m

Inscriptions – station name in capitals, year


and agency name.
Station mark – any non- corrosive
metal such as Copper nail or
Brass rod

Description – use standard NAMRIA


form in describing a GPS station.
Fill up all information including
sketches.
Observations
 Field sheets – use NAMRIA field sheets. Fill
up all information-- station name, antenna
ht., receiver serial no., measured to,
antenna type, etc.
 Antenna – indicate where measurements
were taken.
-- Center antenna to station by
plumb bob or optical plummet to the
nearest millimeter.
-- Measure heights before and
after observation to nearest millimeter.
 Receiver settings – verify that settings for all
receivers are compatible or the same, such
as elevation mask, sync rates, SV enabled or
disabled, data formats(no mixing of old &
new receivers)

 Data collection – avoid using electronic


device within 10m, such as radio, cell phone,
etc., while collecting data.
-- for stations with
obstructions, longer observation times are
advisable.
GPS OBSERVATION
Suggested minimum session lengths—Fast Static

Up to 5 Km 5 Km to 10 Km

6 satellites 10 mins 20 mins


5 satellites 15 mins 25 mins
4 satellites 20 mins 35 mins

The times above are the minimum period of unbroken data, if in doubt record more data

If observations are being conducted in a remote area where the baselines cannot be
processed and validated before the field teams leave the area consider longer observation times

PDOP should be less than 8 and preferably less than 5 particularly for shorter observation such
as Rapid Static. Try to avoid periods of high PDOP when planning observations.
Satellites should be above 20 degrees if possible.
GPS OBSERVATION
Suggested minimum session lengths-- Static

Single Frequency
0-5Km 5-10Km
1 hour 2 hours

Dual Frequency

10-20Km 20-30Km 30-50Km 50-150Km Over 150 Km

1 hour 2 hours 3 hours 4 hours 6 hours


GPS OBSERVATION
Suggested minimum session lengths– RTK, PPK

0-5Km 5-10Km
8 sec 15 sec

INITIALIZATION TECHNIQUES:
1. Known-Point Initialization
2. Static Initialization
3. Postprocessed On-The-Fly Initialization
4. Reoccupation Initialization
TIPS TO AVOID POOR PROCESSING RESULTS

Poor GPS processing results can occur for a variety of reasons, including:

•Field Blunders, such as:


•incorrect antenna height measurement
•incorrect naming of stations
•tripod centering error
•Inconsistencies in receiver setting such as:
•elevation masks
•sync rates (logging rate)
•SVs enabled or disabled
•Data formats (if mixing older 4000 ST receivers with newer 4000 series receivers, such as
4000SSi, 4600LS, 4700 or 4800 receivers)
•Collecting data under marginal conditions, such as:
•observing too few satellites
•high PDOP
•too many satellites at low elevation angle
•many cycle slips
•insufficient observation time
STANDARDS OF ACCURACY
(National Geodetic Network)

1. First Order : 10 Parts per million (10 PPM)


1 cm/Km 1/100,000
2. Second Order : 20 Parts per million (20 PPM)
2 cm/Km 1/50,000
3. Third Order : 50 Parts per million (50 PPM)
5 cm/Km 1/20,000
4. Fourth Order : 100 Parts per million (100 PPM)
10 cm/Km 1/10,000
Questions ?