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Chapter 8

Feedback Controllers

Chapter 8

Error Signal
e t R t B t
where
R t = set point (3-15 psig; 4-20mA; 1-5V)

B t = measured value of controlled variable

(or equivalent signal from transmitter)
(3-15 psig; 4-20mA; 1-5V)
Define
e t e t 0; R t R t R ; B t B t B
0 R B e t R t B t
Take Laplace Transform
E s R s B s

Proportional Control
p (t ) p K c e(t ) p K c R (t ) B (t )
where
p (t ) controller output
K c controller gain (dimensionless, adjustable)
e(t ) error signal
Transfer Function
p t p t p
P s
Kc
Gc s
e t e t 0
E s

Chapter 8

Reverse or Direct Acting

Controller
Direct-Acting (Kc < 0): output increases
as input increases"
Reverse-Acting (Kc > 0): output increases
as input decreases"

Chapter 8

Proportional Band (PB)

PB is the error (% of the range of controlled
variable) required to move the output from
its lowest to its highest value.

100%
PB
Kc

Chapter 8

Example 2: Flow Control Loop

Assume FT is direct-acting.
1.) Air-to-open (fail close) valve ==> ?
2.) Air-to-close (fail open) valve ==> ?
Consequences of wrong controller action??

Chapter 9

Chapter 8

Example 3: Liquid Level Control

Control valves are air-to-open
Level transmitters are direct acting

Question:

Type of controller action?

p 10 psig
in order to make qo 170 gpm
p 9 psig

p t p Kce t

Kce 1

where K c 0

e R B 0

Chapter 8

1
p (t ) p e( )d
I 0
P( s )
1

E ( s ) I s

I : reset time (or integral time) - adjustable

(1) If e(t ) 0, then p(t ) varies continuously with time.
(2) If e(t ) 0 for t t*, then
t*

1
p t ps p e( )d constant
I 0

Proportional-Integral (PI)
Controller

1
p(t ) p K c e(t ) e(t )dt
I 0

Transfer Function

P( s )
1
Kc 1
E ( s )
I s

Reset Time
Reset time is the time that the integral mode repeats the
action of proportional mode.

t I

t
t*

Example:
Heat Exchanger Control Loop

Reset Windup

e t 0

1
p (t ) p K c e(t ) e(t )dt
I 0

vp t vp K v p t p

p t

t
0

to

ts

Reset Windup

e t 0
e t 0

1
p (t ) p K c e(t ) e(t )dt
I 0

vp t vp K v p t p

p t

Anticipatory or Derivative Control

Action
de
p(t ) p D
dt
Used to improve dynamic response of the
controlled variable

Proportional-Integral-Derivative
(PID) Control
Now we consider the combination of the
proportional, integral, and derivative
control modes as a PID controller.
Many variations of PID control are used in
practice (see Table 8.1, page 194)
Next, we consider the three most common
forms.

Parallel Form of PID Control

The parallel form of the PID control algorithm
(without a derivative filter) is given by

1
p t p Kc e t
I

0 e t * dt *

Transfer Function
P s

1
K c 1

E s
I s

D s

de t

dt

Effects of Anticipatory
(Derivative) Control Action

Drawbacks of Anticipatory
(Derivative) Control Action

Chapter 8

Parallel-Form PID Controller with

Derivative Filter
P s

Ds
1
Kc 1

E s
I s D s 1

where
0.05 0.2 (usually 0.1)

Derivative and Proportional Kicks

One disadvantage of the previous PID
controllers is that a sudden change in set
point (and hence the error, e) will cause the
derivative term momentarily to become
very large and thus provide a derivative kick
to the final control element.

R t

p t

Elimination of Derivative and

Proportional Kicks in ParallelForm Controllers

1
p t p Kc e t
I

or

dB
0 e t * dt * D dt

1
p t p Kc B t
I

dB
0 e t * dt * D dt
t

Series Form of PID Control

Historically, it was convenient to construct early analog controllers
(both electronic and pneumatic) so that a PI element and a PD element
operated in series. Commercial versions of the series-form controller
have a derivative filter that is applied to either the derivative term,
as in Eq. 8-12, or to the PD term, as in Eq. 8-15:
P s
s 1
D s 1
Kc I

E s

I
D 1

Elimination of Derivative Kick in

Series-Form Controllers
R s
B s

B s
I s 1
P s

R s D s 1 B s K c
versus

I s 1
P s
Is

R s B s K c D s 1

Expanded (Non-interacting) Form

of PID Control
In addition to the well-known series and parallel forms,
the expanded form of PID control in Eq. 8-16 is sometimes
used:
t

de t

dt

p t p K c e t K I e t * dt * K D

Chapter 8

Chapter 8

Typical Response of Feedback Control Systems

Consider response of a controlled system after a
sustained disturbance occurs (e.g., step change in
disturbance variable)

Chapter 8

Chapter 8

Automatic and Manual Control Modes

Chapter 8

Automatic Mode
Controller output, p(t), depends on e(t), controller
constants, and type of controller used.
( PI vs. PID etc.)
Manual Mode
Controller output, p(t), is adjusted manually.
Manual Mode is very useful when unusual
conditions exist:
plant start-up
plant shut-down
emergencies
Percentage of controllers "on manual ??
(30% in 2001, Honeywell survey)

Digital PID Controller

t n 1
D
p n p K c e n e k e n e n 1
I k 1
t

Chapter 8

where,

t = the sampling period (the time between

successive samples of the controlled variable)
p n = controller output at the nth sampling
instant, n=1,2,
e n = error at the nth sampling unit
velocity form - see Equation (8-19)
(pd)- incremental change

Chapter 8

Controller Comparison
P

-Simplest controller to tune (Kc).

-Offset with sustained disturbance or set point
change.

PI

-More complicated to tune (Kc, I) .

-Better performance than P
-No offset
-Most popular FB controller

PID

-Most complicated to tune (Kc, I, D) .

-Better performance than PI
-No offset
-Derivative action may be affected by noise

Chapter 8

Summary of the Characteristics of the Most

Commonly Used Controller Modes
1. Two Position:
Inexpensive.
Extremely simple.
2. Proportional:
Simple.
Inherently stable when properly tuned.
Easy to tune.
3. Proportional plus integral:
No offset.
Better dynamic response than reset alone.
Possibilities exist for instability due to lag
introduced.

Chapter 8

4. Proportional plus derivative:

Stable.
Less offset than proportional alone (use of
higher gain possible).
Reduces lags, i.e., more rapid response.
5. Proportional plus reset plus rate:
Most complex
Rapid response
No offset.
Difficult to tune.
Best control if properly tuned.

Chapter 8

On-off Controllers

Simple
Cheap
Used In residential heating and domestic refrigerators
Limited use in process control due to continuous
cycling of controlled variable excessive wear
on control valve.

Example 1: Temperature control of jacketed vessel.

On-Off Controllers

Chapter 8

Synonyms:
two-position or bang-bang controllers.

Chapter 8