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Bioethanol

Roselen, Wanxi, Eugenia

CONTENTS
I. What is bioethanol?
II. Bioethanol Production
III. Feedstocks
IV. Fuel Properties
V. Application
VI. Advantages
VII.Disadvantages and Concerns
VIII.Ethanol Controversy
IX. Comparison of Bioethanol and Biodiesel
X. Case study [Brazil]
XI. Future development

What is bioethanol?
Colourless and clear liquid
Used to substitute petrol fuelfor road
transport vehicles
One of the widely used alternative
automotive fuel in the world (Brazil & U.S.A are
the largest ethanol producers)

Much more environmentally friendly


Lower toxicity level

Bioethanol Production
Wheat/Grains/Corn/Sugar-cane can be used
to produce ethanol. (Basically, any plants that
composed largely of sugars)

Main method : Sugar fermentation


3 methods of hydrolysis :
(extraction of sugars out of bio-mass wastes)
concentrated acid hydrolysis
enzymatic hydrolysis
dilute acid hydrolysis

Bioethanol Production

(1) Concentrated Acid Hydrolysis

~77% of sulfuric acid is added to the


dried biomass to a 10% moisture content.
Acid to be added in the ratio of 1/25
acid :1 biomass under 50C.
Dilute the acid to ~30% with water and
reheat the mixture at100C for an hour.
Gel will be produced and pressed to
discharge the acid sugar mixture.
Separate the acid & sugar mixture by
using a chromatographic column .

Bioethanol Production

(2) Enzymatic Hydrolysis (Not


popular)

(3) Dilute Acid Hydrolysis

oldest, simplest yet efficient method


hydrolyse the bio-mass to sucrose
hemi-cellulose undergo hydrolysis with
the addition of 7% of sulfuric acid under
the temperature 190C.
to generate the more resistant cellulose
portion, 4% of sulfuric acid is added at
the temperature of 215C

Bioethanol Production
Wet milling process
corn kernel is soaked in warm water
proteins broken down
starch present in the corn is released
(thus, softening the kernel for the milling
process)
microorganisms, fibre and starch products
are produced.
In the distillation process, ethanol is
produced.

Bioethanol Production
Dry milling process
Clean and break down the corn kernel into
fine particles
Sugar solution is produced when the
powder mixture (corn germ/starch and
fibre) is broken down into sucrose by
dilute acid or enzymes.
Yeast is added to ferment the cooled
mixture into ethanol.

Bioethanol Production
Sugar fermentation
Hydrolysis process breaks down the
biomass cellulosic portion into sugar
solutions which will then be fermented
into ethanol.
Yeast is added and heated to the solution.
Invertase acts as a catalyst and convert
the sucrose sugars into glucose and
fructose. (bothC6H12O6).

Bioethanol Production
Chemical reaction 1

The fructose and glucose sugars react with zymase


to produce ethanol and carbon dioxide.
Chemical reaction 2

Fermentation process requires 3 days to complete


and is carried out at a temperature of between
250C and 300C.

Bioethanol Production
Fractional Distillation Process
After the sugar fermentation process, the
ethanol still does contain a significant
quantity of water which have to be
removed.
In the distillation process, both the water
and ethanol mixture are boiled.
Ethanol has a lower boiling point than
water, therefore ethanol will be converted
into the vapour state first condensed
and separated from water.

Feedstocks
Sugar is required to produce ethanol by
fermentation.
Plant materials (grain, stems and leaves) are
composed mainly of sugars
almost any plants can serve as feedstock for ethanol
manufacture

Choice of raw material depends on several


factors

ease of processing of the various plants available


prevailing conditions of climate
landscape and soil composition
Crops used in Bioethanol
production
sugar content
Brazil
sugar cane
USA

corn

Europe

wheat and barley

Feedstocks
R&D activities on using lignocellulosic
(woody materials) as feedstock
Lignocellulosic biomass is more abundant and
less expensive than food crops
higher net energy balance
accrue up to 90% in greenhouse gas savings,
much higher than the first generation of biofuel
However, more difficult to convert to sugars due
to their relatively inaccessible molecular
structure

Fuel Properties
Fuel Properties
Gasoline
Molecular weight
111
[kg/kmol]
Density [kg/l] at 15C 0.75

Bioethanol
46

Oxygen content [wt%]


Lower Calorific Value
[MJ/kg] at 15C
Lower Calorific Value
[MJ/l] at 15C
Octane number
(RON)
Octane number
(MON)
Cetane number
Stoichiometric
air/fuel ratio [kg
air/kg fuel]

34.8

Boiling temperature
[C]
Reid Vapour
Pressure [kPa] at
15C

0.80-0.82

41.3

26.4

31

21.2

97

109

86

92

8
14.7

11
9.0

30-190

78

75

16.5

Energy content
Bioethanol has
much lower
energy content
than gasoline
about two-third of
the energy
content of
gasoline on a
volume base

Fuel Properties
Fuel Properties
Gasoline
Molecular weight
111
[kg/kmol]
Density [kg/l] at 15C 0.75

Bioethanol
46

Oxygen content [wt%]


Lower Calorific Value
[MJ/kg] at 15C
Lower Calorific Value
[MJ/l] at 15C
Octane number
(RON)
Octane number
(MON)
Cetane number
Stoichiometric
air/fuel ratio [kg
air/kg fuel]

34.8

Boiling temperature
[C]
Reid Vapour
Pressure [kPa] at
15C

0.80-0.82

41.3

26.4

31

21.2

97

109

86

92

8
14.7

11
9.0

30-190

78

75

16.5

Octane number
Octane number of
ethanol is higher than
petrol
hence ethanol has
better antiknock
characteristics
increases the fuel
efficiency of the
engine
oxygen content of
ethanol also leads to a
higher efficiency,
which results in a
cleaner combustion
process at relatively
low temperatures

Fuel Properties
Fuel Properties
Molecular weight
[kg/kmol]
Density [kg/l] at 15C
Oxygen content [wt%]
Lower Calorific Value
[MJ/kg] at 15C
Lower Calorific Value
[MJ/l] at 15C
Octane number
(RON)
Octane number
(MON)
Cetane number
Stoichiometric
air/fuel ratio [kg
air/kg fuel]

Gasoline
111

Bioethanol
46

0.75

0.80-0.82
34.8

Boiling temperature
[C]
Reid Vapour
Pressure [kPa] at
15C

41.3

26.4

31

21.2

97

109

86

92

8
14.7

11
9.0

30-190

78

75

16.5

Reid vapour pressure


(measure for the
volatility of a fuel)
Very low for ethanol,
indicates a slow
evaporation
Adv: the concentration of
evaporative emissions in
the air remains relatively
low, reduces the risk of
explosions
Disadv: low vapour
pressure of ethanol ->
Cold start difficulties
engines using ethanol
cannot be started at temp
< 20C w/o aids

Application

transport fuel to replace gasoline


fuel for power generation by thermal combustion
fuel for fuel cells by thermochemical reaction
fuel in cogeneration systems
feedstock in the chemicals industry

Application
Blending of ethanol with a small proportion of a
volatile fuel such as gasoline -> more cost effective
Various mixture of bioethanol with gasoline or
diesel fuels

E5G to E26G (5-26% ethanol, 95-74% gasoline)


E85G (85% ethanol, 15% gasoline)
E15D (15% ethanol, 85% diesel)
E95D (95% ethanol, 5% water, with ignition improver)

Advantages
Exhaust gases of ethanol are much cleaner
it burns more cleanly as a result of more complete
combustion

Greenhouse gases reduce


ethanol-blended fuels such as E85 (85% ethanol and
15% gasoline) reduce up to 37.1% of GHGs

Positive energy balance, depending on the type of raw


stock
output of energy during the production is more than the
input

Any plant can be use for production of bioethanol


it only has to contain sugar and starch

Carbon neutral
the CO2 released in the bioethanol production process is
the same amount as the one the crops previously
absorbed during photosynthesis

Advantages
Decrease in ozone formation
The emissions produced by burning ethanol are less reactive with
sunlight than those produced by burning gasoline, which results
in a lower potential for forming ozone

Renewable energy resource


result of conversion of the sun's energy into usable energy
Photosynthesis -> feedstocks grow -> processed into ethanol

Energy security
esp. Countries that do not have access to crude oil resources
grow crops for energy use and gain some economic freedom

Reduces the amount of high-octane additives


Fuel spills are more easily biodegraded or
diluted to non toxic concentrations

Disadvantages and Concerns


Biodiversity
A large amount of arable land is required to
grow crops, natural habitats would be destroyed

Food vs. Fuel debate


due to the lucrative prices of bioethanol some
farmers may sacrifice food crops for biofuel
production which will increase food prices
around the world

Carbon emissions (controversial)


During production of bioethanol, huge amount
of carbon dioxide is released
Emission of GHGs from production of bioethanol
is comparable to the emissions of internalcombustion engines

Disadvantages and Concerns


Not as efficient as petroleum
energy content of the petrol is much higher than
bioethanol
its energy content is 70% of that of petrol

Engines made for working on Bioethanol cannot

be used for petrol or diesel


Due to high octane number of bioethanol, they can be
burned in the engines with much higher compression
ratio

Used of phosphorous and nitrogen in the


production
negative effect on the environment

Cold start difficulties


pure ethanol is difficult to vaporise

Disadvantages and Concerns


Transportation
ethanol is hygroscopic, it absorbs water from the
air and thus has high corrosion aggressiveness
Can only be transported by auto transport or
railroad

Many older cars unequipped to handle


even 10% ethanol
Negatively affect electric fuel pumps by
increasing internal wear and undesirable
spark generation

Ethanol Controversy

Is it justifiable?
..to use agriculture land to grow energy crops instead of food
crops when there are so many starving people in the world. In
the developed countries that is not a problem, but in the
developing ones where we have a large number of people
living below the poverty this may lead to a crisis.

Ethanol Controversy
Is burning biofuel more environmentally friendly
than burning oil?
Fact that producing biofuel is not a "green process
requires tractors and fertilisers and land
With the increase in biofuel production, more forests will
be chopped down to make room for biofuel, CO2

Better alternative suggested by scientists..


steer away from biofuel and focus on reforestation and
maximising the efficiency of fossil fuels instead

Comparison of Bioethanol and


Biodiesel
Process

Bioethanol

Biodiesel

Dry-mill method: yeast, sugars and


starch are fermented. From starch, it is
fermented into sugar, afterwards it is
fermented again into alcohol.

Transesterification: methyl esters and


glycerin which are not good for engines,
are left behind.

Environment
Both reduce greenhouse gas emissions as biofuels are primarily derived from
al Benefit
crops which absorb carbon dioxide.
Compatibility ethanol has to be blended with fossil
Able to run in any diesel generated
fuel like gasoline, hence only compatible engines
with selected gasoline powered
automobiles.
Costs
Gallons per
acre

Cheaper
More expensive
420 gallons of ethanol can be generated 60 gallons of biodiesel per acre
per acre
soybeans
cost of soybean oil would significantly
increase if biodiesel production is
increased as well.

Energy

provides 93% more net energy per


gallon
12% less greenhouse gas emission
than the production and combustion of
regular diesel

Greenhousegas
Emissions
(GHG)

produces only 25% more net energy.


41% less compared to conventional
gasoline.

Case study [Brazil]


Brazil the first to produce the cheapest ethanol in
the world.
WHY BRAZIL?
Favourable conditions
Tradition of culturing sugarcane
Sugarcane being the most efficient raw materials for
production of ethanol

Case study [Brazil]


The FACTS
Brazil second biggest producer of ethanol in the
world (20 billion litres)
Fuel used in 45 % of Brazilian vehicles is
ethanol
Feedstocks: sugarcane bagasse and straw
(rich in cellulose and turning entire sugarcane
biomass to be used with no wastage)
1 tonne of bagasse produce 186 litres of
ethanol

Case study [Brazil]


In 1930s
Brazils ethanol industry started
Government directed sugarcane into ethanol production
Made addition of ethanol to gasoline compulsory
In 1973
International oil crisis doubled Brazils expenditure on oil imports
Government was forced to consider alternative sources of energy to
decrease its dependency and spending on fossil fuels.
In 1975
Increase ethanol production as a substitute for gasoline
Invested in increasing agricultural production
Modernising and expanding distilleries
Establish new production plants
Introduce subsidies to lower prices and reduce taxes for ethanol
producers

Case study [Brazil]


Over 15 years, production of ethanol escalated from 0.6 billion litres in
1975 to 11 billion litres in 1990.
Progress further with Bioethanol establishments:
1975 to 1978
One part of ethanol was added to four parts of gasoline.
Additional processing stage to remove water from the fuel
1979
Production streamlined to focus on hydrous ethanol
Ethanol which contains 5% water that could be used in cars fuelled
entirely by ethanol
Researchers in Aerospace Technology in Sao Paulo, developed alloys to
protect the internal parts of gasoline-powered engines and fuel tanks
from corrosion by ethanol. 1986 to 1989, 90% of all new vehicles sold in
the domestic market were ethanol-fuelled.

Case study [Brazil]


PROBLEMS faced:
Waste!!
VINASSE a corrosive liquid byproduct of
ethanol distillation
Being dumped in rivers causing environmental
damage
Bagasse leftover sugarcane fibre

Case study [Brazil]


SOLUTIONS:
Vinasse was found to be a good fertiliser.
Transportation system was developed
Combination of trucks, pipes and ducts to carry Vinasse
from the distilleries to the fields
Bagasse was collected
Produce energy, building on existing methods of burning
the bagasse to power steam turbines for electricity
generation
Developed cauldrons under greater pressure
More energy could be produced allowing ethanol plants to
become more autonomous in terms of energy
CONTRIBUTIONS IS TO KEEP ETHANOL
PRODUCTION COSTS LOW

Case study [Brazil]


Social impacts
Created jobs for locals (mainly in rural areas)
Brazilian sugarcane industry has a particularly
poor record in respecting workers rights
Expansion in sugar cane cultivation may
increase food prices. This would leave the poor
with a harder survival.
Although the ethanol industry has greatly
increased the wealth of the sugar and alcohol
sectors industries, the poor have to be the one
handling the negative impacts.

Future development
For bioethanol to become more sustainable to
replace petrol, production process has to be more
efficient
Reducing cost of conversion
Increasing yields
Increase the diversity of crop used

As microbes are use to convert glucose into sugar


which is ferment in bioethanol
Microbiology and biotechnology will be helpful in the
genetic engineering

Thank
You!