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AVIATION

MATERIAL COMPOSITION

PREPARED BY :
GUNJAN TRIVEDI
M.TECH DESIGN ENGINEERING

PASSANGER AIRCRAFT

http://www.1001crash.com/index-page-composite-lg-2.html

PASSANGER AIRCRAFT
NO

NAME OF PART

MATERIAL
USED

PROPERTIES

REASON

1.

FUSELAGE

AlMgSiCu
(AA6013) T6

Weldable
Increased Yield Strength
Reduced Fatigue Crack Growth Rate
Higher Toughness
Lower Density

Weight Reduction ,
High value of specific Strength

2.

RUDDER, WINGS,
AILERONS, TAIL CONE, FLAP
TRACK PANEL , LANDING GEAR
DOORS , WING RIBS , CENTER
WING BOX , ENGINE
COWLINGS , REAR PRESSURE
BULK HEAD

Carbon fiber
reinforced
polymer

strength and rigidity


high initial strength-to-weight ratio

extremely light and rigid


lighter and stronger than their
metal counterparts

3.

HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL


STABILIZER

Aluminium 7075
T6

density of 2.810 g/cm


Utm 74,00078,000 psi
yield strength of at least 63,00069,000
psi

Highly Stress Structure

4.

FLOOR PANELS , FUEL TANKS

S-2 Glass fiber

Softening point: 1056C (1932F) ,


Annealing point: 816C (1500F) , Strain
point: 766C (1410F)

Greater fiber tensile strength and


stability at elevated
temperatures in thermoset and
thermoplastic applications

5.

Engine

Titanium ,
Inconel 65

high strength, stiffness, toughness, low


density, and good corrosion resistance

high strength-to-weight ratio.

6.

Wind Shield

PLEXIGLAS
GS 241

UV transmittance less than 1 %,


high optical standards

Better Visibility and Toughness

MILIATRY AIRCRAFT

http://www.tejas.gov.in/

MILITARY AIRCRAFT
SR.
NO.

NAME OF PART

MATERIAL USED

PROPERTIES

Reason

1.

Leading and Trailing edge

S 2 Glass Fiber

high strength, modulus and


durability under conditions of
extreme temperature of
corrosive environments

For radar absorption

2.

Wing , Fuselage and Tail skin

AS4/3501 06 Carbon
-Epoxy

Density 1.265 gm/cc Tg dry 6


hr 350F (177C) cure 410F
(210C) Tg wet 6 hr 350F
(177C) cure 304F (151C)
Tensile strength 6.6 ksi
Tensile modulus 0.615 msi

Considering Higher Tensile


Strength ,
Test result on Cessna 180
Result : 3.8 Ksi
F.O.S. 1.73

3.

Engine Bay Region

BMI RM 3010

Cured Resin Density 1.25 g/cc


Glass Transition Tg (G) 72 hr,
180F immersion Dry: 534F
Wet: 485F Resin Flex
Strength 18 ksi Resin Flex
Modulus 665 ksi Resin Flex
Strain to Failure 2.5%

High Temperature Resistance

4.

Fuel Tank , Frame , Walls

RTM method
Inner liner of synthetic
rubber or rubber-coated
fabric, Ballistic nylon
barrier, Sealant, and
a Retainer of woven nylon
cord.

Lightweight Bladder,
Self-Sealing, and
Crash Resistant.

Fuel Resistance , High


Pressure Sustain in Speed,
Crash Resistance

5.

Nose

Fibre Glass
E Glass ,
S - Glass

high strength, modulus and


durability under conditions of
extreme temperature of
corrosive environments

performance over narrow


frequency bands,
high-quality RF performance

UnmannedAerialVehicle

http://www.faqs.org/patents/app/20140197280

UnmannedAerialVehicle
SR.
NO.

NAME OF PART

MATERIAL USED

Reason

UAV Types
Target and decoy - providing ground and aerial gunnery a target that simulates an enemy aircraft or missile
Reconnaissance - providing battlefield intelligence
Combat - providing attack capability for high-risk missions (see Unmanned Combat Air Vehicle)
Research and development - used to further develop UAV technologies to be integrated into field deployed UAV aircraft
Civil and Commercial UAVs - UAVs specifically designed for civil and commercial applications.

Body / Frame , Wings

Wood , Form , Plastic ,


Aluminium , G10 , Carbon
Fibre , Carbon Fiber Skin ,

Depends Upon Size and Design

HELICOPTER

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Merlin_Airframe_Material.jpg

HELICOPTER
SR.
NO.

NAME OF PART

MATERIAL USED

PROPERTIES

REASON

1.

ROTOR BLADE

Sandwich Design with


GFRP , CFRP , FORM ,
GREEN NOMEX
HONEYCOMB CORE , SS
EROTION SHEILD ,
WOVEN GLASS OUTER
SHIELD

ductile, relatively soft and


with quite a high plasticity

To provide high stiffness


under rotation tip velocity of
200m/s and Flipping also in
Environmental condition
such humidity and
temperature , it provide
better vibration
characteristics of blade

Airframes, empennage

CFRP Sandwich panels

ductile, relatively soft and


with quite a high plasticity

Light Weight

3.

Nose, Exhaust, Wind Shield

Kevlar 49 / epoxy
Nomex/Polycarbonate

High modulus / High Temp


Resistance , Density 1.44
g/cc , UTS 3000MPA ,
Tensile Modulus 112 GPA ,

For better visualization and


bullet proof , Ultra High
Temperature

4.

Cabin

Weldalite 049 /Alloy


2090 /Alloy 2091 / Alloy
8090 Alloy Frames

Higher stiffness , Superior


fatigue crack growth
resistance , Reduced ductility

For Minimizing Vibration


And Damping

5.

Tail Boom

Weldalite 049 /Alloy


2090 /Alloy 2091 / Alloy
8090 Alloy Frames

Higher stiffness , Superior


fatigue crack growth
resistance , Reduced ductility

To resist exhaust
impingement temps and
reduce empty weight fraction

GLIDER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glider_(aircraft)

GLIDER
SR.
NO.

NAME OF PART

MATERIAL USED

SPECIFIC USE

1.

Frame, Wing Span

Basla Wood ,
A Grain ,
B Grain ,
C Grain

Making Light Weight

2.

Frame Cover

Thin sheet of Basla or Thick Plastic


Film

Providing bending and torsional


strength , Desired airfoil shape

3.

Core

Dow Styrofoam High load 60


insulation

For good Compressive strength

4.

Skin

fibreglass cloth , carbon-fiber cloth

Aerodynamic Shape

HOT AIR BALOON

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hot_air_balloon

HOT AIR BALOON


SR.
NO.

NAME OF PART

MATERIAL USED

PROPERTIES

Reason

1.

Balloon Envelope , Gores ,


Parachute Valve

Nylon / Polyester / Nomex


(Near Gas Burner )

Polyester good aging


resistance at high
temperatures
Nylon superior elasticity,
stronger rip resistance and
the durability,
UV stability, colour
brilliance, fungus resistance
or dirt resistance

No UV Radiation when
heated

2.

Wicker Basket

woven from Kooboo and


Palambang cane ,
Aluminium

extremely sturdy, flexible


and relatively lightweight

Light weight Constraint

SUPER SONIC AND HYPERSONIC AIRCRAFT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Supersonic_speed
http://seit.unsw.adfa.edu.au/ojs/index.php/Hypersonics/article/viewFile/21/12

HYPERSONIC AIRCRAFT
SR.
NO.

NAME OF PART

MATERIAL USED

PROPERTIES

SPECIFIC USE

1.

Inward Turning Inlet of Scam Jet


Engine

TZM Molybdenum

0.50% Titanium, 0.08%


Zirconium and 0.02%
Carbon with the balance
Molybdenum

high strength/high
temperature applications,
especially above 2000F

2.

truss structures

Rene 41 super alloy

temperature strength up to
980C

Heat Absorption

3.

Body Parts

Titanium-Aluminium alloy

above 650C, the alloy has a


high solubility with oxygen

Weight Reduction

4.

thermal protection systems

Hafnium Diboride and


Zirconium Diboride

high melting point of


approximately 3200C
oxidation resistance at
temperatures up to 2000C

For Protection of system


under high temperature

5.

Complex Body Structure

Carbon/Silicon Carbide
ceramic matrix composite

constant strength to weight


ratio up to 1600C

Design Complex body parts

6.

Nose

TAZ-8A Cermet

minute oxidation build up of


1.8 milligrams per square
centimetre of alloy when
exposed to 1900 F

Nose cone

7.

Propulsion System

Titanium Metal Matrix


Composite

withstanding thousands of
hours of cyclic loading in an
oxidative environment

Propulsion temperature up
to 3000C

SUMMARY
Composite parts used for aircraft applications are defined by Material, process, and
manufacturing specifications. Material allowable (engineering definition).
All of these have a basis in regulatory requirements.
Most efficient use of advanced composites in aircraft Most efficient use of advanced composites in
aircraft structure is in applications with Highly loaded parts with thick gages. High fatigue
loads (fuselage and wing structure, etc). Areas susceptible to corrosion (fuselage, etc). Critical
weight reduction (empennage wings fuselage etc) Critical weight reduction (empennage, wings,
fuselage, etc).
Use must be justified by weighing benefits against costs.

References:
PASSANGER AIRCRAFT
FUSELAGE : http://www.mat.ethz.ch/news_events/archive/materialsday/matday01/pdf/TempusMD.pdf
http://www.wiley-vch.de/books/sample/3527313605_c01.pdf
http://www.aluminiumleader.com/en/around/transport/aircraft
RUDDER, WINGS,AILERONS, TAIL CONE, FLAP TRACK PANEL , LANDING GEAR DOORS , WING
RIBS , CENTER WING BOX , ENGINE COWLINGS , REAR PRESSURE BULK HEAD :

http://www.ndt.net/article/aero2010/papers/tu1a4.pdf
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbon-fiber-reinforced_polymer#Properties
http://www.carbonfiber.gr.jp/english/field/craft.html
http://www.ndt.net/article/ecndt98/aero/015/015.htm
http://www.carbonfiber.gr.jp/english/field/craft.html
http://www.tapplastics.com/product_info/why_use_carbon_fiber

Continue...

References:
STABILIZER: http://www.ijirset.com/upload/2014/april/15_Static.pdf
http://asm.matweb.com/search/SpecificMaterial.asp?bassnum=MA7075T6
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/7075_aluminium_alloy
FLOOR PANELS , FUEL TANKS : http://www.agy.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/449_S-2-Aerospace.pdf
http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?pid=S1516-14392013000500024&script=sci_arttext
ENGINE: http://www.iom3.org/materials-world-magazine/feature/2013/may/09/materials-through-ages-materials-aeroplaneengines
http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF00136790
WINDSHIELD : http://www.plexiglas.de/product/plexiglas/en/products/solid-sheets/aircraft-materials/pages/default.aspx

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References:
MILITARY AIRCRAFT:
LEADING AND TRAILING EDGE: http://www.agy.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/Mechanical_Properties_of_Polymeric_Composites-Technical.pdf
https://books.google.co.in/books?
id=5SPAIKFmFjcC&pg=PA436&lpg=PA436&dq=military+aircraft+fix+trailing+edge+material&source=bl&ots=KFJouzrSu
2&sig=-I11urQCQW261f6vrZdZi3eXCE&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0CB4Q6AEwAGoVChMI1oytiaatxwIVynKOCh3DWw_C#v=onepage&q=
military%20aircraft%20fix%20trailing%20edge%20material&f=false

WING , FUSELAGE AND TAIL SKIN : http://www.hexcel.com/Resources/DataSheets/Prepreg-Data-Sheets/3501-6_eu.pdf


https://books.google.co.in/books?
id=JLogBQAAQBAJ&pg=PA237&lpg=PA237&dq=FATIGUE+VALUE+RECOMMENDED+ON+AIRCRAFT+WING&source
=bl&ots=V6h63OkUQJ&sig=B9s8vYxrS2tqavmmLqAFTRPILtA&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0CC4Q6AEwA2oVChMI79GTtKtxwIVRAiOCh0i8wnZ#v=onepage&q=FATIGUE%20VALUE%20RECOMMENDED%20ON%20AIRCRAFT
%20WING&f=false

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References:
Engine Bay Region : http://www.compositesworld.com/articles/resin-infused-ms-21-wings-and-wingbox
FUEL TANK , FRAME , WALLS :-

http://www.ffcfuelcells.com/aircraftfueltanks1.asp
NOSE :-

http://www.azom.com/article.aspx?ArticleID=12107
http://www.selkirk-aviation.com/nosebowls.html

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References:
UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE
BODY / FRAME , WINGS
http://www.robotshop.com/blog/en/make-uav-lesson-2-platform-14448
http://www.theuav.com/

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References:
HELICOPTER
http://classroom.materials.ac.uk/caseRoto.php
https://books.google.co.in/books?
id=e1id9bKG100C&pg=PA31&lpg=PA31&dq=kevlar+nomex+for+helicopter+nose&source=bl&ots=Vi4de1JRzJ&si
g=qdYKggCcYRO68mX9xXTPowt274&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0CDUQ6AEwA2oVChMIi4Lvru6txwIVwxqOCh3NUQF2#v=onepage&q=kevlar%20nomex
%20for%20helicopter%20nose&f=false
http://www.ncn-uk.co.uk/uploads/michael%20Overd.pdf
http://esaform2008.insa-lyon.fr/proceedings/MS12/p_Du_473.pdf
http://www.metalwebnews.com/howto/alloys/alloys.pdf

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References:
GLIDER
http://www.modelaviation.com/freeflightmaterials

HOT AIR BALOON


http://www.schroederballon.de/en/dates-impressions/schroeder-news/nylon-or-polyester.html \
http://www.eballoon.org/balloon/basket.html
http://www.eballoon.org/balloon/how-it-works.html

SUPER SONIC AND HYPERSONIC AIRCRAFT

http://seit.unsw.adfa.edu.au/ojs/index.php/Hypersonics/article/viewFile/21/12

LESSON LEARNT

Able to know what design approach should be made for selection of material
Understood the requirement of specific material for specific application
Learned about the how important is case study for using specific material
Able to understand about the Composite sandwich , how they are useful in different loading , force and thermal
situation.
Able to understand what are the constraint for selection of material . i.e. Cost , Manufacturing , Availability etc.
Learned about different parts of aviation i.e. Aircraft parts , Hot air balloon parts.
Learned about new material.