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Concrete Technology

Dr. P. DINAKAR
Department of Civil Engineering

Concrete Aggregates

Factors influencing concrete structure


performance
Materials

Concrete

Construction

Aggregates

Mix design

Element design

Type
Grading

Proportions
Cement quality
W/C
Maximum water
Admixtures

Insitu
Precast

Cement
Type
Fineness

Mixing
Water
Quality
Cl- limit, etc.

Admixtures
Type
Interaction/prop.

Fresh concrete

Building practice
Formwork
Tolerances
Reinforcing

Placing

Design
Engineering
Design
Details
Reinforcement
Crack control
cover

Architectural
Design
Details
Section/dimension
Surface finishes

Compaction

Environmental
influences

Curing

Completed
element

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Aggregates
Aggregates are defined as inert, granular, and inorganic

materials that normally consist of stone or stone-like


solids.
Approximately three-fourths of the volume of

conventional concrete is occupied by aggregate.

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Classification of Aggregates
According to Source:
1. Natural aggregate: Native deposits with no change in
their natural state other than washing, crushing &
grading. (sand, gravel, crush stone)
2. Artificial aggregates: They are obtained either as a byproduct or by a special manufacturing process such as
heating. (blast furnace slag, expanded perlite)

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Classification of Aggregates
Ultra Light weight: UW < 500kg/m3

Corresponding concrete UW ~ 1200kg/m3


For non structural member only

Light weight: 500kg/ m3< UW < 1120kg/m3

Corresponding concrete UW < 1800kg/m3


Can be used as structural member

Normal weight: UW ~ 1520 1680kg/m 3

Corresponding concrete UW ~ 2300 2400kg/m 3

Heavy weight: UW > 2080kg/m3

Corresponding concrete UW ~ 3200 4000kg/m 3


Steel, Iron Ore
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Classification of Aggregates
Weight categories

Uses

Indicative concrete
density (kg/m3)

Ultra lightweight density <


500 kg/m3

Thermal
insulation

500 to 1000

Lightweight
2100 kg/m3

Lightweight
structural
concretes

100 to 1800

Normal-weight
structural
concretes

2000 to 2600

density <

Normal-weight density >


2100 kg/m3

Heavyweight density >


3200 kg/m3

Heavyweight
concrete
Radiationshielding
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3000 to 5000
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Classification of Aggregates
According to Petrological Characteristics:
1. Igneous rocks: are formed by solidification of molten
lava. (granite)
2. Sedimentary rocks: are obtained by deposition of
weathered & transported preexisting rocks or solutions.
(limestone)
3. Metamorphic rocks: are formed under high heat &
pressure alteration of either igneous & sedimentary
rocks (marble).

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Classification of Aggregates
In accordance with Size
Coarse aggregate: Size > 4.75mm
Fine aggregate (sand): Size from 75 micron m to

4.75mm

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Sampling
Tests in the lab is carried out on the samples. So,

certain precautions in obtaining a sample must be taken


to obtain representative sample.
The main sample is made up of portions drawn from

different points. The minimum number of portions,


increment, is 10 & they should add up to a weight not
less than:

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Sampling
Max. Particle
Size (mm)

Min. Weight of
Sample (kg)

> 25 mm

50

25 5 mm

25

< 5 mm

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10

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Methods of reducing the amount of sample


Quartering:
Mix the field sample over three times on a level surface.
Shovel the sample to a conical shape.
Press the apex & flatten the conical shape.
Divide them into four equal quarters.
Discard two diagonally opposite quarters & use the remainder.
If this remainder is still too large follow the same path.

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Particle Shape and Surface Texture


In addition to petrological character, the external

characteristics, i.e. The shape & surface texture of


aggregates are of importance.
Particle Shape
Rounded: Completely water worn & fully shaped by

attrition. (River Gravel)


Irregular: Partly shaped by attrition so it contains some

rounded edges. (Land Gravel)

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Particle Shape and Surface Texture


Angular: Has sharp corners, show little evidence of

wear. (Crushed Stone)


Flaky: Thickness is relatively small with respect to two

other dimensions. (Laminated Rocks)


Elongated: Have lengths considerably larger than two

other dimensions

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Particle Shape and Surface Texture

Flat and elongated particles should be limited to about 15


percent by weight of the total aggregate
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Particle Shape and Surface Texture


Rounded aggregates are suitable to use in concrete

because flaky & elongated particles reduce workability,


increase water demand & reduce strength.
In the case of angular particles, the bond between agg.

particles is higher due to interlocking but due to higher


surface area, angular particles increase water demand
& therefore reduces workability. As a result, for the
same cement content & same workability, rounded
agg. Give higher strength.
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Particle Shape and Surface Texture


Surface Texture
This affects the bond to the cement paste & also

influences the water demand of the mix.

Smooth: Bond b/w cement paste & agg is weak.


Rough: Bond b/w cement paste & agg. is strong.

Surface texture is not a very important property from

compressive strength point of view but aggregates


having rough surface texture perform better under
flexural & tensile stresses.

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Particle Shape and Surface Texture

Smooth

Rough
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Shape of the Aggregate and its Effects


More water compensated by better bond
Roundness

Unacceptable
except in
small %

Sphericity !!

Acceptable

{
{
{

More sand, more water,


lower strength

Optimum

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Grading of Aggregates
Grading is the particle-size distribution of an aggregate

as determined by a sieve analysis using wire mesh


sieves with square openings.
ASTM C 33
Fine aggregate7 standard sieves with openings from

150 m to 9.5 mm
Coarse aggregate13 sieves with openings from 1.18

mm to 100 mm

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Grading of Aggregates

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Grading of Aggregates
The material is sieved through a series of sieves that

are placed one above the other in order of size with the
largest sieve at the top.
Dry agg. is sieved to prevent lumps.

****

4.75 mm
2.36 mm
1.18 mm
0.600 mm
0.300 mm
0.150 mm
Pan

Sieve Shaker

Lateral & Vertical Motion


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Grading of Aggregates
The particle size distribution in an aggregate sample is

known as gradation.
Strength development of concrete depends on degree

of compaction & workability together with many other


factors. So, a satisfactory concrete should be
compacted to max density with a reasonable work.
On the other hand, in good concrete all aggregate

particles must be covered by cement paste.

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Grading of Aggregates
The grading of aggregate must be so that the

workability, density & volume stability of concrete may


not be adversely affected by it.
Fine Particles higher cost
Coarse Particlesless workability
A reasonable combination of fine & coarse aggregate

must be used. This can be expressed by maximum


density or minimum voids concept.

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Grading of Aggregates
A cube with a dimension of 2Dx2Dx2D is
filled with spheres of diameter D
Vcube=(2D)3=8D3
1Vsphere=(4/3)(D/2)30.52D3
8*Vsp=8*0.52D34.2D3 (solid volume)
Void Volume=8D3-4.2D3=3.8D3
2D

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Grading of Aggregates
Same cube filled with spheres of diameter D/4.

Solid Volume=8*8*8*(4/3)(D/8)34.2D3
Void Volume3.8D3
Size of agg. is not important. If an agg. with the same

size is used amount of void volume will not change. So,


to overcome this different sizes of particles should be
used.
However, you should not forget that as aggregate get

finer, the surface area increases.


More surface area more paste & water requirement
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Compact Aggregate Skeleton

Fuller Grading 32 mm
C= 300 kg/m ; W=162 kg/m
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Loose Aggregate Skeleton


MSA 19 mm
C= 410 kg/m ; W=189 kg/m

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Reduction of Voids

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Factors Affecting a Desired Grading


Surface area of the Aggregate

The lower the surface area, the lesser is the paste


requirement.

Relative Volume of Agg. in Concrete

Higher volume of agg.:

economical
higher strength, higher volume stability
less workability !

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Factors Affecting a Desired Grading


Workability: The ease with which a concrete mixture can be

mixed, transported, placed in the form & compacted without


any segregation. Workability increases as the amount of
paste b/w fine agg. part increases. It also increases as the
amount of mortar b/w coarse agg. Particles increases.
Segregation: Seperation of the particles with different sizes

& specific gravities. The requirements of workability and


absence of segregation tend to oppose each other. Thus,
these two factors are interrelated. The major of these is
workability which, in turn, affects most of the properties of
concrete.
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Determination of the Grading of Aggregate


There are two different methods for determining the

aggregate grading:

Fineness Modulus (FM)


Granulometry

The grading of the particles in an agg. sample is

performed by sieve analysis. The sieve analysis is


conducted by the use of standard test sieves. Test
sieves have square openings & their designation
correspond to the sizes of those openings.

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Determination of the Grading of Aggregate


Fineness Modulus (FM):
FM is a single figure which is the sum of cumulative %
retained on a series of sieves having a clear opening half
that of the preceding one. Usually determined for fine
aggregate

For Fine Agg.#4, #8, #16, #30, #50, #100 {practical

limits2-3.5}

For Coarse Agg.(Fine set + 3/8 + 3/4 +1 + 3 )

{practical limits5.5-8.0}

The FM of the mixture of two or more agg. is the weighted

average of the FM of that two more agg.


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Determination of the Grading of Aggregate

Pan is not included.


Only standard sieves are included, if we were given #10

sieve you should not use that in calculations


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Determination of the Grading of Aggregate

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Fineness Modulus for Blended Aggregate

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Determination of the Grading of Aggregate


The fine aggregate with the FM=3.25 and the coarse

aggregate with the FM=7.85 are available. Combine


them in such a way that the FM becomes 6.8
X : Volume of Fine aggregate
3.25X+7.85(100-X) = 6.8
100
Therefore X = 23
23% of fine aggregate and 77% of coarse aggregate
should be mixed
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Determination of the Grading of Aggregate


Granulometry:
The FM is not always representative of the gradation of

an aggregate sample and various gradation curves may


give the same FM.
In the gradation curves, the vertical axis represents the

% passing & the horizontal axis represents the sieve


opening.
A logarithmic scale is used for horizontal axis

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Determination of the Grading of Aggregate

A good aggregate gradation for a particular concrete


is the one that leads to a workable, dense & uniform
concrete, without any segregation of particles.
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DIN Grading Limits for MSA 25 mm


(adapted to ASTM sieves)
100

40

20

10
0

to
o

co

30

se

50

ar

60

im
um

r
e
t
a
W and
m
de

tab

70

ac
ce
p

% Passing

80

le

in
f
o
to

op
t

90

0.15

0.6
0.3

Combined Aggregate Grading

2.4
1.2

4.8

9.6
19
12.5
25

Sieve Opening (mm)


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Fuller Curve

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Determination of the Grading of Aggregate


There is no single ideal grading curve Instead,

standards provide upper & lower limits.

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ASTM Requirements for FA & CA

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Types of Gradation

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Types of Gradation
In uniform grading all particles are of the same size.

Note that this produces a large volume of voids


irrespective of particle size. Hence the paste
requirement for this concrete is high.
Continuous grading incorporates a combination of

particles of many sizes. Hence it minimizes the volume


of voids but increases the particle surface area. This is
the preferred gradation.
Gap gradation involves grading in which one or more

sizes are omitted. This type of concrete is used


generally for architectural or aesthetics purpose.
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Specific Gravity
Specific gravity is the ratio of the weight of a unit volume
of material to the Weight of the same volume of water at
20 to 25C.

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Specific Gravity of Aggregates

Sp.Gr. is used in certain computations for concrete mix


design or control work, such as, absolute volume of
aggregate in concrete. It is not a measure of the quality of
aggregate.

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Volume of Aggregate ?

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Moisture Condition of Aggregates

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Moisture Condition of Aggregates

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Moisture Condition of Aggregates


The moisture condition of aggregates refers to the presence of water in the pores

and on the surface of aggregates. There are four different moisture conditions:

Oven Dry (OD): This condition is obtained by keeping aggregates at


temperature of 1100C for a period of time long enough to reach a constant
weight.
Air Dry (AD): This condition is obtained by keeping aggregates under room
temperature and humidity. Pores inside the aggregate are partly filled with water.
Saturated Surface Dry (SSD): In this situation the pores of the aggregate are
fully filled with water and the surface is dry. This condition can be obtained by
immersion in water for 24 hours following by drying of the surface with wet cloth.
Wet (W): The pores of the aggregate are fully filled with water and the surface of
aggregate is covered with a film of water.

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Moisture Content (MC) Calculations

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Moisture Content (MC) Calculations

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Moisture Content (MC) Calculations

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Density and Specific Gravity

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Density and Specific Gravity

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Density and Specific Gravity

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Determination of Specific Gravity of Aggregates


Archimedes Principle
Coarse Aggregate
Aggregates are oven dried at 1055C overnight & the

weight is measured as (A)oven dry weight


Aggregates are soaked in water for 24 hours. Aggs are

taken out from water & rolled in a large absorbent cloth,


until all visible films of water are removed & then
weighed (B)saturated surface dry weight
Aggregates are then weighed in water (C)

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Determination of Specific Gravity of Aggregates

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Determination of Specific Gravity of Aggregates


Fine Aggregate
Aggregate are oven dried to constant weight at

1055C. Measure the dry weight as (A)


Soak them in water for 24hrs
Stir the sample to bring it to SSD condition. Use the

Cone Test for Surface Moisture Determination (Weight


as S)
Fill the aggs in SSD condition into a pycnometer (to a

calibrated level) and weight it,


(water+pyconometer+agg) (C)
Fill the pyconometer with water only (to a calibrated

level) and weight it (water+pyconometer) (B)


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Specific Gravity Test for Sand

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Determination of Specific Gravity of Aggregates

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Moisture Condition of Aggregates

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Significance of Moisture Determination


SSD Condition Equilibrium for Mositure Condition
If total moisture content = 0 Agg. is bone-dry (oven

dry)
If total moisture content < absorption capacity It can

absorb water
If total moisture content > absorption capacity There

is free water on the surface of agg.


Mix Design Calculations are Based on Aggs in SSD

Condition. Therefore, for aggs not being in that condition


corrections have to be made
w/c ratiow should be free water
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Examples
The oven dry mass of a sample of aggregate is 1982

gm. The mass in a saturated surface dry condition is


2006.7 gm. The net or solid volume of the aggregates
is 734.4 cm3. Find the apparent specific gravity, the bulk
specific gravity and the percentage absorption.

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Max Aggregate Size


Its the smallest sieve size through which the entire

amount of the agg particles can pass.


The larger the size of agg, the smaller the surface area

to be wetted per unit weight. Thus, extending the


grading of agg to a larger max size lowers the water
requirement of the mix. So, for the same workability &
cement content higher strength will be obtained.

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Max Aggregate Size


Optimum max agg size for structural concrete is 25mm.
Studies have shown that concretes made with max agg

size greater than 40mm have lower strength. Because


of the smaller surface area for the bond between agg to
paste. Volume changes in the paste causes larger
stresses at the interface.

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Standard Limitations for Max Aggregate Size


The concrete mix must be so that, it can be placed

inside the molds and between the reinforcing bars easily


without any segregation. So, max agg size (Dmax) should
not exceed:
1) 1/5 of the narrowest dimension of the mold.

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Standard Limitations for Max Aggregate Size


1/3 of the depth of the slab

of the clear spacing between reinforcement

Dmax < 40mm


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Limitations for Max Aggregate Size

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