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ELEMENTS OF

MECHANICAL
ENGINEERING

K J INSTITUTE OF
ENGINEERING AND
TECHNOLOGY-BY SIDDHARTH BEDARKER
DEEPAK SHUKLA

Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

Introduction

Refrigeration & AC

Type of refrigeration

Introduction

Refrigeration & AC

How does
it work?
Refrigeration
and air
conditioning
is used to
cool products
or a building
environment.

High Temperature Reservoir

Heat Rejected
R

Work Input

Heat Absorbed
Low Temperature Reservoir
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Introduction
How does it work?
Refrigeration & AC

Thermal energy moves from left to right through five


loops of heat transfer:
1)

2)

3)

4)

5)

Indoor air
loop

Chilled
water loop

Refrigerant
loop

Condenser
water loop

Cooling
water loop

(Bureau of Energy Efficiency, 2004)

Introduction

Refrigeration & AC

Refrigeration systems for industrial


processes
Small capacity modular units of direct
expansion type (50 Tons of Refrigeration)
Centralized chilled water plants with
chilled water as a secondary coolant

(50

250 TR)

Brine plants with brines as lower


temperature, secondary coolant (>250 TR)
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Training Agenda: Refrigeration &


Air Conditioning

Refrigeration & AC

Introduction
Type of refrigeration
Types Of Air Conditioner

Types of Refrigeration
Refrigeration systems
Refrigeration & AC

Vapour Compression
Refrigeration (VCR): uses
mechanical energy
Vapour Absorption Refrigeration
(VAR): uses thermal energy

Type of Refrigeration
Vapour Compression Refrigeration
Refrigeration & AC

Highly compressed fluids tend to get


colder when allowed to expand
If pressure high enough
Compressed air hotter than source
of cooling
Expanded gas cooler than desired
cold temperature
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Type of Refrigeration
Vapour Compression Refrigeration
Refrigeration & AC

Two advantages
Lot of heat can be removed (lot of
thermal energy to change liquid to
vapour)
Heat transfer rate remains high
(temperature of working fluid much
lower than what is being cooled)
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Type of Refrigeration
Vapour Compression Refrigeration
Refrigeration & AC

Refrigeration cycle
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Condenser

High
Pressure
Side

4
Expansion
Device

Compressor

1
Evaporator

Low
Pressure
Side
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Type of Refrigeration

/Refrigeration & AC

Low pressure liquid


refrigerant in evaporator
Vapour Compression
absorbs heat and
changes toRefrigeration
a gas
cycle

Refrigeration
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Condenser

High
Pressure
Side

4
Expansion
Device

Compressor

1
Evaporator

Low
Pressure
Side
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Type of Refrigeration

Refrigeration & AC

The superheated vapour


enters the compressor
Vapour Compression
where its pressure is
raised
Refrigeration cycle

Refrigeration
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Condenser

High
Pressure
Side

4
Expansion
Device

Compressor

1
Evaporator

Low
Pressure
Side
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Type of Refrigeration

Refrigeration & AC

The high pressure


superheated gas is
cooled in several
stages
Vapour
Compression
in the condenser

Refrigeration

Refrigeration cycle

Condenser

High
Pressure
Side

4
Expansion
Device

Compressor

1
Evaporator

Low
Pressure
Side
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Type of Refrigeration
Vapour
Refrigeration & AC

Liquid passes through expansion


device, which reduces its
Compression
Refrigeration
pressure and controls
the flow
into the evaporator

Refrigeration cycle

Condenser

High
Pressure
Side

4
Expansion
Device

Compressor

1
Evaporator

Low
Pressure
Side
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Type of Refrigeration
Vapour Compression Refrigeration
Refrigeration & AC

Type of refrigerant
Refrigerant determined by the
required cooling temperature
Chlorinated fluorocarbons (CFCs) or
freons: R-11, R-12, R-21, R-22 and R502

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Type of Refrigeration
Vapour Compression Refrigeration
Refrigeration & AC

Choice of compressor, design of


condenser, evaporator determined by
Refrigerant
Required cooling
Load
Ease of maintenance
Physical space requirements
Availability of utilities (water, power)
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Type of Refrigeration
Vapour Absorption Refrigeration
Refrigeration & AC

Condenser

Generator
Hot
Side

Evaporator
Cold
Side

Absorber

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Type of Refrigeration
Vapour Absorption Refrigeration
Refrigeration & AC

Evaporator

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Type of Refrigeration
Vapour Absorption Refrigeration
Refrigeration & AC

Absorber

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Type of Refrigeration
Vapour Absorption Refrigeration
Refrigeration & AC

High pressure generator

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Type of Refrigeration
Vapour Absorption Refrigeration
Refrigeration & AC

Condenser

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Training Agenda: Refrigeration &


Air Conditioning

Refrigeration & AC

Introduction
Type of refrigeration
Type Of Air Conditioner

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Air Conditioning System


Refrigeration & AC

An air conditioning system is an assembly of different


part of the system used produce a specified condition of
air within a require space or building.
The basic elements of air conditioning system:-Fans : For circulation of air
Filters : For cleaning air
Heating Elements : Heating of air(It may be electric
heater , steam , hot
water.
Control System : It regulates automatically the amount
of cooling or
heating.
Grill : It adjust the direction of the conditioned air to the
room.
Tray : It collects condensed water.
Refrigerating Plant : provide cooling . It consist of
compressor/generator and
absorber,eveporator,condensor,expansion
device(capallary tube).
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Types Of Air Conditioner

Refrigeration & AC

Window Air Conditioner


Split Air Conditioners

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Types Of Air Conditioner

Window Air Conditioner


Refrigeration & AC
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Types Of Air Conditioner

Window Air Conditioner


Refrigeration & AC

Working:--The air circulation system of the window air conditioner

comprises of the following parts (please refer fig 4 & 5).


1) Blower:This is the small blower that is fitted behind the evaporator
or cooling coil inside the assembly of the window air conditioner
system. The blower sucks the air from the room which first passes over
the air filter and gets filtered. The air then passes over the cooling coil
and gets chilled. The blower then blows this filtered and chilled air,
which passes through the supply air compartment inside the window air
conditioner assembly. This air is then delivered into the room from the
supply air grill of the front panel.
2) Propeller fan or the condenser fan:The condenser fan is the
forced draft type of propeller fan that sucks the atmospheric air and
blows it over the condenser. The hot refrigerant inside the condenser
gives up the heat to the atmospheric air and its temperature reduces.
3) Fan motor:The motor inside the window air conditioner assembly
is located between the condenser and the evaporator coil. It has double
shaft on one side of which the blower is fitted and on the other side the
condenser fan is fitted. This makes the whole assembly of the blower,
the condenser fan and the motor highly compact.

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Split Air Conditioner


The Split Air Conditioner divided in two

parts:-(1)First part:-Include the


evaporator,filter,evaporator fan and grill.
They placed inside the room.
(2)Second part:-Include Condensor
,fan,compressor.This placed out side the
room.diameter tubes.therefore,small hole
rquired in wall of installation of split air
condition.The split air conditioning units
are available in capacity range of 1 to 3
tons.
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WORKING OF SPLIT AC
CONDITIONER
The fans blow air over the coils to improve their ability to
dissipate heat (to the outside air) and cold (to the room being
cooled).
When you get into larger air-conditioning applications, its time
to start looking at split-system units. A split-system air
conditioner splits the hot side from the cold side of the system,
as in the diagram below.

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The cold side, consisting of the


expansion valve and the cold coil,
is generally placed into a furnace or
some other air handler. The air
handler blows air through the coil
and routes the air throughout the
building using a series of ducts.
The hot side, known as the
condensing unit, lives outside the
building.

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The unit consists of a long, spiral


coil shaped like a cylinder. Inside
the coil is a fan, to blow air through
the coil, along with a weatherresistant compressor and some
control logic. This approach has
evolved over the years because it's
low-cost, and also because it
normally results in reduced noise
inside the house (at the expense of
increased noise outside the house).
Other than the fact that the hot and
cold sides are split apart and the
capacity is higher (making the coils
and compressor larger), there's no
difference between a split-system
and a window air conditioner
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References
http://home.howstuffworks.com/ac3.htm

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Refrigeration & AC

Refrigeration & Air


Conditioning Systems
THANK YOU
FOR YOUR ATTENTION

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