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FEED BACK CONTROLERS

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Feedback Controllers

Chapter 8

Error Signal

e t R t B t

where

R t = set point (3-15 psig; 4-20mA; 1-5V)

(or equivalent signal from transmitter)

(3-15 psig; 4-20mA; 1-5V)

Define

e t e t 0; R t R t R ; B t B t B

0 R B e t R t B t

Take Laplace Transform

E s R s B s

Proportional Control

p (t ) p K c e(t ) p K c R (t ) B (t )

where

p (t ) controller output

p = bias value (adjustable)

K c controller gain (dimensionless, adjustable)

e(t ) error signal

Transfer Function

p t p t p

P s

Kc

Gc s

e t e t 0

E s

Chapter 8

Controller

Direct-Acting (Kc < 0): output increases

as input increases"

Reverse-Acting (Kc > 0): output increases

as input decreases"

Chapter 8

PB is the error (% of the range of controlled

variable) required to move the output from

its lowest to its highest value.

100%

PB

Kc

Chapter 8

Assume FT is direct-acting.

1.) Air-to-open (fail close) valve ==> ?

2.) Air-to-close (fail open) valve ==> ?

Consequences of wrong controller action??

Chapter 9

Chapter 8

Control valves are air-to-open

Level transmitters are direct acting

Question:

p 10 psig

in order to make qo 170 gpm

p 9 psig

qi qo at steady state

p t p Kce t

Kce 1

where K c 0

e R B 0

Chapter 8

1

p (t ) p e( )d

I 0

P( s )

1

E ( s ) I s

(1) If e(t ) 0, then p(t ) varies continuously with time.

(2) If e(t ) 0 for t t*, then

t*

1

p t ps p e( )d constant

I 0

Proportional-Integral (PI)

Controller

1

p(t ) p K c e(t ) e(t )dt

I 0

Transfer Function

P( s )

1

Kc 1

E ( s )

I s

Reset Time

Reset time is the time that the integral mode repeats the

action of proportional mode.

t I

t

t*

Example:

Heat Exchanger Control Loop

Reset Windup

e t 0

1

p (t ) p K c e(t ) e(t )dt

I 0

vp t vp K v p t p

p t

t

0

to

ts

Reset Windup

e t 0

e t 0

1

p (t ) p K c e(t ) e(t )dt

I 0

vp t vp K v p t p

p t

Action

de

p(t ) p D

dt

Used to improve dynamic response of the

controlled variable

Proportional-Integral-Derivative

(PID) Control

Now we consider the combination of the

proportional, integral, and derivative

control modes as a PID controller.

Many variations of PID control are used in

practice (see Table 8.1, page 194)

Next, we consider the three most common

forms.

The parallel form of the PID control algorithm

(without a derivative filter) is given by

1

p t p Kc e t

I

0 e t * dt *

Transfer Function

P s

1

K c 1

E s

I s

D s

de t

dt

Effects of Anticipatory

(Derivative) Control Action

Drawbacks of Anticipatory

(Derivative) Control Action

Chapter 8

Derivative Filter

P s

Ds

1

Kc 1

E s

I s D s 1

where

0.05 0.2 (usually 0.1)

One disadvantage of the previous PID

controllers is that a sudden change in set

point (and hence the error, e) will cause the

derivative term momentarily to become

very large and thus provide a derivative kick

to the final control element.

R t

p t

Proportional Kicks in ParallelForm Controllers

1

p t p Kc e t

I

or

dB

0 e t * dt * D dt

1

p t p Kc B t

I

dB

0 e t * dt * D dt

t

Historically, it was convenient to construct early analog controllers

(both electronic and pneumatic) so that a PI element and a PD element

operated in series. Commercial versions of the series-form controller

have a derivative filter that is applied to either the derivative term,

as in Eq. 8-12, or to the PD term, as in Eq. 8-15:

P s

s 1

D s 1

Kc I

E s

I

D 1

Series-Form Controllers

R s

B s

B s

I s 1

P s

R s D s 1 B s K c

versus

I s 1

P s

Is

R s B s K c D s 1

of PID Control

In addition to the well-known series and parallel forms,

the expanded form of PID control in Eq. 8-16 is sometimes

used:

t

de t

dt

p t p K c e t K I e t * dt * K D

Chapter 8

Chapter 8

Consider response of a controlled system after a

sustained disturbance occurs (e.g., step change in

disturbance variable)

Chapter 8

Chapter 8

Chapter 8

Automatic Mode

Controller output, p(t), depends on e(t), controller

constants, and type of controller used.

( PI vs. PID etc.)

Manual Mode

Controller output, p(t), is adjusted manually.

Manual Mode is very useful when unusual

conditions exist:

plant start-up

plant shut-down

emergencies

Percentage of controllers "on manual ??

(30% in 2001, Honeywell survey)

t n 1

D

p n p K c e n e k e n e n 1

I k 1

t

Chapter 8

where,

successive samples of the controlled variable)

p n = controller output at the nth sampling

instant, n=1,2,

e n = error at the nth sampling unit

velocity form - see Equation (8-19)

(pd)- incremental change

Chapter 8

Controller Comparison

P

-Offset with sustained disturbance or set point

change.

PI

-Better performance than P

-No offset

-Most popular FB controller

PID

-Better performance than PI

-No offset

-Derivative action may be affected by noise

Chapter 8

Commonly Used Controller Modes

1. Two Position:

Inexpensive.

Extremely simple.

2. Proportional:

Simple.

Inherently stable when properly tuned.

Easy to tune.

Experiences offset at steady state.

3. Proportional plus integral:

No offset.

Better dynamic response than reset alone.

Possibilities exist for instability due to lag

introduced.

Chapter 8

Stable.

Less offset than proportional alone (use of

higher gain possible).

Reduces lags, i.e., more rapid response.

5. Proportional plus reset plus rate:

Most complex

Rapid response

No offset.

Difficult to tune.

Best control if properly tuned.

Chapter 8

On-off Controllers

Simple

Cheap

Used In residential heating and domestic refrigerators

Limited use in process control due to continuous

cycling of controlled variable excessive wear

on control valve.

On-Off Controllers

Chapter 8

Synonyms:

two-position or bang-bang controllers.

Chapter 8

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