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Basics of ship vibration

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Ship Vibration

SOURCES of SHIP VIBRATION

Internal Sources [Unbalanced machinery

forces]

(1) Main & Auxiliary Machines

Main Propulsion Engine (esp. 4 or 5 cylinder

engine) generating large unbalanced force at

high frequency close to hulls natural

frequency.

Rotary Machines (Electric motors, auxiliary

machines etc) generate high frequency but

low amplitude

Reciprocating Engines Usually low frequency

(2) Unbalanced Shaft ( frequency = shaft

RPM)

Ship Vibration

SOURCES of SHIP VIBRATION

Internal Sources [Unbalanced machinery forces]

UNBALANCE: occurs when centre of mass is different

from centre of rotation. Can be caused by improper

assembly, material buildup, wear, broken or

missing parts

Detection: High level radial vibration

MISALIGNMENT: is a condition when two coupled

machines have shafts whose center lines are not

parallel and intersecting, or where one or more

bearings are offset or cocked. Mis-alignment can

be caused by improper assembly and adjustment,

foundation failure, thermal growth, or locked

coupling

Detection: High level axial vibration

Ship Vibration

SOURCES of SHIP VIBRATION

External Sources [Hydrodynamic loading by

direct action or induced by the ship motions]

(1) Hydrodynamic loading on Propellers

Blades in non-uniform flow (freq. = RPM x

No. of blades). More pronounced for low

propeller submergence and in shallow water

(2) Unstable cavitation of blades

(3) Vortex induced forces (not on

propeller)

Eg. Brackets that holds the propeller

(4) Slamming Load short duration forces

but give rise to high frequency forces.

Ship Vibration

SHIP RESPONSE

In response to excitation forces, the ship execute

elastic vibrations, some of which are observed only

locally and some are observed throughout the

hull.

Local Vibration: Usually high frequency and

lower amplitude

Difficult to predetermine

Amended easily post-construction (common

practice to overlook during design stage)

Hull Vibration: Lower frequency and higher

amplitude (Compared to local)

Must be carefully considered and avoided in

the design stage itself

Distribution of Weights

equal the buoyancy at

each section along the

ship

The

weights

are

combination of lightship

and cargo weights

The buoyancy forces are

determined by the shape

of the hull and the

position of the vessel in

the water (draft & trim)

Local segments of the

vessel may have more or

less weight than the

SHIP as a UNIFORM BEAM

Vibrations that exist throughout the hull are of the

same type that may exist in a beam free in

space

Surrounding water plays an important role but it

does not destroy their beamlike characteristic and

it is helpful to consider the vibrations of the ideal

solid beam free in space (free-free beam)= 2L

= L

= 2L/3

Types of Elastic Deformation

A beam free in space can undergo FOUR

principal types of Elastic Deformation:

1) Bending

2) Twisting

3) Shearing

4) Extensional

Elastic deformations that play a significant role, in

the case of ship are:

Bending and Shearing in both vertical and

horizontal planes through its longitudinal axis

(Flexural)

Torsion about the longitudinal axis (Twist)

Types of Elastic Deformation

Flexural: Bending like a beam

Horizontal bending mode

Vertical bending mode (usually more of a

concern than the horizontal mode)

Torsional: Twist of a beam

More likely for container ships

MODES and NODES

Mode: the pattern or configuration (shape) which the

body assumes periodically while in vibratory conditions

Node: is a point in the body which has no

displacement when the vibration is confined to one

particular mode.

Connecting

nodes, give

corresponding

mode

Normal Modes: are patterns in which the body can

vibrate freely after the removal of external forces

In both Flexural and Torsional vibrations, a

natural frequency is associated with each

pattern of vibration and the natural frequencies

increase as the number of nodes (points at

which curves cross x-axis).

If a free-free beam is unsymmetric w.r.t either

the vertical or horizontal planes through its

longitudinal axis, it will be found that the natural

modes of vibration involve Torsion, Bending

and Shearing simultaneously.

A hull is much more complicated structure than

a solid beam and therefore it behaves like the

free-free beam ONLY in its lower modes of

vibration.

These are called beam-like modes and may be

excited by either:

(a)Transient disturbances (due to wave or

slamming impact)

(b)Steady-state

disturbances

(rotating

unbalanced engine or machine elements,

unbalanced propellers, unbalanced shaftings)

Natural Frequency of Hull

Girder

How to avoid dangerous vibrations of the

ships hull?

Avoid exciting forces at frequencies close to

the natural frequencies of the ships hull.

How to determine the natural frequencies

of the hull girder?

Basic concepts are developed from the simple

notions of a uniform beam vibration.

Its then extended to the vibration of a ship

with some more added complexities that would

reflect the realities of a ship in the way that a

ship differs from a uniform beam

Fundamental Mode of Flexural

Vibration

vertical vibration (fundamental mode) is denoted

by N2V or NV2 (number of cycles per minute in 2noded

vertical vibration)

Otto

Schlick:

N 2V

I

3

L

ship (beam)

= Weight displacement of the

ship (beam)

L = Length of the ship (beam)

Uniform Beam Vibration

Equation

Just as a S-DOF system provides basis for

understanding vibrating characteristics of many

mechanical systems, similarly, a uniform FREEFREE BEAM provides the basis for understanding

the essential vibratory characteristics of ship.

Free-Free Beam is a continuous system

Beam is assume to have a mass/unit length, =

A and Bending stiffness EI in x-z plane

BM due to normal internal stresses acting at any

cross-section is related to theZ mean radius of

q (x, t)

EI

curvature

M

;

R

R radius of

curvature

in the z-direction

Uniform Beam Vibration

Equation

For

small

deflections

in

z-direction,

the

approximation that curvature (1/R) is equal to 2nd

derivative of z w.r.t x can be used

2

d 2z

M EI 2

dx

d z

EI 2 M

dx

OR

beam theory.

The Euler-Bernoulli equation describing the

relationship between beams deflection and the

applied load

2

d

d z

q

EI

2

2

dx

dx

OR

d 4z

EI 4 q( x)

dx

Uniform Beam Vibration

Equation

Inertia effect of surrounding water

The relative high density of water makes the

inertial effect a serious concern

Apparent increase in mass of a body vibrating

in water

2z

4z

A 2 EI 4 q ( x, t )

t

x

Inerti

a

effect

Restoring force

as a result of

elasticity

Loading

on the

beam

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