You are on page 1of 30

WELCOME

PRESENTATION
ON
BIO ENERGY

BIO ENERGY
Bioenergyis energy derived from
biomass and biogas source. It is a
renewable energy source.

BIOMASS
Biomass is organic matter from plants, micro-organism
grown on land and water and their
derivatives. The energy obtain from biomass
is also called the biomass energy. It is a
renew- -able energy source. Because organic
matter generated everyday. Coal, petroleum,
natural gas are not come in biomass category
because they produce from dead, burried
biomass under high pressure and temperature
during several millions of year.

Type of biomass
Biomass are classified in three group..
1. Biomass from cultivated like fields,
crops, forests etc.
2. Biomass derived from wastes like
municipal waste, animal dung etc.
3. Biomass converted into liquid fuels.
. In first group the biomass is directly
converted into energy by burning the
biomass.

Second
group
the
biomass
is
fermented anaerobically to obtain
gaseous fuel like bio-gas.

Anaerobically
Naturally occurring bacteria breakdown
organic material (such as agricultural
energy crops like Giant King Grass) in the
absence of oxygen resulting in the
creation of methane and carbon dioxide,
which make up the composition of biogas.
This process is called anaerobic digestion
and occurs in large enclosed tanks. The
biogas is collected from the anaerobic
digestion tanks and processed through a
generatorto produce renewable electricity.

In third group biomass is converted


into ethanol and methanol to use in
a liquid fuels in engine.

Biomass conversion
processes
1. Direct combustion
2. Thermochemical conversion
3. Biochemical conversion
direct combustion:Combustion is the oldest
and most frequently applied process to extract the
energy content from solid biomass. During
combustion, most of the energy is released in form
of heat. Different thermodynamic processes can be
used to transform part of this heat into electric
power.

How to produce electricity by direct


combustion.

Thermochemical conversion
Thermochemical conversion
the
process convert the biomass and its
residues to fuel, chemicals and
power using gasification heating of
biomass with about one third of
oxygen is necessary for complete
combustion produce mixture of co2
and hydrogen known as syngas.
Pyrolysis heating biomass in absence
or produce a liquid pyrolysis oil. They
both are use as fuel.

Biochemical conversion
Biochemical conversion by microorganic biomass to biofuel are slow
process taking place low temperature.
The principle conversion process is
fermentation. Fermentation is a process
of decomposition of organic matter by
micro-organism.
Example fermentation, decomposition
of sugar to form ethanol and carbon
dioxide by yeast and ethanol forming
acetic acid in making vinegar.

Biochemical conversion

Application of biomass
generating electricity.
the producer gas from the biomass
gasifier is first cleaned and cooled and
then used as a fuel in an IC engine.
Biomass gasifier plants in an industry
or an institute are usually used as
captive power generation unit. In
India, a large number of systems have
been put-up in rice mills, with ricehusk as the feed material for gasifiers.

Advantage of biomass
Biomass Energy (or Bioenergy) is a renewable energy.
Biomass is always availableit can be found anywhere
and includes organic matter such as plants, animals or
waste products from organic sources.
Less pollution is generated.
Reduce Fossil Fuel dependency:With the majority
of homes and businesses using oil to provide energy,
oil will gradually run out if people do not switch to a
renewable energy source such as biomass. Once oil is
gone, it is gone forever. The use of biomass will
therefore reduce the dependency on fossil fuels.

Clean
energy:As
biomass
is
relatively clean, it can be used in such
commercial businesses as airlines,
meaning
it
is
good
for
the
environment and good for businesses.

Disadvantage of biomass
The initial costs of a biomassis high.
Harmful to the environment:Although there is a
large reduction of carbon dioxide emissions
compared to other systems, there is an increase in
methane gases, which can also be harmful to the
Earths ozone layer.
Consumes more fuel:In order to acquire enough
lumber to power a plant, for example, companies
would have to clear large forest area. This makes the
use of trees and tree products to power machines
inefficient and can create environmental problems.
Large area require.

Biogas
Biogas:-typically refers to a mixture of
differentgases like fuel gas, sewer and in
India known as Gobar gas. Gasproduced
by the breakdown oforganic matterin the
absence ofoxygen. Biogas can be produced
from raw materials such as agricultural
waste,municipal waste,plant material,
sewage,green wasteor food waste. It is a
renewable energy source. Biogas can be
produced
byanaerobic digestionwith
anaerobic bacteria, which digest material
inside a closed system.

Biogas plant

Dome type gas plant


This type of biogas plant developed by china.
In china design it is usual to provide a
mainhole cover at the top inlet and outlet are
connected at a mid point of digester. Upper
part of digester above liquid surface provide
storage space for biogas. When gas is
produced level of digester liquid drops whereas
that in outlet rises with height difference
between the two varying gas pressure. This
difference in height help to regulate gas
pressure within digester over a wide range.

Advantage of Dome type


gas plant
No moving parts, therefore no
maintenance problem.
Longer working life.
Low cost.
Low operating cost.
Large amount of gas produce.
Space above of the plant may use
other purpose

Disadvantage of Dome type gas


plant
Require skill masons for construction.
Variable gas pressure.
Problem of scum formation.

Moveable drum type plant


This type is also known as floating dome type
biogas plants. A floating-drum plant consists
of a cylindrical or dome-shaped digester and a
moving, floating gas-holder, or drum. The gasholder floats either directly in the fermenting
slurry or in a separate water jacket. The drum
in which the biogas collects has an internal
and/or external guide frame that provides
stability and keeps the drum upright. Ifbiogas
is produced, the drum moves up, if gas is
consumed, the gas-holder sinks back.

Moveable drum type plant

material
Floating-drums made of glass-fiber
reinforced plastic and high-density
polyethylene have been used
successfully, but the construction costs
are higher compared to using steel.
Floating-drums made of wire-meshreinforced concrete are liable to
hairline cracking and are intrinsically
porous. They require a gas-tight,
elastic internal coating. PVC drums are

Advantage Moveable drum type


plant

Constant gas pressure.


No problem in gas leakage.
Higher gas production.
Scum problem is less.
Pressure is naturally equalised.

disadvantage Moveable drum type


plant
High cost.
High maintenance.
Outlet pipe should be flexible. It
require regular attention.
Heat is loss through gas holder.

Direct Combustion video

Process of Combustion.mp4

Fixed dome type biogas


plant

Fixed dome type biogas plant.mp4

Thank you for your attention!