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Basics of Ship Vibration

Ship Vibration
SOURCES of SHIP VIBRATION
Internal Sources [Unbalanced machinery
forces]
(1) Main & Auxiliary Machines
Main Propulsion Engine (esp. 4 or 5 cylinder
engine) generating large unbalanced force at
high frequency close to hulls natural
frequency.
Rotary Machines (Electric motors, auxiliary
machines etc) generate high frequency but
low amplitude
Reciprocating Engines Usually low frequency
(2) Unbalanced Shaft ( frequency = shaft
RPM)

Ship Vibration
SOURCES of SHIP VIBRATION
Internal Sources [Unbalanced machinery forces]
UNBALANCE: occurs when centre of mass is different
from centre of rotation. Can be caused by improper
assembly, material buildup, wear, broken or
missing parts
Detection: High level radial vibration
MISALIGNMENT: is a condition when two coupled
machines have shafts whose center lines are not
parallel and intersecting, or where one or more
bearings are offset or cocked. Mis-alignment can
be caused by improper assembly and adjustment,
foundation failure, thermal growth, or locked
coupling
Detection: High level axial vibration

Ship Vibration
SOURCES of SHIP VIBRATION
External Sources [Hydrodynamic loading by
direct action or induced by the ship motions]
(1) Hydrodynamic loading on Propellers
Blades in non-uniform flow (freq. = RPM x
No. of blades). More pronounced for low
propeller submergence and in shallow water
(2) Unstable cavitation of blades
(3) Vortex induced forces (not on
propeller)
Eg. Brackets that holds the propeller
(4) Slamming Load short duration forces
but give rise to high frequency forces.

Ship Vibration
SHIP RESPONSE
In response to excitation forces, the ship execute
elastic vibrations, some of which are observed only
locally and some are observed throughout the
hull.
Local Vibration: Usually high frequency and
lower amplitude
Difficult to predetermine
Amended easily post-construction (common
practice to overlook during design stage)
Hull Vibration: Lower frequency and higher
amplitude (Compared to local)
Must be carefully considered and avoided in
the design stage itself

Hull Girder Vibration


Distribution of Weights

The weight will not


equal the buoyancy at
each section along the
ship

The
weights
are
combination of lightship
and cargo weights
The buoyancy forces are
determined by the shape
of the hull and the
position of the vessel in
the water (draft & trim)
Local segments of the
vessel may have more or
less weight than the

Source: MUN Notes

Hull Girder Vibration


SHIP as a UNIFORM BEAM
Vibrations that exist throughout the hull are of the
same type that may exist in a beam free in
space
Surrounding water plays an important role but it
does not destroy their beamlike characteristic and
it is helpful to consider the vibrations of the ideal
solid beam free in space (free-free beam)= 2L
= L
= 2L/3

Hull Girder Vibration


Types of Elastic Deformation
A beam free in space can undergo FOUR
principal types of Elastic Deformation:
1) Bending
2) Twisting
3) Shearing
4) Extensional
Elastic deformations that play a significant role, in
the case of ship are:
Bending and Shearing in both vertical and
horizontal planes through its longitudinal axis
(Flexural)
Torsion about the longitudinal axis (Twist)

Hull Girder Vibration


Types of Elastic Deformation
Flexural: Bending like a beam
Horizontal bending mode
Vertical bending mode (usually more of a
concern than the horizontal mode)
Torsional: Twist of a beam
More likely for container ships

Hull Girder Vibration


MODES and NODES
Mode: the pattern or configuration (shape) which the
body assumes periodically while in vibratory conditions
Node: is a point in the body which has no
displacement when the vibration is confined to one
particular mode.

Connecting
nodes, give
corresponding
mode
Normal Modes: are patterns in which the body can
vibrate freely after the removal of external forces

Hull Girder Vibration


In both Flexural and Torsional vibrations, a
natural frequency is associated with each
pattern of vibration and the natural frequencies
increase as the number of nodes (points at
which curves cross x-axis).
If a free-free beam is unsymmetric w.r.t either
the vertical or horizontal planes through its
longitudinal axis, it will be found that the natural
modes of vibration involve Torsion, Bending
and Shearing simultaneously.

Hull Girder Vibration


A hull is much more complicated structure than
a solid beam and therefore it behaves like the
free-free beam ONLY in its lower modes of
vibration.
These are called beam-like modes and may be
excited by either:
(a)Transient disturbances (due to wave or
slamming impact)
(b)Steady-state
disturbances
(rotating
unbalanced engine or machine elements,
unbalanced propellers, unbalanced shaftings)

Hull Girder Vibration


Natural Frequency of Hull
Girder
How to avoid dangerous vibrations of the
ships hull?
Avoid exciting forces at frequencies close to
the natural frequencies of the ships hull.
How to determine the natural frequencies
of the hull girder?
Basic concepts are developed from the simple
notions of a uniform beam vibration.
Its then extended to the vibration of a ship
with some more added complexities that would
reflect the realities of a ship in the way that a
ship differs from a uniform beam

Hull Girder Vibration


Fundamental Mode of Flexural
Vibration

Minimum number of nodes = 2

Frequency (in cpm) corresponding to this 2 noded


vertical vibration (fundamental mode) is denoted
by N2V or NV2 (number of cycles per minute in 2noded
vertical vibration)
Otto
Schlick:
N 2V

I
3
L

I = Imidship of the cross-section of the

ship (beam)
= Weight displacement of the
ship (beam)
L = Length of the ship (beam)

Hull Girder Vibration


Uniform Beam Vibration
Equation
Just as a S-DOF system provides basis for
understanding vibrating characteristics of many
mechanical systems, similarly, a uniform FREEFREE BEAM provides the basis for understanding
the essential vibratory characteristics of ship.
Free-Free Beam is a continuous system
Beam is assume to have a mass/unit length, =
A and Bending stiffness EI in x-z plane
BM due to normal internal stresses acting at any
cross-section is related to theZ mean radius of
q (x, t)
EI
curvature
M
;
R

R radius of
curvature

q the driving force / unit length


in the z-direction

Hull Girder Vibration


Uniform Beam Vibration
Equation
For
small
deflections
in
z-direction,
the
approximation that curvature (1/R) is equal to 2nd
derivative of z w.r.t x can be used
2
d 2z
M EI 2
dx

d z
EI 2 M
dx

OR

Equation relating BM and deflection in simple


beam theory.
The Euler-Bernoulli equation describing the
relationship between beams deflection and the
applied load
2
d
d z

q
EI
2
2
dx
dx

OR

d 4z
EI 4 q( x)
dx

Hull Girder Vibration


Uniform Beam Vibration
Equation
Inertia effect of surrounding water
The relative high density of water makes the
inertial effect a serious concern
Apparent increase in mass of a body vibrating
in water
2z
4z
A 2 EI 4 q ( x, t )
t
x
Inerti
a
effect

Restoring force
as a result of
elasticity

Loading
on the
beam